Livia Drusilla known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser. She was the mother of the emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the emperor Claudius, paternal great-grandmother of the emperor Caligula, maternal great-great-grandmother of the emperor Nero, she was deified by Claudius. She was born on 30 January 59 or 58 BC as the daughter of Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus by his wife Aufidia, a daughter of the magistrate Marcus Aufidius Lurco; the diminutive Drusilla found in her name suggests that she was a second daughter. Marcus Livius Drusus Libo was her adopted brother, she was married around 43 BC. Her father married her to Tiberius Claudius Nero, her cousin of patrician status, fighting with him on the side of Julius Caesar's assassins against Octavian, her father committed suicide in the Battle of Philippi, along with Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, but her husband continued fighting against Octavian, now on behalf of Mark Antony and his brother Lucius Antonius.
Her first child, the future Emperor Tiberius, was born in 42 BC. In 40 BC, the family was forced to flee Italy in order to avoid the proscriptions issued by the Triumvirate of Octavian, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Mark Antony; as did many of those proscribed, they joined with Sextus Pompeius, a son of Pompey Magnus, who opposed the triumvirate from his base in Sicily. Livia, her husband Tiberius Nero and their two-year-old son, moved on to Greece. After peace was established between the Triumvirate and the followers of Sextus Pompeius, a general amnesty was announced, Livia returned to Rome, where she was introduced to Octavian in 39 BC. At this time, Livia had a son, the future emperor Tiberius, was pregnant with the second, Nero Claudius Drusus. Legend said that Octavian fell in love with her, despite the fact that he was still married to Scribonia. Octavian divorced Scribonia in 39 BC, on the day that she gave birth to his daughter Julia the Elder. Around that time, when Livia was six months pregnant, Tiberius Claudius Nero was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce Livia.
On 14 January, the child was born. Augustus and Livia married on 17 January. Tiberius Claudius Nero was present at the wedding, giving her in marriage "just as a father would." The importance of the patrician Claudii to Octavian's cause, the political survival of the Claudii Nerones are more rational explanations for the tempestuous union. Livia and Augustus remained married for the next 51 years, despite the fact that they had no children apart from a single miscarriage, she always enjoyed the status of privileged counselor to her husband, petitioning him on the behalf of others and influencing his policies, an unusual role for a Roman wife in a culture dominated by the pater familias. After Mark Antony's suicide following the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Octavian returned to Rome triumphant. Augustus rejected monarchical titles, instead choosing to refer to himself as Princeps Civitatis or Princeps Senatus, he and Livia formed the role model for Roman households. Despite their wealth and power, Augustus' family continued to live modestly in their house on the Palatine Hill.
Livia would set the pattern for the noble Roman matrona. She pretentious costumes. In 35 BC Octavian gave Livia the unprecedented honour of ruling her own finances and dedicated a public statue to her, she had her own circle of clients and pushed many protégés into political offices, including the grandfathers of the emperors Galba and Otho. With Augustus being the father of only one daughter, Livia revealed herself to be an ambitious mother and soon started to push her own sons Tiberius and Drusus into power. Drusus was a trusted general and married Augustus' favourite niece, Antonia Minor, having three children: the popular general Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. Tiberius married Augustus' daughter Julia in 11 BC and was adopted as Augustus' heir in AD 4. Rumor had it that Livia was behind the death of Augustus' nephew Marcellus in 23 BC. After Julia's two elder sons by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, whom Augustus had adopted as sons and successors, had died, the one remaining son, Agrippa Postumus, was adopted at the same time as Tiberius, but Agrippa Postumus was sent into exile and killed.
Tacitus charges that Livia was not altogether innocent of these deaths and Cassius Dio mentions such rumours. There are rumors mentioned by Tacitus and Cassius Dio that Livia brought about Augustus' death by poisoning fresh figs. Augustus' granddaughter was Julia the Younger. Sometime between 1 and 14 AD, her husband Lucius Aemilius Paullus was executed as a conspirator in a revolt. Modern historians theorize that Julia's exile was not for adultery but for involvement in Paullus' revolt. Livia Drusilla ruined them; this led to open compassion for the fallen family. Julia died in 29 AD on the same island. Augustus died on August 14 AD, being deified by the Senate shortly afterwards. In his will, he left one thi
The National Lottery: In It to Win It was a BBC National Lottery game show, broadcast on BBC One from 18 May 2002 to 16 July 2016. It was hosted by Dale Winton. Five contestants competed for a chance to win up to £100,000, they were seated in the Waiting Area, on one side of the studio, each was assigned one of five colours. One ball was drawn at random from a lottery machine, the contestant matching its colour crossed the studio to sit in Winners' Row, they were asked a series of multiple-choice questions, each with three answer options. Every correct answer added £5,000 to a prize fund, but a miss sent the contestant to the Red Area, between the Waiting Area and Winners' Row. Once a contestant went to the Red Area, another ball was drawn from the lottery machine and that contestant moved from the Waiting Area to Winners' Row; the host asked an open-ended question to the contestant in the Red Area. A correct answer allowed them to return to Winners' Row behind the newly chosen contestant, but a miss sent them back to the Waiting Area.
No money was at stake on these questions. As the game progressed, multiple contestants may be in Winners' Row and/or the Red Area at the same time. In the former case, the host asked a new multiple-choice question to each in turn. In the latter case, the open-ended question was posed to all contestants in the Red Area, they had to collectively agree on an answer. All miss, respectively. After 20 multiple-choice questions have been asked, all contestants not in Winners' Row were eliminated from the game with no winnings; those who remained were asked one more multiple-choice question apiece, all who answered won an equal share of the prize fund. If no one answered or if no contestants were in Winners' Row after the 20th question, no one won any money; the maximum prize of £100,000 could only be won if a single contestant answered all 20 multiple-choice questions and the extra one. The programme included the Saturday night Thunderball and Lotto draws. From Series 1 to 5, Winton himself presided over the Lottery draws live.
Ottavio Quattrocchi was an Italian businessman, being sought until early 2009 in India for criminal charges for acting as a conduit for bribes in the Bofors scandal. Quattrocchi's role in this scandal, his proximity to Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi through his Italian wife Sonia Gandhi is thought to have contributed to the defeat of the Congress Party in the 1989 elections. In 1999, the Central Bureau of Investigation named Quattrocchi in a chargesheet as the conduit for the Bofors bribe; the case against him was strengthened in June 2003, when Interpol revealed two bank accounts, 5A5151516M and 5A5151516L, held by Quattrocchi and his wife Maria with the BSI AG bank, containing Euros 3 million and $1 million, a "curiously large savings for a salaried executive". In January 2006, these frozen bank accounts were unexpectedly released by India's law ministry without the consent of the CBI which had asked for them to be frozen. On 6 February 2007, Quattrocchi was detained in Argentina on the basis of the Interpol warrant.
The Indian investigating agency CBI came under attack for putting up a half-hearted effort towards his extradition and India lost the case for his extradition in June 2007, the judge remarking that "India did not present proper legal documents". India was asked to pay Quattrocchi's legal expenses. Quattrocchi's financier son, Massimo Quattrocchi, grew up with Sonia Gandhi's children Rahul and Priyanka Gandhi. Massimo was reported to be advising the Luxembourg-based firm Clubinvest on business opportunities in India, he was reported as visiting India and running an office in Bangalore. He was present in India at the time of his father's Argentina arrest in February 2007, there is speculation that he may have met Priyanka Vadra around that time. Quattrocchi, born in Mascali, province of Catania, Sicily, in 1938, arrived in India in the mid 1960s as the representative of Italian oil and gas firm Eni and its engineering arm Snamprogetti, his family became close to the Gandhi family based on their connection with Rajiv Gandhi's Italian wife Sonia Gandhi, the former president of Indian National Congress party.
The Special judge Prem Kumar observed in his order of 14 November 2002: Their children grew up together, based on this friendship, Quattrocchi had become so influential at the office of the Prime Minister "that bureaucrats used to stand up when Quattrocchi visited them." Ashok Malik notes in The Pioneer: That his influence extended to ministers was noted by VP Singh, who pursued the Bofors scandal, whose testimony is summarised in a court judgement: He won about 60 projects for Snamprogetti, including: 1981: the five Alibag plants from RCF, four Kribhco plants in Hazira, as well as the ONGC gas pipeline in Hazira. 1983: National Fertilisers Limited's plant in Naya Nangal and two plants in Guna. 1984: IFFCO's three plants in Aonla. 1987: Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited's two plants in Kakinada. In the process, it became known that for contracts with India, Quattrocchi was the man to approach; when orders did not go through, as in the Hazira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur pipeline, where Spie Capag of France had "bid a few hundred crores lower."
Vengeance was swift. Nawal Kishore Sharma lost his job as petroleum minister and was reduced to Congress general secretary. PK Kaul found his term as cabinet secretary ending prematurely and was sent to Washington, DC, as ambassador; the petroleum secretary, AS Gill, never made it to contention for cabinet secretary. The chairman of the Gas Authority of India, HS Cheema, was removed. In 1984, a tender was floated for Howitzer guns for the Indian Army. On evaluation, the French Sofma gun was found to be the best in terms of price and features; the Army needed a range of 30 km. Furthermore, as was revealed much Bofors was permitted to alter its bid without re-tendering. Despite the objections of the army and others, the order went to Bofors; the Bofors scandal erupted after a 1987 report on Swedish radio, claiming that Bofors had paid bribes to secure the contract. A firm called AE Services was named – it was found to have a paid up capital of lira 100, no employeesChitra Subramaniam and N. Ram of The Hindu obtained the private diary of Bofors MD Martin Ardbo, which revealed comments such as "Q's involvement may be a problem because of closeness to R.".
The identity of "Q" became clearer when the investigation team identified the Swiss bank where the AE Services' money went to, determined that it was operated by Ottavio Quattrocchi. Evidently, R meant Rajiv Gandhi; these were subsequently reinforced by the documents obtained by CBI from Switzerland, but these were ruled out in court because they were photocopies, not originals. Once the scandal broke, the ruling Congress Party came under severe fire losing the elections in 1989. In July 1993, the Swiss courts had permitted naming the account operators, Quattrocchi had been named. At this point, CBI attempted to question Quattrocchi, permission was sought to impound his passport. However, just before Quattrocchi could be detained, on the night of 29–30 July 1993, Quattrocchi left Delhi for Kuala Lumpur, it was alleged that he had been let off as part of a deal between Sonia Gandhi and the-then prime minister PV Narasimha Rao. In March 1999, Quattrocchi gave an interview claiming that never received any payment from Bofors, that he did not have "any connection with A.
E. Services". Around the same time, Sonia Gandhi spoke up for him in her first press conference The CBI has found him suspect, but we have not