Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
Chrisney is a town in Grass Township, Spencer County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 481 at the 2010 census. Chrisney was called Spring Station, under the latter name was founded in about 1871 when the railroad was extended to that point. A post office was established under the name Spring Station in 1874. Chrisney is located at 38°00′49″N 87°02′08″W. According to the 2010 census, Chrisney has a total area of 0.74 square miles, of which 0.71 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 481 people, 200 households, 130 families residing in the town; the population density was 677.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 234 housing units at an average density of 329.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.3% White, 0.4% Asian, 1.2% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 200 households of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.0% were non-families.
30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age in the town was 41.4 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 544 people, 210 households, 140 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,484.9 people per square mile. There were 233 housing units at an average density of 636.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.79% White, 0.74% Native American, 0.37% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.55% of the population. There were 210 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.25. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $34,464, the median income for a family was $45,000. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $19,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,127. About 14.1% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. Chrisney has a branch of the Lincoln Heritage Public Library, it has a public elementary school, Chrisney Elementary School. It ranges from grade Pre-K to 6th grade
Dale is a town in Carter Township, Spencer County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,593 at the 2010 census. Dale was called Elizabeth, under the latter name was laid out in 1843; when a post office was established, the name was changed to Dale, in honor of Robert Dale Owen of New Harmony, the town's congressman at the time. The Dale post office has been in operation since 1844. Dale is located at 38°10′7″N 86°59′17″W. According to the 2010 census, Dale has a total area of 1.56 square miles, of which 1.55 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,593 people, 603 households, 406 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,027.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 649 housing units at an average density of 418.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 84.6% White, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 12.6% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.1% of the population.
There were 603 households of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.08. The median age in the town was 37.9 years. 24.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.4% male and 49.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,570 people, 591 households, 414 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,025.4 people per square mile. There were 630 housing units at an average density of 412.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.35% White, 1.02% African American, 6.12% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.44% of the population.
There were 591 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,295, the median income for a family was $42,969. Males had a median income of $29,018 versus $22,545 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,163. About 2.7% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over.
Dale has a branch of the Lincoln Heritage Public Library. The Indiana Department of Transportation, as part of the Major Moves transportation program, in 2011 completed a four-lane, limited access highway bypass that carries U. S. Route 231 around the west side of Dale; the town now has access points at Indiana 62 on the town's south side, Indiana 68 on the west side, Spencer County Road 2050 North on the north side. County Road 2050 North provides access to two hotels, a restaurant, gas station and residences that were accessed from the old interchange of U. S. 231 with Interstate 64. That diamond interchange and overpass were eliminated in favor of a partial-cloverleaf interchange located to the west, necessitating the access road. Abraham Lincoln, U. S. President, was raised nearby on a farm near, his mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, died. Del Harris, basketball coach, was born in Dale.
Thomas Lincoln was an American farmer and father of 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. Unlike some of his ancestors, Lincoln could not write, but he was a well-respected community and church member known for his honesty. Lincoln struggled to make a successful living for his family and met challenges of Kentucky real estate border disputes, the early death of his first wife, the integration of his second wife's family into his own family before making his final home in Illinois. Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln, a respected Puritan weaver and trader from the County of Norfolk in East Anglia who landed in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637; some Lincolns migrated into Berks County, where they intermarried with Quakers, but did not retain the peculiar ways. According to the National Humanities Center, both Quakers and Puritans were opposed to slavery. Noteworthy ancestors include Samuel's grandson, Mordecai who married Hannah Salter from a prominent political family, made a name for himself in Pennsylvania society as a wealthy landowner and ironmaster.
Mordecai and Hannah's son, John Lincoln settled in Rockingham County and built a large, prosperous farm nestled in Shenandoah Valley. Abraham Lincoln, instead of being the unique blossom on an otherwise barren family tree, belonged to the seventh American generation of a family with competent means, a reputation for integrity, a modest record of public service. John Lincoln gave 210 acres of prime Virginian land to his first son, Captain Abraham Lincoln, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. In 1770, Abraham married Bathsheba Herring, born in Rockingham County, Virginia. Thomas was born in 1778 in Virginia to Bethsheba Lincoln; the Lincolns sold the land to move in the 1780s to western Virginia, now Springfield, Kentucky. He amassed an estate of 5,544 acres of prime Kentucky land, realizing the bounty as advised by Daniel Boone, a relative of the Lincoln family. In May 1786, Lincoln witnessed the murder of his father by Native American Indians "... when he was laboring to open a farm in the forest."
Lincoln's life was saved that day by Mordecai. One of the most profound stories of President Abraham Lincoln's memory was: While Abraham Lincoln and his three boys, Mordecai and Thomas, were planting a cornfield on their new property, Indians attacked them. Abraham was killed instantly. Mordecai, at fifteen the oldest son, sent Josiah running to the settlement half a mile away for help while he raced to a nearby cabin. Peering out of a crack between logs, he saw an Indian sneaking out of the forest toward his eight-year-old brother, still sitting in the field beside their father's body. Mordecai picked up a rifle, aimed for a silver pendant on the Indian's chest, killed him before he reached the boy. Between September 1786 and 1788 Bathsheba moved the family to Beech Fork in Nelson County, now Washington County. A replica of the cabin is located at the Lincoln Homestead State Park; as the oldest son, in accordance with Virginian law at the time, Mordecai inherited his father's estate and of the three boys seems to have inherited more than his share of talent and wit.
Josiah and Thomas were forced to make their own way. "The tragedy," wrote historian David Herbert Donald, "abruptly ended his prospects of being an heir of a well-to-do Kentucky planter. From 1795 to 1802, Thomas Lincoln held a variety of ill-paying jobs in several locations, he served in the state militia at the age of 19 and became a Cumberland County constable at 24. He moved to Hardin County, Kentucky in 1802 and bought a 238-acre farm the following year for £118; when he lived in Hardin County, he was a jury member, a petitioner for a road, a guard for county prisoners. Lincoln was active in community and church affairs in Hardin Counties; the following year his sister Nancy Brumfield, brother-in-law William Brumfield and his mother Bathsheba moved from Washington County to Mill Creek and lived with Lincoln. In 1805, Lincoln constructed most of the woodwork, including mantels and stairways, for the Hardin house, now restored and called the Lincoln Heritage House at Freeman Lake Park in Elizabethtown.
In 1806, he ferried merchandise on a flatboat to New Orleans down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers for the Bleakley & Montgomery store in Elizabethtown. On June 12, 1806, Lincoln married Nancy Hanks at Beechland in Kentucky. Nancy Hanks, born in what was Hampshire County, was the daughter of Lucy Hanks and a man who Abraham believed to be "a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter." She was called Nancy Sparrow and adopted daughter of Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow. Dennis Hanks, Abraham's friend and second cousin, reported that Nancy Hanks Lincoln had remarkable perception. Nathaniel Grisby, a friend and neighbor, said. Nancy taught young Abraham to read using the Bible, modeled "sweetness and benevolence". Abraham said of her, "All that I am or hope to be I get from my mother". Lincoln developed a modicum of talent as a carpenter and although called "an uneducated man, a plain unpretending plodding man", he was respected for his civil service, storytelling ability and good-nature, he was known as a "wandering" laborer and uneducated.
A rover and drifter, he kept floating about from one place to another, taking any kind of job he could get when hunger drove him to it. Aside from making cabinets and other carpentry work, Lincoln worked as a manual labor
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Early life and career of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12th, 1809 in a one-room log cabin at Sinking Spring farm, south of Hodgenville in Hardin County, Kentucky. His siblings were Jr.. After a land title dispute forced the family to leave, they relocated to Knob Creek farm, eight miles to the north. By 1814 Thomas Lincoln, Abraham's father, had lost most of his land in Kentucky in legal disputes over land titles. In 1816 Thomas and Nancy Lincoln, their nine-year-old daughter and seven-year-old Abraham moved to what became Indiana, where they settled in Hurricane Township, Perry County, Indiana. Abraham spent his formative years, on the family farm in Southern Indiana; as was common on the frontier, Lincoln received a meager formal education, the aggregate of which may have been less than twelve months. However, Lincoln continued to learn on his own from life experiences and through reading and reciting what he had read or heard from others. In 1818, two years after their arrival in Indiana, nine-year-old Lincoln lost his birth mother, who died after a brief illness.
Thomas married Sarah Bush Johnston. Abraham's new step-mother and her three children joined the Lincoln family in Indiana in 1819. A second tragedy befell the family in 1828, when Sarah Lincoln Grigsby, Abraham's sister, died in childbirth. In 1830 twenty-one-year-old Abraham joined his extended family in a move to Illinois. After helping his father establish a farm in Macon County, Lincoln set out on his own. Lincoln worked as a boatman, store clerk, militia soldier, became a lawyer in Illinois, he was elected to the Illinois Legislature in 1834, was reelected in 1836, 1838, 1840, 1844. In 1842, Lincoln married Mary Todd. In addition to his law career, Lincoln continued his involvement in politics, serving in the United States House of Representatives from Illinois in 1846, he was elected president of the United States in 1860. Lincoln's first known ancestor in America was Samuel Lincoln, who migrated from England to Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's son, remained in Massachusetts, but Samuel's grandson, named Mordecai, began the family's western migration.
John Lincoln, Samuel's great-grandson, continued the westward journey. Born in New Jersey, John moved to Pennsylvania brought his family to Virginia. John's son, Captain Abraham Lincoln, who earned that rank for his service in the Virginia militia, was the future president's paternal grandfather and namesake. Born in Pennsylvania, he moved with his father and other family members to Virginia's Shenandoah Valley around 1766; the family settled in Augusta County, now Rockingham County, Virginia. Captain Lincoln bought the Virginia property from his father in 1773. Thomas Lincoln, the future president's father, was Captain Lincoln's son. Thomas was born in Virginia and moved west to Jefferson County, with his father and siblings in the 1780s, when he was about five years old. In 1786, at the age of forty-two, Captain Abraham was killed in an Indian ambush while working his field in Kentucky. Eight-year-old Thomas witnessed his father's murder and might have ended up a victim if his brother, had not shot the attacker.
After Captain Lincoln's death, Thomas's mother moved to Washington County, while Thomas worked at odd jobs in several Kentucky locations. Thomas spent a year working in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s; the identity of Lincoln's maternal grandfather is unclear. In a conversation with William Herndon, Lincoln's law partner and one of his biographers, the president implied that his grandfather was "a Virginia planter or large farmer", but did not identify him. Lincoln felt that it was from this aristocratic grandfather that he had inherited "his power of analysis, his logic, his mental activity, his ambition, all the qualities that distinguished him from the other members and descendants of the Hanks family." Lincoln's maternal grandmother, Lucy Shipley Hanks, migrated with her daughter, Nancy. The debate continues over whether Lincoln's mother, was born out of wedlock. Lucy and Nancy resided with Lucy's older sister, Rachael Shipley Berry, her husband, Richard Berry Sr. in Washington County, Kentucky.
Nancy is believed to have remained with the Berry family after her mother's marriage to Henry Sparrow, which took place several years after the women arrived in Kentucky. The Berry home was about a half from the home of Thomas Lincoln's mother, it was during this time. Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks were married on June 12, 1806, at the Beech Fork settlement in Washington County, Kentucky; the Lincolns moved to Elizabethtown, following their marriage. Biographers have rejected numerous rumors about Lincoln's paternity. According to historian William E. Barton, one of these rumors began circulating in 1861 "in various forms in several sections of the South" that Lincoln's biological father was Abraham Enloe, a resident of Rutherford County, North Carolina, who died in that same year. However, Barton dismissed the rumors as "false from beginning to end." Enloe publicly denied his connection to Lincoln, but is reported to have confirmed it. The Bostic Lincoln Center in Bostic, North Carolina claims that Abraham Lincoln was born in Rutherford County, North Carolina, argues the case that Nancy Hanks had an illegitimate child while she was working for the Enlow family.
Rumors of Lincoln's ethnic and racial heritage were ci