Carolyn Lawrence is an American actress and voice actress, known for her long-running voice role as Sandy Cheeks on SpongeBob SquarePants. Lawrence left high school to take dance classes in Chicago. Since she began her long-running role as Sandy Cheeks on SpongeBob SquarePants, she was the voice of Cindy Vortex on The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius and the title character, Orel Puppington, on Moral Orel. Lawrence is the voice of Ashley Graham, the president's daughter, in the English version of the video game Resident Evil 4, she plays Christy Allison on the video podcast Goodnight Burbank. In 2008, she appeared as herself, interviewed for the online comedy video series "Abigail's X-Rated Teen Diary". Official website Carolyn Lawrence on IMDb
Downtown Cincinnati contains the central business district of Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as a number of urban neighborhoods in the low land area between the Ohio River and the high land areas of uptown. These neighborhoods include Over-the-Rhine, Pendleton and West End. Downtown Cincinnati is laid out on a basin on the Ohio River, surrounded by steep hills. Downtown Cincinnati's streets are arranged on a grid. Streets are split between the west by Vine Street. Bridges from Downtown Cincinnati span the Ohio River across to Covington and Newport in Northern Kentucky. Considered to be the heart of Cincinnati, Fountain Square is located in the center of the Central Business District; the 1871 dedicated Tyler Davidson Fountain stands prominently on the busy city square. Other city parks located Downtown are Piatt Park; the Backstage District that sprang up around the Aronoff Center contains nightlife and dining options. Downtown Cincinnati is marked by its large collection of historic architecture and contains several historic districts and dozens of buildings on the National Register of Historic Places listings in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio.
All but one of the twenty-five tallest buildings in Cincinnati are located in Downtown Cincinnati. The Carew Tower has a public observation deck on the forty-ninth floor. Since 1971, the Cincinnati Skywalk has connected buildings throughout downtown via a series of indoor, elevated walkways; the Skywalk was completed as a 1.3 mile contiguous path in 1997, but has since fallen into disfavor by city leaders, some sections have been removed. Downtown Cincinnati is an residential area with former commercial space, such as Park Place at Lytle, being converted into luxury condos; the population was 4,850 at the 2010 census. Museums downtown include the high-rise Contemporary Arts Center, National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, the Taft Museum of Art; the Banks is a waterfront mixed-use development hosting restaurants. It is crowded following games at the adjacent Paul Brown Stadium and Great American Ball Park, the stadiums of the Cincinnati Bengals and Cincinnati Reds. Downtown has long been the economic hub of Cincinnati.
In the mid-nineteenth century 16 of the city's 24 banks were located on Third Street near the busy Public Landing river port. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the center of business activity moved to Fourth Street, closer to where it remains today. Kroger, Macy's, Inc. Fifth Third Bank, Procter & Gamble, Western & Southern Financial Group, American Financial Group, Cincinnati Bell are all headquartered in Downtown Cincinnati; the Duke Energy Convention Center is the convention center of Cincinnati. Opened in 1968, it offers 750,000 square feet of meeting space; the historic Cincinnati City Hall is located downtown on Plum Street. The Hamilton County Courthouse is connected to the Hamilton County Justice Center via a skybridge; the Cincinnati Enquirer, the daily citywide newspaper, has its headquarters downtown, as does the alternative newspaper Cincinnati CityBeat. Downtown is a transportation hub for the entire region. Downtown is served by Fort Washington Way which connects interstates 71 and 75 with Route 50.
Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority operates public transportation with its transit hub at Government Square. The Cincinnati streetcars is an ongoing project to restore streetcar service to the city. Mount Adams, Cincinnati Over-the-Rhine Downtown Residents Council
Ohio Theatre (Columbus, Ohio)
The Ohio Theatre is a performing arts center located at 39 E. State Street in Columbus, Ohio. Known as the "Official Theatre of the State of Ohio", the historic 1928 movie palace was saved from demolition in 1969 and restored, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1977 as one of the nation's finest surviving grand theaters. The Ohio Theatre is owned and operated by the non-profit arts management organization CAPA, formed to save the theater in 1969. William B. Conner, Jr. became CAPA's CEO in 2002, succeeding Douglas Kridler. He held that position his death in October 2016; as of 2017, the president and CEO of CAPA is Chad Whittington. Located in Downtown Columbus on the site of the old Columbus City Hall, the Ohio Theatre was designed by the noted theatre architect Thomas W. Lamb. Of all of the theaters he designed, he noted the Ohio as one of his most successful, he intended to separate patrons from their daily lives by creating a luxurious fantasy atmosphere inside. It was furnished by New York designer Anne Dornin.
Each room had a theme. Dornin's favorite was the "Africa Corner" which she decorated with authentic pieces from her travels; the theatre featured lavish men's and women's lounge areas including separate smoking and telephone rooms. Built by the Loew's theater chain in partnership with United Artists the 2,779 seat Spanish Baroque movie palace opened on March 17, 1928; the first film shown was a silent film with Greta Garbo. The Ohio featured its own orchestra and Robert-Morton theatre organ. In addition to movies, deluxe variety shows graced the stage, with performers that included Fred Waring, Milton Berle, Ray Bolger, Buddy Ebsen, Ginger Rogers, Conrad Nagel, Jack Benny. Sound films were introduced at Loew's Ohio in August 1928; the great popularity of "talking pictures" reduced the need for theater chains to offer expensive live entertainment along with the films. Regular stage shows were discontinued in 1933 and the orchestra was disbanded; however organist Roger Garrett continued to perform daily at the "Mighty Morton" and occasional live appearances by stars including Judy Garland and Jean Harlow were featured on the stage.
The theater was the premiere area showcase for the films of MGM and other studios and in the late 1930s double features became the norm. Programs ran for one week with the rare exception of huge hits like Gone with the Wind, which ran for three. During World War II, movie theaters were busier than and the Ohio was no exception, adding late night showings for war plant shift workers. War bonds were promoted and sold in the theater's lobby. In 1944, when Roger Garrett was inducted into the army, live organ music was discontinued. In the late 1940s when television became popular, movie attendance dropped as audiences lost the weekly moviegoing habit. Attendance further decreased; the decreased profits roped off seating. However the Ohio continued showing premium films; the James Bond films were popular for the theater in the 1960s. In 1966, members of the American Theatre Organ Society began restoring the Robert Morton and playing the organ for shows again. Loew's closed the theater on February 24, 1969.
A local development company called the 55 East State Company bought the property with plans to construct an office tower on the site of the Ohio and the adjacent Grand Theatre. Members of the community rallied to raise money to purchase an option to acquire the structure to gain time to raise additional funds and keep the theater open; some of the non-essential interior items were sold to raise money to buy the property. Under the leadership of architect Robert Karlsberger and others, the non-profit Columbus Association for the Performing Arts was formed to raise money and develop a plan for the future of the theater. All the while live performances were held inside to raise money and give the public a chance to see the theater in use. CAPA was able to use the groundswell of popular interest in the theater to convince business and government leaders to support saving the theater. In late 1969 money was raised to purchase the Ohio and it began presenting shows and concerts under the management of CAPA.
These concerts included rock musicians like The Grateful Dead, Frank Zappa, Alice Cooper. The Columbus Symphony Orchestra badly needed a permanent home and began performing at the Ohio in the fall of 1969, enjoying an increase in ticket sales thanks to excitement about the new venue; the building was restored to its original appearance in stages throughout the 1970s. The adjacent Grand Theatre was demolished and its lot was developed at first for parking. In 1984, the space was used to build an addition to the theatre, the Galbreath Pavilion, named for real estate developer John W. Galbreath and his wife Dorothy; the pavilion added offices and rehearsal rooms. The stage was modernized to allow for large theatrical performances by adding a crossover passage, supplemental dressing rooms and an expanded orchestra pit. In the 1980s as the surrounding area was cleared for development of an urban shopping mall, CAPA obtained the rights to expand the stage, doubling its size, into the alleyway behind the theater.
The theatre has added dressing rooms and a loading dock to allow the Ohio to present large touring Broadway musicals. The Ohio Theatre was one of the earliest restorations of a movie palace for use as a performing arts center and served as a model for many historic renovation projects in the United States
Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist.
If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens; the Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states.
At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business. For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period, it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. It has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior.
In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent. The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system; the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge. In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt.
Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements. Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. Howeve
University of Cincinnati
The University of Cincinnati is a public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1819 as Cincinnati College, it is the oldest institution of higher education in Cincinnati and has an annual enrollment of over 44,000 students, making it the second largest university in Ohio, it is part of the University System of Ohio. In 1819, Cincinnati College and the Medical College of Ohio were founded in Cincinnati. Local benefactor Dr. Daniel Drake funded the Medical College of Ohio. William Lytle of the Lytle family donated the land, funded the Cincinnati College and Law College, served as its first president; the college survived. In 1835, Daniel Drake reestablished the institution, which joined with the Cincinnati Law School. In 1858, Charles McMicken died of pneumonia and in his will he allocated most of his estate to the City of Cincinnati to found a university; the University of Cincinnati was chartered by the Ohio legislature in 1870 after delays by livestock and veal lobbyists angered by the liberal arts-centered curriculum and lack of agricultural and manufacturing emphasis.
The university's board of rectors changed the institution's name to the University of Cincinnati. By 1893, the university expanded beyond its primary location on Clifton Avenue and relocated to its present location in the Heights neighborhood; as the university expanded, the rectors merged the institution with Cincinnati Law School, establishing the University of Cincinnati College of Law. In 1896, the Ohio Medical College joined Miami Medical College to form the Ohio-Miami Medical Department of the University of Cincinnati in 1909; as political movements for temperance and suffrage grew, the university established Teacher's College in 1905 and a Graduate School in the College of Arts and Sciences in 1906. The Queen City College of Pharmacy, acquired from Wilmington College, became the present James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy. In 1962, the Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music was acquired by the university; the Ohio legislature in Columbus declared the university a "municipally-sponsored, state-affiliated" institution in 1968.
During this time, the University of Cincinnati was the second oldest and second-largest municipal university in the United States. By an act of the legislature, the University of Cincinnati became a state institution in 1977. In 1989, President Joseph A. Steger released a Master Plan for a stronger academy. Over this time, the university invested nearly $2 billion in campus construction and expansion ranging from the student union to a new recreation center to the medical school, it included renovation and construction of multiple buildings, a campus forest, a university promenade. Upon her inauguration in 2005, President Nancy L. Zimpher developed the UC|21 plan, designed to redefine Cincinnati as a leading urban research university. In addition, it includes putting liberal arts education at the center, increasing research funding, expanding involvement in the city. In 2009, Gregory H. Williams was named the 27th president of the University of Cincinnati, his presidency expanded the accreditation and property of the institution to regions throughout Ohio to compete with private and specialized state institutions, such as Ohio State University.
His administration focused on maintaining the integrity and holdings of the university. He focused on the academic master plan for the university, placing the academic programs of UC at the core of the strategic plan; the university invested in scholarships, funding for study abroad experiences, the university's advising program as it worked to reaffirm its history and academy for the future. Neville Pinto is the 30th president of the university. In 2010, Kelly Brinson died after being tased by University of Cincinnati police officers at the university's hospital. Five year Sam DuBose was shot and killed by University Police Officer Raymond Tensing. DuBose had been stopped near the intersection of Vine and Thill Street for driving without a front license plate. Body camera footage contradicted Officer Tensing's account of the incident. Officer Tensing was indicted for murder and the university reached a settlement of over $5 million with the Dubose family although Judge Leslie Ghiz declared a second mistrial on the case.
The Uptown campus includes the West and Victory Parkway campuses. West Campus: This campus includes 62 buildings on 137 acres; the university moved to this location in 1893. Most of the undergraduate colleges at the university are located on main campus; the exceptions are part of the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center on the Medical campus. In spring of 2010 the University of Cincinnati was honored by being one of only 13 colleges and universities named by Forbes as one of "The World's Most Beautiful College Campuses". Medical Campus: this campus contains nineteen buildings on 57 acres, it is catty corner to West campus on Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd; the undergraduate colleges of Allied Health Sciences and Nursing and graduate colleges of Medicine and the James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy are located there; the hospitals located there include University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati VA Medical Center, the Shriners Hospital for Children.
Victory Parkway Campus: this campus was formally home to the College of Applied Science. It is 3 miles from main campus in the Walnut Hills neighborhood of Cincinnati and overlooks the Ohio River; when it merged with the College of Engineering to become the College of Engineering and Applied Science many of the classes were moved to main campus, however limited courses are still taught t
David Hyde Pierce
David Hyde Pierce is an American actor and director. He is best known for playing psychiatrist Dr. Niles Crane on the NBC sitcom Frasier, for which he won four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series during the show's run. Pierce has played supporting roles in many films, including Little Man Tate, The Fisher King, Sleepless in Seattle, A Bug's Life, Oliver Stone's Nixon. Pierce has had a successful career on stage, his Broadway roles include Sir Robin in Spamalot, Vanya in Vanya and Sonia and Masha and Spike and Horace Vandergelder in Hello Dolly. He won the 2007 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical for his performance in Curtains. In 2015, he directed the Broadway musical It Shoulda Been You. Pierce was born David Pierce in New York, his father, George Hyde Pierce, was an aspiring actor, his mother, Laura Marie, was an insurance agent. He added his middle name "Hyde" to avoid confusion with another actor named David Pierce; as a child, Pierce played organ at the local Bethesda Episcopal Church.
While attending Yale, Pierce performed in and directed student productions, appearing in the Yale Gilbert & Sullivan Society's production of H. M. S. Pinafore, he directed the Gilbert & Sullivan Society's operetta Princess Ida. Among other productions Pierce appeared in at Yale were Waiting for Godot, Saint Joan, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. After his graduation, Pierce moved to New York City, where during the 1980s and early 1990s he was employed in various jobs, such as selling ties at Bloomingdale's and working as a security guard, while pursuing an acting career and studying at Michael Howard Studios. During this period he played Laertes in a popular off-Broadway production of Hamlet and made his Broadway debut in 1982 in Christopher Durang's Beyond Therapy. Pierce's first big television break came in the early 1990s with Norman Lear's political comedy, The Powers That Be, in which Pierce played Theodore, a Congressman. Despite positive reviews from critics, the show was canceled after a brief run.
In part due to his close physical resemblance to Kelsey Grammer, the producers of the Cheers spin-off Frasier created the role of Niles Crane for him. Although prior to Frasier going into production, Pierce had petitioned the Screen Actors Guild to change his billing to David Pierce, the name he had used on the stage, the use of his middle name in the show's credits helped reinforce the actor's and the character's "snooty" image. For his work on Frasier, Pierce was nominated for a Best Supporting Actor Emmy a record eleven consecutive years, winning in 1995, 1998, 1999 and 2004. Pierce appeared alongside Jodie Foster in Little Man Tate, with Anthony Hopkins in Oliver Stone's Nixon, with Ewan McGregor in Down With Love, he provided the voice for Doctor Doppler in Disney's 42nd animated feature, Treasure Planet, Slim, a stick insect in Pixar's A Bug's Life and Abe Sapien in Guillermo del Toro's Hellboy. In his role in Sleepless in Seattle, Pierce played the brother of Meg Ryan's character, a professor at Johns Hopkins University.
The movie was released three months before the start of Frasier. In 2001, he starred in the cult 1981-set summer camp comedy Wet Hot American Summer, as the befuddled astrophysicist, Prof. Henry Newman. In 2005, Pierce joined others in the stage production of Spamalot. In August and September 2006, he starred as Lieutenant Frank Cioffi in Curtains, a new Kander and Ebb musical staged at the Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles. In March 2007, Curtains opened on Broadway and on June 10, 2007, Pierce won the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical at the 61st Tony Awards for his performance. In his acceptance speech, Pierce said the first words he spoke on a Broadway stage were, "I'm sorry, I'm going to have to ask you to leave."On November 19, 2007, Pierce was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts Degree from Niagara University in Lewiston, New York. In 1999 he was awarded an Honorary Degree from Skidmore College, located in his native Saratoga Springs. In 2010, Pierce appeared in a revival of David Hirson's play La Bête directed by Matthew Warchus.
The production debuted on London's West End before moving to New York. In 2010, Pierce had his first starring film role as Warwick Wilson in the dark comedy/psychological thriller The Perfect Host. Pierce directed the Broadway production of the musical It Shoulda Been You. In 2015 he directed the Manhattan Theater Club production of David Lindsay-Abaire's play Ripcord Off-Broadway at City Center. Pierce appeared in the Off-Broadway limited engagement of A Life by Adam Bock; the play premiered at the Peter Jay Sharp Theater on October 24, 2016, directed by Anne Kaufman, closed on November 27. Pierce co-starred with Bette Midler in the Broadway revival of Hello, Dolly!. The musical opened on April 2017 at the Shubert Theatre; the show was a critical and box office hit. Pierce himself received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance. Pierce received a 2017 Drama League award nomination for Hello, Dolly! and A Life. Pierce is known for his distinctive voice and, like his Frasier co-star, Kelsey Grammer, is called upon to provide voice work.
His notable roles include the narrator of the movie The Mating Habits of the Earthbound Human in 1999, walking stick insect Slim in A Bug's Life, Doctor Delbert Doppler in Disney's film Treasure Planet, the amphibian Abe Sapien in Hellboy. Pierce refused credit for his Hellboy role because he felt it was the performance of Doug Jones, not his own voice, which brought the character of Abe Sapien to life, he was the voice for a cold pill, in the animated comedy Osmosis Jones. In a deliberate
Odyssey of the Mind
Odyssey of the Mind, abbreviated OM, is a creative problem-solving program involving students from kindergarten through college. Team members work together at length to solve a predefined long-term problem and present their solution to the problem at a competition, they must participate in the spontaneous portion of the competition by generating solutions to a problem they have not seen before. While the long-term problem solution takes many months to complete and involves various elements of theatrical performance and design, the spontaneous portion occurs the day of the competition. Odyssey of the Mind is a trademark of Creative Competitions, Inc.. Competitions are administered by a mixture of regional non-profit associations and the for-profit CCI corporation; the Odyssey of the Mind program was co-founded by C. Samuel Micklus and Theodore Gourley in 1978 at Glassboro State College in Glassboro, New Jersey; that first competition, known as "Olympics of the Mind", involved teams from 28 New Jersey schools.
The program is now international, with teams from Argentina, Belarus, China, Czech Republic, DODDS, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea, Togo, the United Kingdom, Uzbekistan competing in addition to teams from the United States. Odyssey of the Mind teams are divided into four divisions: Division I — Grades 3–5: Less than 12 years of age on May 1 of the competition year. Division II — Grades 6–8: Less than 15 years of age on May 1 of the competition year. Division III — Grades 9–12: Oldest team member does not qualify for Divisions I or II and is attending regular school—not a college or university or anything similar. Division IV — Collegiate for all teams. All team members must have a high school diploma or its equivalent and be enrolled in at least one course at a two- or four-year college or university; the oldest team member determines the team's division. There is a non-competitive primary division for young children, who are given a simplified problem and fewer constraints than the higher divisions.
They present and are given feedback at the first level tournament and cannot advance, except for special occasions where officials invite a team to perform again at the State level. Teams are limited to a maximum of seven team members. In the United States, each participating state has its own Odyssey association. Most states are further broken down into regions. Teams compete at the regional level first; the highest-scoring teams progress to the state level. In the U. S. there is no national level. State-winning teams go directly to the World Finals, which have always been held in the U. S. at the end of May. There are five categories of problems that participants can solve: Vehicle: involves building vehicles of different sizes that must perform specified tasks. Technical: involves building “innovative contraptions”. Classics: incorporates knowledge of architecture and literature this can be a documentary or a behind the scenes. Structure: requires the designing and building of a structure using only balsa wood and glue, competing to see which structure can hold the most weight Performance: requires the team to act, and/or dance based on a given themeHowever, the different aspects of each of the five categories are not exclusive within that category.
Specifications differ between problems, but there are some general rules that are crucial for everyone involved in Odyssey of the Mind to know. First, there is the Outside Assistance rule, which stresses that every aspect of a solution must result from the work of the team. Something as simple as a mother adjusting her child’s hat prior to competition is considered outside assistance, the team will have points deducted from their final score, thus all brainstorming, painting and fixing are to be done by the team. For each long-term problem, the team must present its solution in eight minutes or less, including set-up time, the total cost of all materials used must either be under $125 or $145, depending on the problem; each of these rules require participants to push their thinking capacities as they decide how best to utilize their skills and money. A new problem for each category is presented every year, the synopses and rules can be found on the official Odyssey of the Mind website. Most years, one problem is sponsored by NASA.
There is a "cost" limit on the value of all materials used in the presentation of the long-term solution. This limit is US$125–145, where the classical and primary problems have a limit of $125, while the vehicle and structural problems have a limit of $145; as of the 2006–2007 rules update, some materials have a set "assigned value". Some examples include most audio-visual equipment; the suggested cost to write these items down as is anywhere between $5–$10. Still other materials are "exempt" from cost; this includes batteries and power cords, footwear and chairs. All of these materials the exempt, must be listed on the "cost form"; the judges check this list to make sure that the team is within the cost limit and following the appropriate assigned values and exemp