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Littoral combat ship

The littoral combat ship is a set of two classes of small surface vessels designed for operations near shore by the United States Navy. It was "envisioned to be a networked, stealthy surface combatant capable of defeating anti-access and asymmetric threats in the littorals." Littoral combat ships are comparable to the corvettes found in other navies. The Freedom class and the Independence class are the first two LCS variants; each is smaller than the U. S. Navy's Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate but larger than Cyclone-class patrol ships; each has the capabilities of a small assault transport, including a flight deck and hangar for housing two SH-60 or MH-60 Seahawk helicopters, a stern ramp for operating small boats, the cargo volume and payload to deliver a small assault force with fighting vehicles to a roll-on/roll-off port facility. Standard armaments include Mk RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missiles, they are equipped with autonomous air and underwater vehicles. Possessing lower air defense and surface warfare capabilities than destroyers, the LCS concept emphasizes speed, flexible mission modules and a shallow draft.

The first littoral combat ship, USS Freedom, was commissioned on 8 November 2008 in Veteran's Park, Wisconsin. The second ship, the trimaran USS Independence, was commissioned on 16 January 2010, in Mobile, Alabama. In 2012, CNO Jonathan W. Greenert stated that the LCS would be deployed to Africa in place of destroyers and cruisers. In 2013 and 2014, the Navy's requirement for LCS ships was progressively cut from 55 to 32 vessels in favor of a proposed frigate, more capable of high intensity combat. In late 2014, the Navy proceeded with a procurement plan for enhanced versions of the LCS and upgraded older ships to meet the program's 52-ship requirement. In December 2015, Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter ordered the Navy to reduce planned LCS and FF procurement from 52 to 40, downselect to one variant by FY 2019. In July 2017, the Navy released a request for information for a new multi-mission guided-missile frigate that can perform the same roles as the LCS while having better offensive and defensive capabilities.

Any existing design that can be adapted to FFG requirements can be considered, extending beyond versions of the two LCS hulls. The concept behind the littoral combat ship, as described by former Secretary of the Navy Gordon R. England, is to "create a small, fast and inexpensive member of the DD family of ships." The ship is easy to reconfigure for different roles, including anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, anti-surface warfare, intelligence and reconnaissance, homeland defense, maritime intercept, special operations, logistics. Due to its modular design, the LCS will be able to replace slower, more specialized ships such as minesweepers and larger amphibious-type assault ships. Most of the mission modules' functions are performed by carried vehicles such as helicopters or unmanned vehicles such as the Spartan Scout, AN/WLD-1 RMS Remote Minehunting System and MQ-8B Fire Scout as part of the Navy's goal to "unman the front lines". Performing functions such as sonar sweeps for mines or submarines as well as launching torpedoes against hostile submarines at a distance from the ship is less risky.

Placing sensors on remote vehicles allows the LCS to exploit concepts such as bistatic sonar. DARPA's Tactically Exploited Reconnaissance Node program aims to build a Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle that can operate from LCS-2 and can carry a payload of 600 pounds out to an operational radius of 600–900 nautical miles. A 2010 report by the Pentagon's director of operational test and evaluation found that neither design was expected to "be survivable in a hostile combat environment" and that neither ship could withstand the Navy's full ship shock trials; the Navy responded that the LCS is built to a Level 1+ survivability standard and that the ships will rely on warnings from networks and speed to avoid being hit, or if hit be able to limp to safety. Jonathan Greenert said that the crew would "conduct an orderly abandon ship" if their ship was struck by enemy fire, an action that might not be necessary on other vessels in the same circumstances; the ships were designed to minimize vulnerability with modern automated damage control systems to perform its mission withdraw from the area under its own power.

The combat abilities of the LCS were said to be "very modest" before the cancellation of the XM501 Non-Line-of-Sight Launch System. The Independence variant has better helicopter facilities and more internal space while the Freedom variant is said to be better able to launch and recover boats in high seas. Admiral Gary Roughead said that a mix of both types would be "operationally advantageous". In April 2012, Chief of Naval Operations Greenert said, "You won't send it into an anti-access area," rather groups of two or three ships are intended to be sent into areas where access is jeopardized to perform missions like minesweeping while under the cover of a destroyer; the LCS main purpose is to take up operations such as patrolling, port visits, anti-piracy, partnership-building exercises to free up high-end surface combatants for increased combat availability. Navy Secretary Ray Mabus clarified that the ship could operate in combat areas while under the protection of other warships; the LCS' utility against high-tech enemies would be when working with and being covered by destroyers, like they do with aircraft carriers.

With destroyers providing extended air and missile defense, the cheaper and more numerous LCS can sweep for mines

Amit Bando

Amit Bando works with the private sector on clean technology finance issues and with organizations such as the International Energy Agency and the Global Green Growth Institute on program design and implementation issues. During his career as a policy scientist at the United States Department of Energy and an international consultant, Mr. Bando has worked in over 60 nations to promote innovative financing of clean energy initiatives and climate change mitigation/adaptation options. In the past five years alone, he has programmed over $1.5 billion worldwide. In addition, he has helped establish the Chicago Climate Exchange, led the development of the US National Energy Modeling System and represented the USA at the Rio Earth Summit as well as at other ministerial forums on energy efficiency, climate change and the environment, he has developed several used monitoring and evaluation tools for low-carbon initiatives. As an entrepreneur, Bando has founded an international management advisory firm operating with a $50 million portfolio of projects in urban clean infrastructure development, institutional reform and micro-finance.

In the USA, his pioneering efforts have provided greater access to clean technology alternatives among minority populations. In addition, he has founded the Center for Econometric Modeling and Forecasting -- a for-profit research institution working on US-Mexico border issues. Bando has published extensively on the economic evaluation of environmental impacts and presented numerous workshops on clean investment finance and environmental management, he has helped private sector entities understand development-financing issues and has designed/implemented training programs for agencies such as the Asian Development Bank, World Bank, USAID, NASA, United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Department of Energy. Working with legal experts, Mr. Bando testifies on the economic implications of regulations on energy and the environment. Earlier in his career, Mr. Bando has taught at the Universities of Chicago and Illinois, New Mexico State University, he completed his graduate and post-graduate studies in Economics and Statistics at the University of Minnesota, Delhi School of Economics and St. Stephen's College, Delhi.

Based in Paris, he has lived and worked in India, USA and Kenya

Chettikulam

Chettikulam is a small coastal village in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India. It is 12 km from Kanyakumari on the east coastal road connecting Kanyakumari with Thiruchendur; the nearest town is Nagercoil. The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project has built a large township known as Anuvijay Township for its employees near the village; this village has a telephone exchange, post office and four schools. Including the township, the population is nearly 28,000 people. In addition to this Chettikulam has vast pond. Tis village has one government higher secondary school in the bypass Road. More than 5000 students are studying in this school; the nearest colleges are at Kanyakumari, Levengipuram, Nagercoil and Vadakkankulam. Chettikulam has a C. S. I. Church, Pentecostal churches, a small Catholic Church and many temples in each and every street; the C. S. I. Church, was high so from the roof one can view Kaniyakumari Thiruvaluvar statue. Chettikulam has a long sea shore, it is the longest shore in Tirunelveli district.

It is 3 kilometers long shore Beach. During Festival times peoples from chettikulam as well as tourists gather here. There is an Ayyah temple and many Amman temples in Chettikulam; the village has one Government Hospital near the bypass. There is a family park in the beach. There is a petrol station near the beach in Bypass road. Once upon a time the seashore of this village was covered with coconut trees, but as the time moves on due to lack of maintenance and the migration of people to other districts for the search of job, now-a-days there is no sign of coconut trees along the coastal area; this village is not only surrounded by pond but it is surrounded by agricultural lands. Chettikulam will be looking so good during Temple festivals and from Christmas days till New Year. There is another village named Chattikulam in Kerala near Chalakudy