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Little Nemo

Little Nemo is a fictional character created by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. He originated in an early comic strip by McCay, Dream of the Rarebit Fiend, before receiving his own spin-off series, Little Nemo in Slumberland; the full-page weekly strip depicted Nemo having fantastic dreams that were interrupted by his awakening in the final panel. The strip is considered McCay's masterpiece for its experiments with the form of the comics page, its use of color, its timing and pacing, the size and shape of its panels, perspective and other detail. Little Nemo in Slumberland ran in the New York Herald from October 15, 1905, until July 23, 1911; the strip was renamed In the Land of Wonderful Dreams when McCay brought it to William Randolph Hearst's New York American, where it ran from September 3, 1911 until July 26, 1914. When McCay returned to the Herald in 1924, he revived the strip, it ran under its original title from August 3, 1924, until January 9, 1927, when McCay returned to Hearst. A weekly fantasy adventure, Little Nemo in Slumberland featured the young Nemo who dreamed himself into wondrous predicaments from which he awoke in bed in the last panel.

The first episode begins with a command from King Morpheus of Slumberland to a minion to collect Nemo. Nemo was to be the playmate of Slumberland's Princess, but it took months of adventures before Nemo arrived. Nemo and Flip become companions, are joined by an African Imp whom Flip finds in the Candy Islands; the group travels far and wide, from shanty towns to Mars, to Jack Frost's palace, to the bizarre architecture and distorted funhouse-mirror illusions of Befuddle Hall. The strip shows McCay's understanding of dream psychology of dream fears—falling, impalement; this dream world has its own moral code difficult to understand. Breaking it has terrible consequences, as when Nemo ignores instructions not to touch Queen Crystalette, who inhabits a cave of glass. Overcome with his infatuation, he causes her and her followers to shatter, awakens with "the groans of the dying guardsmen still ringing in his ears". Although the strip began October 15, 1905 with Morpheus, ruler of Slumberland, making his first attempt to bring Little Nemo to his realm, Nemo did not get into Slumberland until March 4, 1906 and, due to Flip's interfering, did not get to see the Princess until July 8.

His dream quest is always interrupted by either him falling out of bed, or his parents forcibly waking him up. On July 12, 1908, McCay made a major change of direction: Flip visits Nemo and tells him that he has had his uncle destroy Slumberland. After this, Nemo's dreams take place in his home town, though Flip—and a curious-looking boy named the Professor—accompany him; these adventures range from the down-to-earth to Rarebit-fiend type fantasy. The famous "walking bed" story was in this period. Slumberland continued to make sporadic appearances until it returned for good on December 26, 1909. Story-arcs included Befuddle Hall, a voyage to Mars, a trip around the world. McCay experimented with the form of the comics page, its timing and pacing, the size and shape of its panels and architectural and other detail. From the second installment, McCay had the panel sizes and layouts conform to the action in the strip: as a forest of mushrooms grew, so did the panels, the panels shrank as the mushrooms collapsed on Nemo.

In an early Thanksgiving episode, the focal action of a giant turkey gobbling Nemo's house receives an enormous circular panel in the center of the page. McCay accommodated a sense of proportion with panel size and shape, showing elephants and dragons at a scale the reader could feel in proportion to the regular characters. Narrative pacing McCay controlled through variation or repetition, as with equally-sized panels whose repeated layouts and minute differences in movement conveyed a feeling of buildup to some climactic action. In his familiar Art Nouveau-influenced style McCay outlined his characters in heavy blacks. Slumberland's ornate architecture was reminiscent of the architecture designed by McKim, Mead & White for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, as well as Luna Park and Dreamland in Coney Island, the Parisian Luxembourg Palace. McCay made imaginative use of color, sometimes changing the backgrounds' or characters' colors from panel to panel in a psychedelic imitation of a dream experience.

The colors were enhanced by the careful attention and advanced Ben Day lithographic process employed by the Herald's printing staff. McCay annotated the Nemo pages for the printers with the precise color schemes he wanted. For the first five months the pages were accompanied with captions beneath them, at first the captions were numbered. In contrast to the high level of skill in the artwork, the dialogue in the speech balloons is crude, sometimes approaching illegibility, "disfigur otherwise flawless work", according to critic R. C. Harvey; the level of effort and skill apparent in the title lettering highlights what seems to be the little regard for the dialogue balloons, their content, their placement in the visual composition. They tend to contain repetitive monologues expressing the increasing distress of the speakers, showed that McCay's gift was in the visual and not the verbal. McCay used traditional ethnic stereotypes prominently in Little Nemo, as in the ill-tempered Irishman F

Prix Émile-Nelligan

The Prix Émile-Nelligan is a literary award given annually by the Fondation Émile-Nelligan to a North American French language poet under the age of 35. It was named in honour of the Quebec poet Émile Nelligan and was first awarded in 1979, the 100th anniversary of his birth. 1979 - François Charron, Blessures 1980 - Claude Beausoleil, Au milieu du corps l’attraction s’insinue 1981 - Jean-Yves Collette, La Mort d’André Breton 1982 - Jocelyne Felx, Orpailleuse / Philippe Haeck - La Parole verte 1983 - Lucien Francœur, Les Rockeurs sanctifiés 1984 - Normand de Bellefeuille, Le Livre du devoir 1985 - Anne-Marie Alonzo, Bleus de mine 1986 - Carole David, Terroristes d’amour / France Mongeau - Lumières 1987 - Michael Delisle, Fontainebleau / Élise Turcotte - La voix de Carla 1988 - Renaud Longchamps, Légendes suivi de Sommation sur l’histoire 1989 - Élise Turcotte, La Terre est ici 1990 - Claude Paré, Chemins de sel 1991 - Rachel Leclerc, Les Vies frontalières 1992 - Serge Patrice Thibodeau, Le Cycle de Prague 1993 - Martin-Pierre Tremblay, Le Plus Petit Désert 1994 - Monique Deland, Géants dans l’île 1995 - Marlène Belley, Les jours sont trop longs pour se mentir 1996 - Carle Coppens, Poèmes contre la montre 1997 - Patrick Lafontaine, L’Ambition du vide 1998 - Tony Tremblay, Rue Pétrole-Océan 1999 - Jean-Éric Riopel, Papillons réfractaires 2000 - Tania Langlais, Douze bêtes aux chemises de l'homme 2001 - Mathieu Boily, Le grand respir 2002 - Benoît Jutras, Nous serons sans voix 2003 - Jean-Simon DesRochers, Parle seul 2004 - Kim Doré, Le rayonnement des corps noirs 2005 - Renée Gagnon, Des fois que je tombe 2006 - Maude Smith Gagnon, Une tonne d'air 2007 - Danny Plourde, calme aurore 2008 - Catherine Lalonde, Corps étranger 2009 - François Turcot, Cette maison n'est pas la mienne 2010 - Philippe More, Le laboratoire des anges 2011 - Mahigan Lepage, Relief 2012 - Mario Brassard, Le livre clairière 2013 - Michaël Trahan, Nœud coulant 2014 - Roxanne Desjardins, Ciseaux 2015 - Rosalie Lessard, L'observatoire 2016 - Jonathan Lamy, La vie sauve 2017 - François Guerrette, Constellation des grands brûlés

Ethel Browne Harvey

Ethel Browne Harvey was an American embryologist, known for her critical findings about cell division, using the embryology of sea urchins, for early work studying embryonic cell cleavage. Ethel Nicholson Browne was born December 14, 1885, in Baltimore, Maryland, to Bennett Barnard Browne and Jennifer Nicholson Browne, she was one of five children. Browne's parents sent their three daughters to the Bryn Mawr School, the first preparatory girls' school in the United States. Browne graduated there in 1902, attended Goucher College. After graduating with her B. A. in 1906, studied zoology at Columbia University, earning an MA in 1907 and a Ph. D. in 1913. At Columbia she worked with Edmund Beecher Wilson, her doctoral thesis was on the male germ cells an aquatic insect, leading her to further work focusing on cellular mechanisms in inheritance and development. She was supported during this time by several fellowships aimed at assisting women in science, including one from the Society for the Promotion of University Education for Women.

During her graduate studies at Columbia, Browne "demonstrated that transplanting the hypostome from one hydra into another hydra would induce a secondary axis in the host hydra." This work, done in 1909, preceded experiments in 1924 by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold, that are credited with discovering the "organizer" — this work was the basis of a Nobel Prize given to Spemann. Howard M. Lenhoff has argued that Ethel Browne should have shared in Spemann's Nobel Prize, because she did the experiment first. In 1915, she married fellow scientist, E. Newton Harvey, a physiologist known for work on bioluminescence. Browne, adopting her husband's surname, had two children with him. Although working only part-time for the next several years, she continued her work, making numerous important contributions. In 1940, she demonstrated a method of parthenogenetic cleavage, inducing unfertilized sea urchin eggs to cleave and to hatch; this work received popular attention as "creation of life without parents".

Browne worked for many years at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Massachusetts. She taught at a variety of institutions, including the Bennett School for Girls in Millbrook, New York, the Dana Hall School in Wellesley, Massachusetts, she conducted scientific research in a variety of positions including Princeton University and Cornell Medical College. She was associated with the American Women's Table in Naples, an organization established by Ida Henrietta Hyde and other women scientists. Ethel Browne Harvey died of peritonitis from appendicitis in 1965; the American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins "A Study of the Male Germ Cells in Notonecta", Journal of Experimental Zoology, Jan. 1913 "A Review of the Chromosome Numbers in the Metazoa", Journal of Morphology, Dec. 1916 and June 1920 "Parthenogenetic Merogony or Cleavage Without Nuclei in Arbacia puntulata", Biological Bulletin, Aug. 1936 "Fertilization", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1946 and 1961. 1956 - Honorary D. Sc. from Goucher College Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow, L'Institut International d'Embryologie in Utrecht Fellow, New York Academy of Sciences Elected as trustee of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole.

Donna J. Haraway, "Ethel Browne Harvey", in Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green, Notable American Women: The Modern Period: A Biographical Dictionary. Volume 4 Obituary, New York Times, Sept. 3, 1965