A1 in London
The A1 in London is the southern part of the A1 road. It starts at Aldersgate in the City of London, passing through the capital to Borehamwood on the northern fringe of Greater London, before continuing to Edinburgh; the road travels through the City and three London boroughs: Islington and Barnet, which include the districts of Islington, Highgate and Mill Hill, travels along Upper Street and Holloway Road, crossing the North Circular Road in Hendon, a district in the London Borough of Barnet. The A1 is the most recent in a series of routes north out of London to York and beyond, it was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme, comprising existing roads and streets historic, using stretches of purpose-built new roads in what is now the outer London borough of Barnet. The Archway Road section was built by Thomas Telford using Roman cement and gravel, an innovative technique, used there for the first time, is the basis for modern road building.
The route follows the historic route of the Great North Road, though from 1954 it has diverted round the congested suburbs of Finchley and High Barnet along modern roads constructed in the 1920s and 1930s. The A1 is one of London's main roads, providing a link to the M1 and the A1 motorways, on to the Midlands, Northern England and Scotland. Despite this, its main use is to connect a number of neighbourhoods within north London; the roads along which the A1 route travels are the shared responsibility of the local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, the British Government via the Department for Transport. The A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond, was formed in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport as part of the Great Britain road numbering scheme; the earliest documented northern routes out of London are the roads created by the Romans during the period 43 to 410 AD, which consisted of a variety of "Iters" on the Antonine Itinerary, a combination of which were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, which became known as Ermine Street.
Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road, is used within London by the current A10. By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic on Ermine Street, an alternative route out of London was found through Islington and Muswell Hill, this was the origin of the Great North Road that would become the A1; until the 14th century the route went up what is now Hornsey Road – the A103 road, but when that became impassable a new route along Holloway Road via Highgate was created in the 14th century. The section through Highgate was bypassed in the early 19th century by the creation of a new road, Archway Road, around the same time a turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road, was constructed linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner; the route of the A1 in London started at Aldersgate Bars, which marked the boundary of the City of London, followed the Great North Road mail coach route through Barnet. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along the Archway Road section were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings.
The scheme was dropped in 1990. Responsibility for the roads along which the A1 route travels are shared by the individual local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, the British Government; the first organised London-wide authority dealing with roads in London was the Metropolitan Board of Works, set up in 1856. The MBW replaced the disparate turnpike trusts, amalgamated in 1826 into the single control of Government Commissioners, was itself replaced by the London County Council in 1889; the LCC became the Greater London Council in 1965, during the 1960s when traffic management in London was being modernised, the London Ringways was proposed, the GLC, not in favour of increasing traffic into central London, had control of the inner London roads, while the government, through the Ministry of Transport, in favour of widening roads, had control of outer London. These different approaches resulted in the Ministry of Transport widening a stretch of the A1 until it reached the control of the GLC, when the widening abruptly stopped.
Due to the problems associated with two different and opposing bodies having responsibility for London's roads, the government were keen to take control of the major routes, made plans in 1983 for the Department of Transport to take over 70 miles of road, including significant parts of the A1. In 2000 control of roads in London passed to Transport for London, a department of GLA created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority Act 1999, the major roads, including the A1, were declassified as trunk roads; the route of the A1 in London runs from the northern end of St. Martin's Le Grand in the City to Borehamwood in Hertfordshire travels on the northern fringe of Greater London to Bignell's Corner, where it crosses the M25 and becomes a motorway, designated A1, which alternates with the dual carriageway A1 as it continues to Edinburgh; the London section of the road passes through part of the City of London and
Holloway Road is a road in London, 3 kilometres in length. It is one of the main shopping streets in North London, carries the A1 road as it passes through Holloway, in the London Borough of Islington; the road starts at the Archway, near Archway Underground station heads south-east, past Upper Holloway railway station, Whittington Park, past the North London campus of London Metropolitan University near Nag's Head, past Holloway Road Underground station, the main campus of the university, becomes Highbury Corner, near Highbury & Islington station. The origins of the name are disputed. No documentary evidence can be found to support either derivation; the earliest record giving the name of the road as The Holloway dates from 1307. The main stretch of Holloway Road runs through the site of the villages of Stroud; the exact time of their founding is not known, but the earliest record of them dates from 1000. The names ceased to be used by the late 17th century, but are still preserved in the local place names "Tollington Park" and "Stroud Green".
Holloway Road is one of north London's shopping streets, containing major stores as well as numerous smaller shops. Holloway Road is the site of the main campus of the much-renamed London Metropolitan University, includes the Orion Building, designed by Daniel Libeskind, which can be seen along the central stretch of Holloway Road, of the headquarters of the National Union of Students and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Most of the shops are clustered near the junction with Seven Sisters Road. North of the Seven Sisters Road is the Nambucca pub and music venue, which burned down in 2008 and reopened two years later; the northern point of Holloway Road is the complex interchange at Archway, where the A1 leaves the historic route of the Great North Road. The traditional Great North Road heads northwest up Highgate Hill before turning north at North Road, Highgate to cross the current A1 route; the A1 heads north along the recently built Archway Road. The construction of the interchange left a few buildings isolated in the centre of the roundabout, including the Archway Tavern, which appears on the cover of The Kinks' 1971 album Muswell Hillbillies.
Holloway Road contains two significant London churches. St Mary Magdalene is situated in St Mary Magdalene Gardens near the southern end of the road. Built by William Wickings in 1814, it is one of the best preserved early 19th century churches in London. Charles Barry, Jr.'s St John's Church is a leading example of Gothic architecture and dominates the northern end of the road. As one of London's primary transport routes during the 19th century railway boom, Holloway Road contains a number of railway stations. Highbury Corner is the site of Highbury & Islington station, one of London's most important transport interchanges; the Victoria line, Northern City Line and the London Overground North London Line converge at this location. It is the northern terminus of the London Overground East London Line; the station building was badly never rebuilt. The remainder of the building was demolished in 1966 in preparation for the construction of the Victoria line. Holloway Road station opened with the Piccadilly line in 1906, next door to an existing Great Northern Railway main line station built in 1852.
The main line station closed in 1915. Although Holloway Road is the nearest station to the Emirates Stadium, trains do not stop here on match days due to concerns about overcrowding. Upper Holloway station was built in 1868 as part of the Hampstead Junction Railway, it is served by trains on the Gospel Oak to Barking Line, which now forms part of the London Overground network. Archway station is not situated on Holloway Road, but 10 m off the main road on Junction Road, underneath the architecturally striking Archway Tower. Known as "Highgate", it was the original northern terminus of the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway and until 1940 was the northern terminus of the Northern line. Record producer Joe Meek, responsible amongst other things for Telstar by The Tornados, a massive UK and US no. 1 record in 1962, the influential 1959 album I Hear a New World, lived and committed suicide at 304 Holloway Road, where he is commemorated by a plaque. Sex Pistols singer John Lydon claims to have been born and raised in side-street Benwell Road, although no documentary evidence survives of this.
The road features as the home of a fictionalised Meek in Jake Arnott's The Long Firm trilogy, was the setting for George and Weedon Grossmith's Diary of a Nobody. A row of Victorian houses, numbers 726–732, opposite Upper Holloway station, stands at the described location of the fictional Brickfield Terrace in Diary of a Nobody; the architecture is typical for buildings on this stretch of the road
Chapel Market is a daily street market in London. The market is located on a street of the same name near Angel, sells fruit and fish, as well as bargain household goods and cheap clothes, it is open every day except operating in the mornings only on Thursday and Sunday. The market is 2-3 blocks long, it has capacity for 224 stalls. The ten-year-old Islington Farmers' Market relocated to Chapel Market in April 2010 and is held every Sunday at the Penton Street end. Notable Chapel Market pubs include the Agricultural at the extreme east end, an old institution that got its name from the historic use of Upper Street as a livestock route south into London and to Smithfield meat market; the Hundred Crows Flying, at the extreme west end of the market is a modern style pub catering more to a hip young crowd. In the middle of the market near to the corner of White Lion Street is The Alma Lounge, popular with an older crowd, full early in the day; the street is notable for M. Manze's, a traditional Pie and Mash vendor whose first branch was established in 1902.
Nearest London Underground station: AngelThe following street markets are in Central London: Berwick Street Market Petticoat Lane Market Portobello Road List of all London markets Description of several London markets
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
London Borough of Islington
The London Borough of Islington is a London borough in Inner London, England. The borough includes a significant area to the south. Islington has an estimated population of 215,667, it was formed in 1965 by merging the former metropolitan boroughs of Finsbury. The merged entity remains the second-smallest borough in London and the third-smallest district in England; the borough contains two Westminster parliamentary constituencies, Islington North, the constituency of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, Islington South & Finsbury, the constituency of Labour Shadow Foreign Secretary and Shadow First Secretary of State Emily Thornberry. The local authority is Islington Council; the borough is home to football club Arsenal, one of the most successful clubs in England and its home Emirates Stadium is one of the largest football stadiums in the country. The southern part of the borough, south of the A501 Pentonville Road and City Road is part of central London and the central London congestion charging zone.
A significant part of the south of the borough borders the City of London with the area to the south west bordering the London borough of Camden. The central London area includes a number of zone 1 stations including Old Street. Islington was named by the Saxons Giseldone Gislandune; the name means'Gīsla's hill' from the Old English personal name Gīsla and dun'hill','down'. The name later mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors in the area, along with Bernersbury, Neweton Berewe or Hey-bury, Canonesbury. "Islington" came to be applied as the name for the parish covering these villages, was the name chosen for the Metropolitan Borough of Islington, on its formation in 1899. On the merger with Finsbury, to form the modern borough this name came to be applied to the whole borough; the borough includes the areas: Angel Archway Barnsbury Canonbury Clerkenwell Farringdon Finsbury Finsbury Park.
Highbury Highgate Holloway Islington Kings Cross Lower Holloway Mildmay Nag's Head Newington Green Old Street Pentonville St Luke's Tufnell Park Upper Holloway Barnsbury Bunhill Caledonian Canonbury Newington Green Clerkenwell Finsbury Park Highbury East Highbury West Hillrise Holloway Junction Mildmay Saint Georges Saint Marys Saint Peters Tollington Islington Council is the borough's local authority. It is a London borough council, one of thirty-two principal subdivisions of the administrative area of Greater London; the council was created by the London Government Act 1963 and replaced two local authorities: Finsbury Metropolitan Borough Council and Islington Metropolitan Borough Council. The former Islington Metropolitan Town Hall, at the intersection of Upper Street and Richmond Grove, serves as the present Borough's council building. Islington is divided into each electing three councillors. Following the May 2018 election, Islington Council comprises 47 Labour Party councillors and 1 Green Party councillor.
Of these 48 councillors, the Leader of the Council is Councillor Richard Watts, while the Mayor is Councillor Dave Poyser. Islington is represented by two parliamentary constituencies. Islington North is represented by Jeremy Corbyn of the Labour Party, the current Leader of the Opposition since 2015. Islington South and Finsbury is represented by Emily Thornberry, Shadow First Secretary of State and Shadow Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the Labour Party. Islington forms part of the North East constituency for the London Assembly, represented by Jennette Arnold of the Labour Party. Inmarsat has its head office in the borough. Islington has a wide variety of transportation services, with direct connections to the suburbs and the City and West End. Islington has ten tube stations within its boundaries, with connections by the tube to all around London. There are ten Underground stations in the borough: Angel Archway Arsenal Caledonian Road Farringdon Finsbury Park Highbury & Islington Holloway Road Old Street Tufnell ParkThese stations are principally served by the Northern and Victoria lines.
Farringdon station is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. There are several London Overground stations in the borough, they are as follows: Caledonian Road & Barnsbury Canonbury Crouch Hill Highbury & Islington Upper Holloway There are several railway stations in the borough. They are as follows: Drayton Park Essex Road Farringdon Finsbury Park Highbury & Islington Old Street In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, light rail, tram, 19.4% of all residents aged 16–74. There is one prison in a men's prison, HM Prison Pentonville; until it closed in 2016 there was a women's prison HM Prison Holloway, which in the early 20th century was used to hold many suffragettes. Almeida Theatre Artillery Ground Pleasance Islington Theatre Courtyard Theatre Emirates Stadium Angel Central The Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art in Canonbury Square Hen and Chickens Theatre Islington Arts Factory, in Parkhurst Road, London Canal Museum, located in New Wharf Road, King's Cross Islington Museum, located at Finsbury Library Islington Local History Centre, located at Finsbury Library
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830; the style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; the Georgian style is variable, but marked by symmetry and proportion based on the classical architecture of Greece and Rome, as revived in Renaissance architecture. Ornament is normally in the classical tradition, but restrained, sometimes completely absent on the exterior; the period brought the vocabulary of classical architecture to smaller and more modest buildings than had been the case before, replacing English vernacular architecture for all new middle-class homes and public buildings by the end of the period.
Georgian architecture is characterized by its balance. Regularity, as with ashlar stonework, was approved, imbuing symmetry and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier structures remaining visible, was felt as a flaw, at least before Nash began to introduce it in a variety of styles. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning; until the start of the Gothic Revival in the early 19th century, Georgian designs lay within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient Rome or Greece. In towns, which expanded during the period, landowners turned into property developers, rows of identical terraced houses became the norm; the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, the standards of construction were high.
Where they have not been demolished, large numbers of Georgian buildings have survived two centuries or more, they still form large parts of the core of cities such as London, Dublin, Newcastle upon Tyne and Bristol. The period saw the growth of a trained architectural profession; this contrasted with earlier styles, which were disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system. But most buildings were still designed by builders and landlords together, the wide spread of Georgian architecture, the Georgian styles of design more came from dissemination through pattern books and inexpensive suites of engravings. Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny had editions in America as well as Britain. A similar phenomenon can be seen in the commonality of housing designs in Canada and the United States from the 19th century down to the 1950s, using pattern books drawn up by professional architects that were distributed by lumber companies and hardware stores to contractors and homebuilders.
From the mid-18th century, Georgian styles were assimilated into an architectural vernacular that became part and parcel of the training of every architect, builder, carpenter and plasterer, from Edinburgh to Maryland. Georgian succeeded the English Baroque of Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh, Thomas Archer, William Talman, Nicholas Hawksmoor; the architect James Gibbs was a transitional figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century, but he adjusted his style after 1720. Major architects to promote the change in direction from baroque were Colen Campbell, author of the influential book Vitruvius Britannicus. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, John Wood, the Elder; the European Grand Tour became common for wealthy patrons in the period, Italian influence remained dominant, though at the start of the period Hanover Square, Westminster and occupied by Whig supporters of the new dynasty, seems to have deliberately adopted German stylistic elements in their honour vertical bands connecting the windows.
The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, George Dance the Younger, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane. John Nash was one of the
Royal Agricultural Hall
The Business Design Centre is a Grade II listed building, opened as the Royal Agricultural Hall in 1862 in the district of Islington in London, for holding agricultural shows. It was the home of the Royal Smithfield Club's Smithfield Show from 1862 to 1938, it hosted the Royal Tournament from its inauguration in 1880 until the event became too large for the venue and moved to Olympia in the early years of the 20th century. It hosted the first Crufts dog show in 1891. During the Second World War, the hall was commandeered by the Government, from 1943, following the destruction of Mount Pleasant sorting office in an air raid, the Parcels Depot was moved to the hall; the hall remained unused and empty until it was converted to its present use as the Business Design Centre in 1986. The hall remained unused and empty until it was bought and converted to its present use as the Business Design Centre by Sam Morris in 1986; as an exhibition venue and conference centre with showrooms and offices, it is home to over 100 businesses, including clothing retailer Barbour, electronics manufacturer Samsung, communications provider TSI Voice & Data, web design agency Base Creative, coffee maker Illy, home furnishings manufacturer Oficina Inglesa.
In 2006, 2009 and 2010 Made in Brunel, a yearly design exhibition hosted by the engineering and design department at Brunel University was held here. The centre is owned by the Morris family. According to the official Islington Libraries compilation, the Royal Agricultural Hall had its origins when in 1798 the Duke of Bedford, Sir Joseph Banks and other nobles and gentlemen decided to form the Smithfield Club which would hold annual exhibitions of livestock, agricultural produce and agricultural implements. Following some 40 years of exhibiting, first in Smithfield at Wooton’s Livery Stables near Smithfield Meat Market at a site in the Barbican, it moved in 1839 to premises in Baker Street; however it outgrew these and it was proposed that the club erect a hall large enough to accommodate their annual display and to be available for other shows. The foundation stone was laid in 1861 – although a large part of the building had been completed, held its first exhibition in 1862; when built it was one of the largest exhibition halls in the world.
It was this building, the original basis of the present hall, which has expanded on this site since the foundation stone was laid in 1861. The main exhibition hall covers 65,000 square feet, it hosted the Royal Tournament from its inauguration in 1880 until the event became too large for the venue and moved to Olympia in the early years of the 20th century. Sporting events included six-day cycle races – the first event being held at the Agricultural Hall in 1878; the Islington Gazette reported: "A bicycle contest was commenced at the Agricultural Hall, on Monday last, for which £150 is offered in prizes for a six days' competition, the money to be allocated thus: £100 for the first man, £25 for the second, £15 for the third, £10 for the fourth." It hosted the first Crufts dog show in 1891. The Smithfield Show the Royal Smithfield Show ran here from the opening of the building in 1861 until it moved to Earls Court in 1949 needing extra space to allow the showing of agricultural machinery. During the Second World War the hall was commandeered by the Government, from 1943, following the destruction of Mount Pleasant sorting office in an air raid, the Parcels Depot was moved to the hall.
It has been designated a Grade II listed building. Islington Local History Centre holds the archive of the Royal Agricultural Hall Company Limited, which contains deeds and maintenance records, ledgers, cash books, letting agreements and exhibition programmes. Official website Images of England page — architectural description Business Design Center Events Calendar "Archival material relating to the Royal Agricultural Hall". UK National Archives