click links in text for more info

Little Boy

"Little Boy" was the codename for the type of atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II. It was the first nuclear weapon used in warfare; the bomb was dropped by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces and Captain Robert A. Lewis, it exploded with an energy of 15 kilotons of TNT and caused widespread death and destruction throughout the city. The Hiroshima bombing was the second man-made nuclear explosion in history, after the Trinity test. Little Boy was developed by Lieutenant Commander Francis Birch's group at the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II, a development of the unsuccessful Thin Man nuclear bomb. Like Thin Man, it was a gun-type fission weapon, but it derived its explosive power from the nuclear fission of uranium-235, whereas Thin Man was based on fission of plutonium-239. Fission was accomplished by shooting a hollow cylinder of enriched uranium onto a solid cylinder of the same material by means of a charge of nitrocellulose propellant powder.

It contained 64 kg of enriched uranium. Its components were fabricated at three different plants so that no one would have a copy of the complete design. After the war ended, it was not expected that the inefficient Little Boy design would again be required, many plans and diagrams were destroyed. However, by mid-1946, the Hanford Site reactors began suffering badly from the Wigner effect, the dislocation of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation, plutonium became scarce, so six Little Boy assemblies were produced at Sandia Base; the Navy Bureau of Ordnance built another 25 Little Boy assemblies in 1947 for use by the Lockheed P2V Neptune nuclear strike aircraft which could be launched from the Midway-class aircraft carriers. All the Little Boy units were withdrawn from service by the end of January 1951. Physicist Robert Serber named the first two atomic bomb designs during World War II based on their shapes: Thin Man and Fat Man; the "Thin Man" was a long, thin device and its name came from the Dashiell Hammett detective novel and series of movies about The Thin Man.

The "Fat Man" was round and fat so it was named after Kasper Gutman, a rotund character in Hammett's novel The Maltese Falcon, played by Sydney Greenstreet in the film version. Little Boy was named by others as an allusion to Thin Man; because uranium-235 was known to be fissionable, it was the first material pursued in the approach to bomb development. As the first design developed, it is sometimes known as the Mark I; the vast majority of the work came in the form of the isotope enrichment of the uranium necessary for the weapon, since uranium-235 makes up only 1 part in 140 of natural uranium. Enrichment was performed at Oak Ridge, where the electromagnetic separation plant, known as Y-12, became operational in March 1944; the first shipments of enriched uranium were sent to the Los Alamos Laboratory in June 1944. Most of the uranium necessary for the production of the bomb came from the Shinkolobwe mine and was made available thanks to the foresight of the CEO of the High Katanga Mining Union, Edgar Sengier, who had 1,200 short tons of uranium ore transported to a New York warehouse in 1940.

At least part of the 1,200 short tons in addition to the uranium ore and uranium oxide captured by the Alsos Mission in 1944 and 1945 went to Oak Ridge for enrichment, as did 1,232 pounds of uranium oxide captured on the Japan-bound German submarine U-234 after Germany's surrender in May 1945. Little Boy was a simplification of the previous gun-type fission weapon design. Thin Man, 17 feet long, was designed to use plutonium, so it was more than capable of using enriched uranium; the Thin Man design was abandoned after experiments by Emilio G. Segrè and his P-5 Group at Los Alamos on the newly reactor-produced plutonium from Oak Ridge and the Hanford site showed that it contained impurities in the form of the isotope plutonium-240; this has a far higher spontaneous fission rate and radioactivity than the cyclotron-produced plutonium on which the original measurements had been made, its inclusion in reactor-bred plutonium appeared unavoidable. This meant that the background fission rate of the plutonium was so high that it would be likely the plutonium would predetonate and blow itself apart in the initial forming of a critical mass.

In July 1944 all research at Los Alamos was redirected to the implosion-type plutonium weapon. Overall responsibility for the uranium gun-type weapon was assigned to Captain William S. Parsons's Ordnance Division. All the design and technical work at Los Alamos was consolidated under Lieutenant Commander Francis Birch's group. In contrast to the plutonium implosion-type nuclear weapon and the plutonium gun-type fission weapon, the uranium gun-type weapon was straightforward if not trivial to design; the concept was pursued so that in case of a failure to develop a plutonium bomb, it would still be possible to use the gun principle. The gun-type design henceforth had to work with enriched uranium only, this allowed the Thin Man design to be simplified. A high-velocity gun was no longer required, a simpler weapon could be substituted; the simplified weapon was short enough to fit into a B-29 bomb bay. The design specifications were completed in February 1945, contracts were let to build the components.

Three different plants were used so that no one would have a copy of

Protestation of 1621

The Protestation of 1621 was a declaration by the House of Commons of England reaffirming their right to freedom of speech in the face of King James' belief that they had no right to debate foreign policy. Many Members of Parliament were unhappy with James' foreign policy, they wished for a war against Spain. The MPs believed that if they conceded that they had no right to debate matters which displeased the King, Parliament would be obsolete; as William Hakewill MP and historian stated: "The privileges of this House are the flowers of the Crown, we shall never sit here again if they are not maintained". The Commons declared on 18 December 1621: The commons now assembled in parliament, being justly occasioned thereunto, concerning sundry liberties, franchises and jurisdictions of parliament, amongst others not herein mentioned, do make this protestation following:—That the liberties, franchises and jurisdictions of parliament are the ancient and undoubted birthright and inheritance of the subjects of England.

James formally deleted the Protestation from the Journals of Parliament and dissolved Parliament

Gianluca Comin

Gianluca Comin is the founder of Comin & Partners, a Communication and Public Relations company, focused in government affairs, media relations and crisis communication. Since January 2016 he is Board member of the Biennale di Venezia; until June 2014, he was Director of External Relations of Enel Group. And Board's member of Endesa sa. A Spanish electricity Company, part of the Enel Group. Gianluca Comin started his professional career in 1986 as a journalist at the Rome office of the daily paper “Il Gazzettino”; until 1997, he reported about politics from Rome and in 1998 he became Head of the Press Office of the Ministry of Public Works and spokesman for the Minister. In 1999 Comin was appointed Director of bureau chief at the Montedison S.p.. A. Rome office, where he was in charge of communication for the IPO of Compart Montedison, of Compart Burgo, of Falck-Sondel at Compart-Montedison, of Fiat-Edf at Compart Montedison. At that time he was managing and coordinating relations with Italian and EU institutional authorities.

In September 2001 he was named Head of Media Relations at Telecom Italia. His most significant activities included managing relations with the national and international media for the various companies of the Telecom Italia Group and coordinating of the corporate-financial press offices, Domestic Wireline, Seat Group, It Telecom, Telespazio press offices. In 2002 he moved to Enel as Director of Communications in charge of advertising, media relations, internal communications, corporate identity, relations with the associations and corporate social responsibility. Comin, a professional journalist, is visiting professor at LUISS University and lecturer at several universities and institutions including Bocconi University and CSM, he was member of the National Council of Confindustria and managing director of Enel Foundation and Enel Cuore. Former President of FERPI, now he is member of the Executive Board. Former editor in chief of Oxygen and author of "2030 La tempesta perfetta", 2012, Rizzoli.

In 2019 he edited "Integrated Communication and Reputation Management", with the participation of numerous professionals and communication experts. The volume aims to respond to changes in society and businesses through new strategies and integrated communication tools, he has been a member of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage Communication Committee and of the Ministry of Economy and Finance, in charge of selecting tender winners for integrated communication projects for Southern Italy, a board member of Syremont Spa, a Member of the Committee to inform on the 2000 Jubilee. Moreover, he participated in the Presidency of the Council of Ministers and CCISS advisory Committee. In 2016 and 2017 he was a member of the Scientific Committee of the Corporate Art Awards organized by pptArt. Gianluca Comin is the author of the following publications: Comunicazione integrata e reputation management", a cura di Gianluca Comin. Per una gestione efficace della reputazione aziendale",.

Mount Gibraltar

Mount Gibraltar is a mountain with an elevation of 863 metres AHD , located in the Southern Highlands region, between Bowral and Mittagong, in New South Wales, Australia. Further west is Berrima; the mountain is locally known as'The Gib', is in the form of a ridge, rather than an obvious conical peak. The western extremity of the ridge is pointed out as the mountain itself.'The Gib' is a residential area with a large nature reserve at its peak. The first European to climb the mountain, in 1798, was explorer John Wilson, he learned from local Aborigines the name'Bowrell', which meant'a high place'. Surveyor Sir Thomas Mitchell climbed Mount Gibraltar.'The Gib' is thought to have been formed from a collapsed volcanic core, which pushed through the local Hawkesbury Sandstone beds about 150 million years ago. The western slopes were the site of a granite quarry which mined the volcanic trachyte; the site can be reached by a walking track beginning near Bowral Swimming Pool. The peak is 863 metres above sea-level.

The peak area includes the Mount Gibraltar Reserve. The Reserve was acquired by Alderman Joshua Stokes, in 1919. A large stone construction, bearing a memorial plaque to Stokes, is a feature of the Reserve; the Reserve vegetation is a rare remnant of a volcanic soil community. A prominent tree species is Eucalyptus fastigata; the Reserve has been the subject of a Landcare Bush Regeneration Program since 1994, with the aim of eliminating introduced species such as Privet, Ivy, Banana Passionfruit and others. The Landcare group has compiled a complete Site Species List.'The Gib' has three lookout points over Bowral and Mittagong. On a clear day'The Gib' can be seen from Echo Point in Katoomba, 70–80 km away, although many people confuse it with the nearby, conical Mount Jellore. On a clear day you can make out the Sydney skyline; the exposed, rocky area of the peak is the site of several telecommunications and broadcasting towers, including Telstra microwave transmission links. The residential area of Mount Gibraltar includes some of the most priced real estate in the Southern Highlands.

The former Mount Gibraltar Trachyte Quarries Complex was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 December 2013. The Main South Railway skirts Mount Gibraltar at its western foothills, passing through a tunnel under Evans Street, Bowral; the original tunnel was single track. Mount Gibraltar images Bayley, W. A. 1975. Picton-Mittagong Main Line Railway. Bulli: Austrail. ISBN 0-909597-15-4 Geology of area Gibraltar Endangered Ecological Community Listing

Thomas Browne (officer of arms)

Thomas Browne, Garter Principal King of Arms, the second son of John Browne of Ashbourne, became Bluemantle Pursuivant in 1737, Lancaster Herald in 1743, Norroy and Ulster King of Arms in 1761, Garter in 1774 until his death. Browne was the most eminent land surveyor in the kingdom, was called Sense Browne, to distinguish him from his contemporary, Lancelot Brown, called Capability Brown. At first he resided at his seat of Little Wimley near Stevenage, which "he received with his wife." He moved to Camville Place, Essendon. Browne died at his town house in St. James's Street, Bedford Row, on 22 February 1780, his portrait was engraved by W. Dickinson, from a painting by Nathaniel Dance-Holland


Chandpur-1 is a constituency represented in the Jatiya Sangsad of Bangladesh since 2008 by Muhiuddin Khan Alamgir of the Awami League. The constituency encompasses Kachua Upazila; the constituency was created in 1984 from a Comilla constituency when the former Comilla District was split into three districts: Brahmanbaria and Chandpur. Ahead of the 2008 general election, the Election Commission redrew constituency boundaries to reflect population changes revealed by the 2001 Bangladesh census; the 2008 redistricting altered the boundaries of the constituency. Ahead of the 2014 general election, the Election Commission reduced the boundaries of the constituency, it had included one union parishad of Matlab Dakshin Upazila: Narayanpur. Muhiuddin Khan Alamgir was re-elected unopposed in the 2014 general election after opposition parties withdrew their candidacies in a boycott of the election. "People's Republic of Bangladesh". Psephos