Crow River (Minnesota)
The Crow River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in south-central Minnesota in the United States. It drains a watershed of 2,756 square miles; the earliest record of the name for Crow River is "Karishon River", reflecting the Dakota language Khaŋǧí Šúŋ Watpá, meaning "The Large Wing-feather of the Crow River". In other documents, this was translated as "Crow Wing River", or by its Ojibwe language name "Undeg-sipi", meaning "Crow River". Early explorers recorded the name of this river in various ways: "Goose River" by Jonathan Carver, "Rook's River" by Giacomo Beltrami, as "Karishon or Crow River" by Joseph Nicollet; the North Fork of the Crow River was named by the Ojibwe Indians for the bird they called the "marauder of newly planted corn." The Crow River flows for most of its length as three streams: The North Fork Crow River, 157.5 miles long, flows from Grove Lake in eastern Pope County and follows a east-southeastward course through southwestern Stearns, northeastern Kandiyohi, northern Meeker and central Wright counties, through Rice Lake and Lake Koronis and past the towns of Regal and Kingston.
A minor headwaters tributary of the North Fork is named the Skunk River. The Middle Fork Crow River, 45.1 miles long, rises near Belgrade in southwestern Stearns County and flows into Kandiyohi County southward through Mud Lake and Nest Lake and past the town of New London eastward through Green Lake and Calhoun Lake and into northern Meeker County, where it joins the North Fork. The South Fork Crow River, 116.0 miles long, flows from Wakanda and Little Kandiyohi lakes in south-central Kandiyohi County and follows a eastward course through southwestern Meeker, northern McLeod, northwestern Carver and southeastern Wright counties, past the towns of Cosmos, Lester Prairie, Mayer and Delano. Portions of the South Fork's upper course have been straightened and channelized; the north and south forks converge at Rockford to form the Crow River, which flows for 24.8 miles northeastward to the Mississippi River. The river's course is used to define the boundary between Hennepin counties; the Crow flows through Greenfield, Hanover, St. Michael and Dayton.
The Crow River, North Fork flows southeast from Lake Koronis for about 125 miles until it joins the Mississippi River at Dayton. The 40 mile stretch from upstream of Rockford to the Mississippi is considered to be the best for canoeing. Upstream from Buffalo, you will encounter more challenging paddling due to sandy, erodible banks and fast-growing silver maples that fall and block the river. In this stretch, you may see more wildlife, but you have to work harder to get around numerous obstacles. List of rivers of Minnesota Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0960-8. Minnesota DNR - Crow River, North Fork Minnesota DNR - Crow River, South Fork
Little crow (bird)
The little crow is an Australian species of crow similar to the Torresian crow in having white bases to the neck and head feathers but smaller and with a smaller bill. It has the same white iris that distinguish the Australian species from all other Corvus except a few island species to the north of Australia, one from Eurasia, the jackdaw. Like the Australian raven, this species has a blue ring around the pupil, it ranges over western and central Australia inhabiting dry, near desert areas. It frequents small country towns and cultivated areas, where its flocks have reminded people of the European rook. C. bennetti was named in honour of the New South Wales ornithologist and collector of natural history specimens, Kenric Harold Bennett. Its food is taken from the ground and includes insects and other seeds, it is less of a scavenger than the Torresian crow. It nests in small, loose colonies, building stick nests lined with mud; the Little Crow's calls ranges from a harsh "'hark-hark-hark-hark'" to a more raven like "'ah-ah-ah'".
Little Crow 1 Little Crow 2 Little crow series * http://oldredlist.iucnredlist.org/details/22706030/0
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Battle of Wood Lake
The Battle of Wood Lake was a battle in the Dakota War of 1862 in September. By that time in the Dakota War of 1862, the Sioux offensive had slowed and the Minnesota forces were beginning to implement a plan formulated by Governor Alexander Ramsey. Ramsey's plan, implemented by Colonel Henry Hastings Sibley and frontier commander Charles Eugene Flandrau, had the goals to free European-American settlers held captive by the Indians and to "exterminate" or drive the Dakota "forever beyond the borders of the state". In early September, Sibley attempted to negotiate a settlement with Chief Little Crow, thinking that the Dakota must be growing weary of the war. Little Crow returned with an explanation of why the Indians started the war and hinting that he would consider negotiations about some United States prisoners being held captive. Sibley responded by demanding Little Crow's surrender. Little Crow refused to surrender, the conditions were set for another battle. Sibley's initial expedition from Fort Snelling, which included 1400 troops, took nearly nine days to reach Fort Ridgely.
At Fort Ridgely, Sibley delayed still further, to the frustration of settlers and others who wanted swift action against the Indian uprising. Jane Grey Swisshelm, a St. Cloud newspaper editor, wrote, "For God's sake put some live man in command of the force against the Sioux & let Sibley have 100 men or thereabout for his undertaker's corpse." The delay was caused, in part, by the lack of experience of the new recruits and the shortage of basic supplies, such as guns and horses. These supplies reached Sibley's forces between September 11 and September 14. On September 19, the troops began their march up the Minnesota River valley; the troops camped east of Lone Tree or Battle Lake, a small lake drained by a creek running northeast to the Minnesota River, about five miles north of what is now Echo, Minnesota. Because Sibley's guide thought the lake was Wood Lake, the battle is misnamed; the Third Minnesota camped along the crest south of the creek, the sixth Minnesota was next to the small lake.
The Seventh Minnesota was at the right rear behind the creek's ravine. All units and the wagon train and artillery were enclosed by trenches. Little Crow planned to ambush the soldiers the next morning when they were marching, as, strung out along the road, the troops would be in a long, poorly defended column. In the morning, a few soldiers from the Third Minnesota regiment in several wagons left camp early in search of food from the Upper Sioux Agency near present-day Rock Valle Church; some of the wagons were not on the road, were headed straight at some of Little Crow's men as they lay in the grass. This started the fight, veteran troops from the Third Regiment returned from fighting Confederates in the south, ran to assist their comrades, aided by the Renville Rangers, they advanced about a half mile from the camp. Sibley ordered Lt. Colonel William R. Marshall, with six companies and an artillery piece, to advance and repulse the Indians on the right flank. On the left end of the line, Major Robert N. McLaren led his men around the lake to defeat an attempted flanking attack.
The battle lasted about two hours. The battle was a decisive victory for the United States, with heavy casualties inflicted on the Dakota. For his part in the battle, Sibley received a promotion to Brigadier General; because of the high losses and the death of Chief Mankato, the battle was the last fought by the Sioux in the uprising. Afterward the influence of the pacifist chiefs increased, they arranged for the release of European Americans held captive by the Sioux and the surrender of many of the Dakota at Camp Release. Due to the shortage of troops in Minnesota during the Dakota War of 1862, units were dispatched in a piecemeal fashion as soon as they could be formed, with some companies and detachments assigned to other regiments. Units involved include: the 3rd Minnesota Infantry, 6th Minnesota Infantry, 7th Minnesota Infantry, 9th Minnesota Infantry, 10th Minnesota Infantry, Citizen Soldier units and Militia including the "Renville Rangers", an artillery unit with a 6-pound gun. In 2010 the battlefield site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Wood Lake Battlefield Historic District for having state-level significance under the themes Archaeology/Historic-Aboriginal, Archaeology/Historic-Non-Aboriginal, Ethnic Heritage/Native American, Military.
It was nominated as the final engagement of the Dakota War of 1862, a watershed period for the state of Minnesota and the Dakota people, for embodying early commemoration efforts of 1907–1910, culminating in the stone monument. The Civil War Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 240 acres of the Wood Lake battlefield. Wood Lake Battlefield Preservation Association Col. Marshall of the 7th Minn. Vols Report in Official Records of the War of the Rebellion Volume 13, Chapter 25. Pp. 280–281 CWSAC Report Update and Resurvey: Individual Battlefield Profiles
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
New Ulm, Minnesota
New Ulm is a city in Brown County, United States. The population was 13,522 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Brown County. Located in the triangle of land formed by the confluence of the Minnesota River and the Cottonwood River, the city is home to the Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, the Hermann Heights Monument, Martin Luther College, Flandrau State Park, the August Schell Brewing Company. New Ulm is the episcopal. U. S. Highway 14 and Minnesota State Highways 15 and 68 are three of the main routes in the city; the city was founded in 1854 by the German Land Company of Chicago. The city was named after the city of Neu-Ulm in the state of Bavaria in southern Germany. Ulm and Neu-Ulm are sister cities, with Ulm being situated on the Baden-Württemberg side and Neu-Ulm on the Bavarian side of the Danube river. In part due to the city's German heritage, it is a center for brewing in the Upper Midwest, home to the August Schell Brewing Company. In 1856, the Settlement Association of the Socialist Turner Society helped to secure the city's future.
The Turners originated in Germany in the first half of the nineteenth century, promoted with the slogan, “Sound Mind, Sound Body.” Their clubs combined gymnastics with debates about the issues of the day. Following the Revolutions of 1848, substantial numbers of Germans emigrated to the United States. In their new land, Turners formed associations throughout the eastern and western states, making it the largest secular German American organization in the country in the nineteenth century. Following a series of attacks by nativist mobs in major cities such as Chicago and Louisville, a national convention of Turners authorized the formation of a colony on the frontier. Intending to begin a community that expressed Turner ideals, the Settlement Association joined the Chicago Germans who had struggled here due to a lack of capital; the Turners supplied that, as well as hundreds of colonizers from the east who arrived in 1856. As a representation of Turner ideals, the city plan reflected; the German Land Company hired Christian Prignitz to complete a new plan for New Ulm, filed in April 1858.
This master plan for New Ulm expressed a grand vision of the city’s future. At the heart of the community stood blocks reserved for Turner Hall, the county courthouse, a public school, representing the political and educational center of the community; the westernmost avenues were named after American heroes George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine—the latter three noted for their freethinking philosophies. Members obtained the means to support themselves — in harmony with nature — through the distribution of four-acre garden lots located outside of the residential area. Historian Dennis Gimmestad wrote, “The founders’ goals created a community persona that sets New Ulm apart from the Minnesota towns founded by land speculators or railroad companies.... The New Ulm founders aspired to establish a town with a defined philosophical and social character.” In the Dakota War of 1862, the city was attacked twice by Dakota warriors from a nearby reservation on the Minnesota River to the west.
Retreating behind barricades that protected the city center, local citizens fought back, supported by volunteer militia who arrived from other towns to support the city's defense. Much of the town outside the barricades was burned. On July 15, 1881, New Ulm was struck by a large tornado that killed 6 and injured 53. Between the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and U. S. entry into the conflict, the citizens of New Ulm followed events in Europe, with the local newspapers sometimes printing news from relatives and friends in Germany. In an unofficial referendum in early April 1917, local voters opposed war by a margin of 466 to 19; as President Woodrow Wilson prepared his Declaration of War, a Brown County delegation arrived in Washington, D. C. to voice its opposition to that action. On the national level, the Wilson administration organized an active campaign to suppress antiwar fervor, joined on the state level by Minnesota Governor James Burnquist; the Minnesota Commission of Public Safety was granted broad powers to protect the state and assist in the war effort.
Specific actions taken by the commission included surveillance of alleged subversive activities, mobilization of opposition to labor unions and strikes, pursuit of draft evaders, registration and monitoring of aliens. Given the German heritage of New Ulm and state agents began to visit the city soon after America’s entry into the conflict, filing reports to offices in Washington and St. Paul. Locally, several business and civic leaders joined in efforts to root out antiwar fervor. On July 25, 1917, when a massive rally, attended by 10,000 people, was held on the grounds of Turner Hall to, as a flier stated, “enter a protest against sending American soldiers to a foreign country.” Speakers included Louis Fritsche, Albert Pfaender, city attorney and former minority leader of the Minnesota House of Representatives, Adolph Ackermann, director of Dr. Martin Luther College, F. H. Retzlaff, a prominent businessman. Federal and state agents mingled through the crowd. A month Governor Burnquist removed Fritsche and Pfaender from their positions, while the Commission of Public Safety pressured the college to fire Ackermann.
These blows divided the community — on one side, many residents took the removals as an attack on the city’s heritage and traditions. Albert Pfaender was the son, Fritsche, the son-in-law, of the city’s principal founder, Wilhelm Pfaender. On the other side, prominent local businessmen, including flour mill managers, feared economic repercussi
South St. Paul, Minnesota
South St. Paul is a city in Dakota County, Minnesota south and southeast of Saint Paul, Minnesota, it is east of West St. Paul, Minnesota; the population was 20,160 at the 2010 census. The town was notable as a major meat-packing location. Subsequently, many residents are descended from immigrants of Southern European and Eastern European heritage, who came to work in the meat-packing plants in the early twentieth century. A post office called "South St. Paul" has been in operation since 1888; the city was named based on its location, south of St. Paul, MN. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.14 square miles, of which 5.65 square miles is land, 0.49 square miles is water. Interstate Highway 494, U. S. Highway 52, Minnesota State Highway 156 are three of the major routes that traverse South St. Paul. South St. Paul is home to Fleming Field; the main industry for much of South St. Paul's history was the Saint Paul Union Stockyards; the two largest companies and employers in the town during the time of peak stockyard operations were Swift's & Company and Armour Meats.
As of 04/11/2008, the stockyards are closed, much of the area is now being redeveloped. As of the 2010 census, there were 20,160 people, 8,186 households, 5,065 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,568.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,666 housing units, at an average density of 1,533.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.3% White, 3.9% African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.4% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.2% of the population. There were 8,186 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04.
The median age in the city was 36.9 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,167 people, 8,123 households, 5,255 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,515.9 people per square mile. There were 8,313 housing units at an average density of 1,449.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.63% White, 1.28% African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.80% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.42% of the population. There were 8,123 households, out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,216, the median income for a family was $54,119. Males had a median income of $36,466 versus $28,415 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,396. About 4.1% of families, 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. South St. Paul's public school system contains two elementary schools, one secondary school, a community-learning center. South St. Paul schools were established in 1853. At that time, the schools operated under the name Kaposia School District, serving the sons and daughters of local residents and the Kaposia Village Native American chiefs.
Under the jurisdiction of Dakota County, the district included sections of West St. Paul, Sunfish Lake and Inver Grove Heights. In 1887, the county turned over the administration of schools to the newly incorporated cities and their councils. South Saint Paul Special School District #6 was designated a school district in 1890, when voters established an independent Board of Education. Rapid growth in the city, its schools, continued in the 1950s and 1960s, culminating in the 1970s when more than 6,000 students attended six elementary schools, a high school, a junior high school. However, in the 1980s, enrollments in the South St. Paul schools began to decline and the community was forced to make the difficult decision to consolidate school buildings. During the same period, advances in technology required the school district to be networked to keep up with the next generation of learners. In 1999, the South St. Paul community passed a technology referendum to maintain the quality of education in South St. Paul Schools.
The South St. Paul School District serves 3,500 students in two elementary schools, one secondary school, an alternative learning center. South St. Paul is home to two private schools, Holy Trinity Catholic School, & St. John Vianney Catholic School. Holy Trinity