Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. Hydrogen is found in the molecular H2 form. To exist as a liquid, H2 must be cooled below its critical point of 33 K. However, for it to be in a liquid state without boiling at atmospheric pressure, H2 needs to be cooled to 20.28 K. One common method of obtaining liquid hydrogen involves a compressor resembling a jet engine in both appearance and principle. Liquid hydrogen is used as a concentrated form of hydrogen storage; as for any gas, storing it as liquid takes less space than storing it as a gas at normal temperature and pressure. However, the liquid density is low compared to other common fuels. Once liquefied, it can be maintained as a liquid in thermally insulated containers. There are two spin isomers of hydrogen. In 1885, Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K. Hydrogen was liquefied by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask; the first synthesis of the stable isomer form of liquid hydrogen, was achieved by Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer in 1929.
The two nuclei in a dihydrogen molecule can have two different spin states. Parahydrogen, in which the two nuclear spins are antiparallel, is more stable than orthohydrogen, in which the two are parallel. At room temperature, gaseous hydrogen is in the ortho isomeric form due to thermal energy, but an ortho-enriched mixture is only metastable when liquified at low temperature, it undergoes an exothermic reaction to become the para isomer, with enough energy released as heat to cause some of the liquid to boil. To prevent loss of the liquid during long-term storage, it is therefore intentionally converted to the para isomer as part of the production process using a catalyst such as iron oxide, activated carbon, platinized asbestos, rare earth metals, uranium compounds, chromium oxide, or some nickel compounds. Liquid hydrogen is a common liquid rocket fuel for rocketry applications — both NASA and the United States Air Force operate a large number of liquid hydrogen tanks with an individual capacity up to 3.8 million liters.
In most rocket engines fueled by liquid hydrogen, it first cools the nozzle and other parts before being mixed with the oxidizer — liquid oxygen — and burned to produce water with traces of ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Practical H2–O2 rocket engines run fuel-rich so that the exhaust contains some unburned hydrogen; this reduces nozzle erosion. It reduces the molecular weight of the exhaust, which can increase specific impulse, despite the incomplete combustion. Liquid hydrogen can be used as the fuel for an internal combustion fuel cell. Various submarines and concept hydrogen vehicles have been built using this form of hydrogen. Due to its similarity, builders can sometimes modify and share equipment with systems designed for liquefied natural gas. However, because of the lower volumetric energy, the hydrogen volumes needed for combustion are large. Unless direct injection is used, a severe gas-displacement effect hampers maximum breathing and increases pumping losses. Liquid hydrogen is used to cool neutrons to be used in neutron scattering.
Since neutrons and hydrogen nuclei have similar masses, kinetic energy exchange per interaction is maximum. Superheated liquid hydrogen was used in many bubble chamber experiments; the first thermonuclear bomb, Ivy Mike, used liquid deuterium, for nuclear fusion. The product of its combustion with oxygen alone is water vapor, which can be cooled with some of the liquid hydrogen. Since water is considered harmless to the environment, an engine burning it can be considered "zero emissions". In aviation, water vapor emitted in the atmosphere contributes to global warming. Liquid hydrogen has a much higher specific energy than gasoline, natural gas, or diesel; the density of liquid hydrogen is only 70.99 g/L, a relative density of just 0.07. Although the specific energy is more than twice that of other fuels, this gives it a remarkably low volumetric energy density, many fold lower. Liquid hydrogen requires cryogenic storage technology such as special thermally insulated containers and requires special handling common to all cryogenic fuels.
This is more severe than liquid oxygen. With thermally insulated containers it is difficult to keep such a low temperature, the hydrogen will leak away, it shares many of the same safety issues as other forms of hydrogen, as well as being cold enough to liquefy, or solidify atmospheric oxygen, which can be an explosion hazard. The triple point of hydrogen is at 13.81 K 7.042 kPa. Due to its cold temperatures, liquid hydrogen is a hazard for cold burns. Elemental hydrogen as a liquid is biologically inert and its only human health hazard as a vapor is displacement of oxygen, resulting in asphyxiation; because of its flammability, liquid hydrogen should be kept away from heat or flame unless ignition is intended
Midway College School of Pharmacy was a proposed private pharmacy school planned to open in Paintsville, United States. Announced to the public on January 11, 2010, the school planned to open on Big Sandy Community and Technical College's Mayo Campus in the fall of 2011; the college was to be housed on the Big Sandy campus. A self-contained campus, consisting of two 60,000 sq ft, buildings were completed. Dr. William B. Drake Jr. former president of Midway College, was expecting an enrollment of 320 when operational. It would have been the third pharmacy school in Kentucky; the school was part of a private liberal arts college located in Midway, Kentucky. The school has been accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and was awaiting accreditation from the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education until the college withdrew their application for unknown reasons. If Midway College School of Pharmacy receives accreditation from ACPE, it will be a accredited college of pharmacy and will be able to offer the Doctor of Pharmacy degree.
It was projected that the school would generate more than $30 million in economic activity annually in Paintsville and Johnson County. After failing the second site visit for accreditation from the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, rather than attempting to address issues noted by the ACPE and seeking a third site visit, the Board of Directors at Midway College terminated all faculty and staff and attempted to transfer the property to the University of Charleston, which operated an accredited pharmacy school; the school in Paintsville would have operated as a branch location of the school of pharmacy based in Charleston, West Virginia had the transfer occurred. The transfer did not occur. Midway College
Werneria is a genus of small true toads found near fast-flowing steams in Middle and West Africa with the greatest species richness in the Western High Plateau of Cameroon. They are dark brownish or blackish and have a snout–to-vent length between 3 and 5 cm; the species have small distributions and are considered threatened. AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation.. 2008. Berkeley, California: Werneria. AmphibiaWeb, available at http://amphibiaweb.org/.. Eol – Encyclopedia of Life taxon Werneria at http://www.eol.org. ITIS – Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database Taxon Werneria at https://www.itis.gov/index.html.. GBIF – Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxon Werneria at http://data.gbif.org/welcome.htm
Tony Drake is an American professional wrestler, best known for his appearances in the short-lived Wrestling Society X. He competes on the independent circuit using the ring name Babi Slymm. A defensive tackle and competitor in discus and track at high school, Drake began to train as a wrestler at the invitation of a friend operating a small Californian wrestling promotion in Oakland. Drake has competed for numerous organisations in the California area, including Xtreme Pro Wrestling under the ring name Saleem Jihad, Ultimate Pro Wrestling, NWA Pro Wrestling and Pro Wrestling Guerrilla. Drake received his greatest exposure competing for MTV's Wrestling Society X, in which he formed a team with Ruckus named Keepin' It Gangsta. On March 29, 2004, Drake won the inaugural AWS Championship when he defeated Adam Pearce at the Alternative Wrestling Show in City of Industry, California. Drake feuded at AWS with both Al Katrazz and the Plague. On January 26, 2007, Drake joined Naruki Doi's Muscle Outlaw'z faction in the Japanese Dragon Gate promotion.
Using the name Cyber Gang, he became part of a tag team with fellow faction member Cyber Kong. The team was short-lived, however. Drake remained in the Muscle Outlaw'z and subsequently changed his name to Muscle Gang for the remainder of his time in Dragon Gate. Alternative Wrestling Show AWS Heavyweight Championship Revolution Pro Wrestling RPW Mexican Lucha Libre Heavyweight Championship World Class Wrestling Alliance WCWA California Championship Urban Wrestling Federation UWF Championship 101 Reasons Not To Be A Pro Wrestler Babi Slymm on IMDb
Carmen De La Rosa is the Assembly member for the 72nd District of the New York State Assembly. She is a Democrat; the district includes portions of Hamilton Heights, Harlem and Washington Heights in Manhattan. De La Rosa was born in the Dominican Republic but came to New York City with her family at a young age, where they settled in northern Manhattan, she attended Mother Cabrini High School, before receiving her bachelor's degree at Fordham University in the Bronx. She has one daughter with Jose. Long interested in politics, De La Rosa was active in the Democratic Party and worked for the New York State Assembly, became Chief of Staff to New York City Councilmember Ydanis Rodriguez in 2014. In September 2015, she ran and was elected as a Democratic District Leader for the 72nd Assembly District. In 2016, a whirlwind of open seats in Northern Manhattan Congressional, state Senate and state Assembly districts was spurred by the retirement of long-time Congressman Charlie Rangel. With Rangel's seat open, state Senator Adriano Espaillat, one of the nation's first Dominican-born elected officials, was seen as a front runner, spurring widespread excitement and support in the Dominican community for his candidacy.
Along with his own campaign, following his victory in the Democratic primary over six other candidates, announced his support for Marisol Alcantara to replace him in the Senate, for De La Rosa in the 72nd Assembly district. De La Rosa's candidacy was significant. Long-time politician Guillermo Linares was running for re-election, despite earlier running in the congressional primary against Espaillat and others to replace Rangel. However, since in New York federal and state primaries are not held on the same day, candidates who fail to win their federal primaries can run in the state primaries, as Linares chose to do. However, due to a long-standing feud with Espaillat, Linares was challenged by the Congressman-elect's new political machine. On primary day, De La Rosa would defeat Linares 53% to 38%, with a third candidate, Democrat George Fernandez, taking 10%, she was unopposed in the general election and was sworn in on January 1, 2017. De La Rosa was the sponsor of the New York Dream Act. New York State Assemblywoman Carmen De La Rosa official site
The upper campus residence halls at the University of Pittsburgh include Sutherland Hall, Panther Hall, K. Leroy Irvis Hall, the fraternity housing complex, the Darragh Street Apartments. Among the newest residence facilities at the University of Pittsburgh, these buildings reside on the upper campus located near many of the school's athletic facilities; the upper campus resides 200 feet above the lower campus that lies along Forbes and Fifth Avenues, providing dramatic views along the hilltop and slopes. Planning for upper campus student housing originated in the late 1960s and early 1970s, but stalled due to community and political opposition until the early 1990s with opening of Sutherland Hall, the first major student residence constructed by Pitt in 29 years. Sutherland Hall is a residence hall of the University of Pittsburgh and is located on the upper campus next to the major athletic facilities and the Petersen Events Center; the $24 million structure opened in 1992. It is named for famed Pitt football coach Jock Sutherland.
Sutherland Hall, providing a view of the entire University, houses 739 students, a majority of which are first-year students. Some of the sports teams, such as the football team, it comprises an eight-floor East wing, adjoined by a commons building. The air-conditioned rooms are doubles with semi-private baths, larger suites. There is a TV study room on each floor; the East and West wings of Sutherland Hall share a commons area complete with The Perch, a small dining hall, Hill o' Beans coffee cart, a computer center, a student mail center. There is a fitness center, laundry facility, meeting room on the ground floor of each wing; the Healthy Living Living Learning Community and the University Honors College program for first-year men and women are located in Sutherland Hall. A resident director, an assistant hall director, a program coordinator, 16 resident assistants are on staff. A Math and Physical Science Living Learning Community had been located in Sutherland. In 2008, a $3.3 million renovation of The Perch, Sutherland Hall's main food service area which serves as the primary dining venue for students on Pitt’s upper campus, created an area similar to the Market Central dining area in Litchfield Towers and introducing made-to-order services inducing Red Hot Chef, Hilltop Grille, Mato's deli, an ice cream and breakfast bar.
University of Pittsburgh Virtual Tour: Sutherland Hall Housing Services: Sutherland Hall Sutherland Hall Dining Sutherland Hall Disability Entrances Sutherland Hall Staff K. Leroy Irvis Hall known as Pennsylvania Hall when opened in 2004, is one of the newest residence halls at the University of Pittsburgh. Designed by Perkins Eastman Architects, its construction cost $22.1 million. It is located on the upper campus adjacent to the Petersen Events Center, having nine floors and housing 420 men and women upperclass students, in air-conditioned four-person suites and doubles with private baths. An open lounge and laundry facilities are on every floor, the commons area contains The Pennsylvania Perk coffee cart, a fitness center, a meeting room, a student mail center. K. Leroy Irvis Hall houses Living Learning Communities for the French Language and Culture, the Italian Language and Culture and Pre Law. A resident director, a program coordinator, seven resident assistants are on staff. K. Leroy Irvis Hall sits on the site of the former medical school building, called Pennsylvania Hall, constructed in 1910 and demolished in late November 1998.
It was one of only four buildings of the school's original acropolis campus plan to be constructed. On June 30, 2017, the University passed a resolution to rename the residence hall from Pennsylvania Hall to K. Leroy Irvis Hall in honor of K. Leroy Irvis. K. Leroy Irvis Hall Overview K. Leroy Irvis Hall Panorama K. Leroy Irvis Hall on Pitt Virtual Tour K. Leroy Irvis Hall Disability Entrances Panther Hall, opened in 2006, is one of the newest residence halls at the University of Pittsburgh. Designed by Perkins Eastman Architects, its construction cost $33.2 million. It is located on the upper campus adjacent to the Petersen Events Center and just west of K. Leroy Irvis Hall, it is ten-floors and houses 511 men and women upperclass students, in air-conditioned rooms that are a combination of three- and five-person suites, doubles with private baths. An open lounge, study area, laundry facilities are on every floor, the commons area contains Thirst & 10 coffee cart, a fitness center, a meeting room, a student mail center.
Panther Hall houses six Living Learning Communities: Civic Engagement and Community Service, the Entrepreneurial Experience, Natural Science Research, Social Science Research, Upper-class Engineering, Multicultural Affairs. A resident director, a program coordinator, ten resident assistants are on staff. Panther Hall Overview Panther Hall Opening Panther Hall Disability Entrances The University of Pittsburgh’s fraternities are located in both on- and off-campus housing; the fraternities with on-campus housing can be found on the hill near Sutherland Hall and between Panther Hall and the Falk School. Students refer to the fraternity houses as “the hill houses.” The fraternity housing complex was constructed at a cost of $450,000 for each of the eight units that opened in the fall of 1984. Each unit has an occupancy of 25 students; the original eight fraternities that occupied the complex were Delta Tau Delta, Sigma Chi, Phi Kappa Theta, Zeta Beta Tau, Pi Kappa Alpha, Theta Chi, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Delta Sig