Liu Song dynasty

The Liu Song dynasty known as Former Song or Southern Song, was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi. The dynasty was founded by Liu Yu, whose surname together with "Song" forms the common name for the dynasty, the Liu Song; this appellation is used to distinguish it from a dynasty of the same name, the Song dynasty. Although the Liu Song has at times been referred to as the "Southern Song", the name is now used to refer to the Song dynasty after 1127 CE; the Liu Song was a time. A number of emperors were incompetent and/or tyrannical, which at least led to many military revolts; these rulers include Liu Shao, Emperor Xiaowu, Emperor Qianfei, Emperor Ming, Emperor Houfei. Emperor Ming was vicious, murdering many of his brothers and other male relatives — many of them children; such internal instability led to the dynasty's destruction. However, its founder Emperor Wu was considered one of the greatest generals during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, the reign of its third emperor, Emperor Wen, is known for its political stability and capable administration, not only of its emperor but its strong and honest officials.

This is known as the Reign of Yuanjia and one of the relative golden ages for the Southern Dynasties. Although he was a descendant of Emperor Gaozu of Han's younger brother Liu Jiao, he was still born into poverty, he joined the army at a young age distinguished himself in the army and was promoted to the command of an army, the Beifu corps. Liu Yu was instrumental in fighting the rebel Huan Xuan. After Huan Xuan's fall, Liu Yu gained control of the Jin dynasty. Regarded as one of the best generals of the Northern and Southern dynasties, Liu Yu started off by reclaiming much of the territory the Chinese had lost during the Sixteen Kingdoms era, he started off his career by campaigning against Southern Yan, which bordered Jin to the north and had adopted a policy of aggression and kidnapping citizens from the Jin. By spring of 410, he had captured the southern Yan capital at Guanggu. Afterwards, he campaigned against western Shu in modern Sichuan. Using a brilliant military manoeuver mentioned in the Art of War, Liu Yu instructed his generals to attack the capital of Shu by the Min River rather than the short route by the Fu river.

Surprising the Shu forces, he captured Chengdu and re-annexed that area back into Jin. Following the death of the Later Qin Emperor Yao Xin, Liu Yu attacked the state of Later Qin, which controlled the valuable lands of Guanzhong, lands which had once housed the capital of the Qin and Jin dynasties before the barbarian uprisings. After defeating the Later Qin army in several battles, as well as an army of Northern Wei troops which had crossed to assist the Later Qin, Liu Yu recaptured the vital cities of Chang'an and Luoyang, the former capitals of the Jin Empire, it is recorded that he engaged the Wei army by the use of spears launched by crossbows, panicking the Wei cavalry and allowing him to score a decisive victory. After this success, it seemed that Jin would exterminate the remaining barbarian states in the north and reunify China. However, fortunes began to change for the Jin forces. Liu Mengzhi died and in order to secure his power, Liu Yu left for Jiankang, abandoning the management of the North to his general Wang Zhen'e.

After his departure, the state of Xia attacked Guanzhong and reoccupied it, the loss of these lands prescribed Jin's frontier at the Yellow River. However, Jin retained Luoyang, as well as most of the Chinese heartland. Following his return to Jiankang, Liu Yu ended the rule of the Jin and became emperor himself in 420, establishing the Liu Song dynasty, he died in 422 CE, was succeeded by the incompetent Shaodi, removed. His eventual successor would be Wendi. Under Emperor Wen, the Liu Song economy prospered during the rule of Yuanjia, a period noted for its prosperity in the 400 years of conflict between the Han and Tang dynasties. However, the emperor's martial abilities were not equal to his father, his inability to crush the remaining barbarian states allowed Northern Wei to complete the unification of the North, to the detriment of Liu Song. Afterwards, Northern Wei would remain a permanent threat to the Liu Song. Emperor Wen continued the campaigns of his father. In 422 CE, the first year of his reign, he lost three commanderies to Wei.

Under the able general Dao Yanzhi, Liu Song recovered the four cities of Luoyang, Hulao and Qiao'ao south of the Yellow River. However, the emperor's unwillingness to advance past this line caused the destruction of the empire's ally, Xia, by the Wei; the emperor was to repeat this mistake as several barbarian states who had offered to ally with Liu Song against Wei were declined leading to Wei's unification of the North in 439 CE, to the detriment of the Chinese. Towards the part of his reign, Emperor Wen was less than able, he wrongfully executed the general Tan Daoji, who had hitherto commanded the Song armies, took charge himself. The empire's decline was shown in 450 CE, where the emperor attempted to destroy the Northern Wei himself, launched a massive invasion. Although successful, the campaign turned into a disaster; the Wei lured the Liu Song to cross the Yellow River, flanked them, destroying the Eastern army. As the Liu Song armies retreated, the provinces south of the Yellow River were devastated by the Wei army.


Siarhei Prytytski

Siarhei Prytytski was a Belarusian Soviet statesman. Having started as a Communist activist in Western Belarus, after the Soviet invasion of Poland he became a high-ranking politician in the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. Prytytski was born on February 1, 1913 in Harkawicze in the Polish-Belarusian borderlands part of the Russian Empire, as the third son of a school watchman. In 1914 his family fled to Nizhny Shkaft, Penza Oblast, Russia from the approaching front of the First World War. In 1931 Prytytski became Secretary of the youth branch of the illegal Communist Party of West Belarus in Krynki in the Second Polish Republic. In 1932 he became member of the party and was elected secretary of the local party branch in Hrodna In 1933 Prytytski was for the first time arrested by Polish authorities and put into a prison in Hrodna, but soon released. In 1933 - 1934 he was a member of the local committee of the CPWB Komsomol in Slonim and led strikes of forestry workers in the area. In 1934 - 1935 he studied at the CPWB school in Minsk, East Belarus, USSR.

In 1935 he became Secretary of the local youth branch of the CPWB in Slonim. Prytytski made a publicized unsuccessful assassination attempt on a Polish agent provocateur Jakub Strelczuk in the Polish court at Wilno on 27 January 1936, shooting from two Nagant revolvers; the operation was planned and organized by the leader of the West Belarusian Komsomol Mikalai Dvornikau, the backup of the main executor. After the shooting, Prytytski was sentenced to death; the death sentence provoked wide international protest in West Belarus, France and the United States. Following the protests, the Polish authorities changed the sentence to life imprisonment. In September 1939, after the Soviet invasion of Poland, Prytytski was freed, he was elected into the People's Assembly of West Belarus and made a presentation demanding West Belarus to join the Soviet Union. After the reunification of West Belarus with the Belarusian SSR, in late 1939 Prytytski was made deputy head of the Executive Committee of the newly established Belastok Voblast.

After Germany's attack on the USSR in June 1941, Prytytski escaped to the eastern part of Belarus still under the Soviet control. In June–August 1941 he led the defense preparations around Mahiliou and the creation of defense militia near Homel. In 1942 - 1944 Prytytski was Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Belarusian branch of the Komsomol. In 1944 - 1945 he was head of a pro-Soviet Polish partisan command staff. For his command of Polish partisans, he was awarded one of his Orders of the Red Banner. After the end of the Second World War, Prytytski became one of the most successful Soviet statesman from the ranks of the former West Belarusian pro-Soviet activists, he served as the head of regional party branches in Hrodna, Baranavichy and Minsk Voblasts. During his work, he organized collectivization of local agriculture. In the first post-war years, Prytytski was close to being arrested under accusations of anti-Soviet espionage for Poland. In the 1960s, Prytytski has held senior posts in the Soviet Belarus.

From 1962 to 1968 he was Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus and Deputy Head of the Government of Belarus. In 1968-1971 Prytytski was Head of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus. Vladimir Korsh-Sablin, a notable Belarusian Soviet director, filmed the movie "Red Leaves" about Prytytski's underground experience in Western Belarus. There are streets named after Prytytski in Minsk, Hrodna and Baranavichy. In Minsk, there two memorial plaques on the walls of the buildings. In 1978, the book "Life given to the people" was published, in which articles and speeches by Prytytski and memoirs about him were placed, it was opened with the introductory article "The People's Hero" by Pyotr Masherov. Documents about Prytytski in the state archives of Belarus "Red Leaves" movie

Myron Goldsmith

Myron Goldsmith was an American architect and designer. He was a student of Mies van der Rohe and Pier Luigi Nervi before designing 40 projects at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill from 1955 to 1983, his last 16 years at the firm he was a general partner in its Chicago office. His best known project is the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope building constructed in 1962 at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, it is visited by an estimated 100,000 people a year. Goldsmith was born in Chicago and graduated in 1939 from the Illinois Institute of Technology, where he studied under Mies, whose Chicago office he joined in 1946, he worked there until 1953, when he received a Fulbright Grant to study under Nervi at the University of Rome. His first major projects at Skidmore were two United Air Lines hangars at San Francisco International Airport, one of which used cantilevered steel girders to hold four DC-8 jetliners, he was a professor of architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology beginning in 1961.

In his 1987 monograph he wrote that: "A building should be built with economy, efficiency and order." At the time of his death, he was a member of a team organized by the institute to design a 120-story office and commercial structure in Seoul for the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company. The project, known as "Hankang City," would have been one of the world's tallest buildings at 1,699.48 feet. Chest De-witt nuts apartment McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope building Brunswick Building Oakland Alameda County Coliseum Republic newspaper plant in Columbus, Indiana Ruck-a-Chucky Bridge planned to cross the American River in Auburn, California northeast of Sacramento Gary Berkovich Myron Goldsmith pays tribute to Fazlur Rahman Khan in the South Asian American Digital Archive