Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of 158,493 residents in December 2017, it is traditionally known in English as Leghorn. The origins of Livorno are controversial, although the place was inhabited since the Neolithic Age as shown by worked bones, pieces of copper and ceramic found on the Livorno Hills in a cave between Ardenza and Montenero. Livorno was Etruscan; the construction of the Via Aurelia coincided with the occupation of the region by the Romans, who left traces of their presence in the toponyms and ruins of towers. The natural cove called Liburna is a reference to the type of the liburna, used by Roman navy. Other ancient toponyms include Salviano and Antignano, the place situated before Ardenza where beacons directed the ships to Porto Pisano. Cicero called it Labrone. Livorna is mentioned for the first time in 1017 as a small coastal village, the port and the remains of a Roman tower under the rule of Lucca.

In 1077, a tower was built by Matilda of Tuscany. The Republic of Pisa owned Livorna from 1103 and built a quadrangular fort called Quadratura dei Pisani to defend the port. Porto Pisano was destroyed after the crushing defeat of the Pisan fleet in the Battle of Meloria in 1284. In 1399, Pisa sold Livorna to the Visconti of Milan; the name'Leghorn' derives from Genoese name Ligorna. Livorno was used in the eighteenth century by Florentines. Between 1427 and 1429, a census counted 118 families in Livorno, including 423 persons. Monks, military personnel, the homeless were not included in the census; the only remainder of medieval Livorno is a fragment of two towers and a wall, located inside the Fortezza Vecchia. After the arrival of the Medici, the ruling dynasty of Florence, some modifications were made. By 1551, the population had grown to 1562 residents. During the Italian Renaissance, when it was ruled by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany of the House of Medici Livorno was designed as an "Ideal town".

In 1577 the architect Bernardo Buontalenti drew up the first plan. The new fortified town had a pentagonal design, for which it is called Pentagono del Buontalenti, incorporating the original settlement; the Porto Mediceo was defended by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, declared Livorno a free port, which meant that the goods traded here were duty-free within the area of the town's control. In 1593, the Duke's administration established the Leggi Livornine to regulate the trade; these laws protected merchant activities from crime and racketeering, instituted laws regarding international trade. The laws established a well-regulated market and were in force until 1603. Expanding Christian tolerance, the laws offered the right of public freedom of religion and amnesty to people having to gain penance given by clergy in order to conduct civil business; the Grand Duke attracted numerous Turks, Moors and Armenians, along with Jewish immigrants.

Arrival of the latter begun in the late sixteenth century with the Alhambra Decree, which resulted in the expulsion of Jews from Spain and Portugal - while Livorno extended to them rights and privileges. Livorno became an enlightened European city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean Basin. Many European foreigners moved to Livorno; these included Christian Protestant reformers who supported such leaders as Martin Luther, John Calvin, others. French and English arrived, along with Orthodox Greeks. Meanwhile, Jews continued to trade under their previous treaties with the Grand Duke. On 19 March 1606, Ferdinando I de' Medici elevated Livorno to the rank of city; the Counter-Reformation increased tensions among Christians. Livorno's tolerance fell victim to the European wars of religion. But, in the preceding period, the merchants of Livorno had developed a series of trading networks with Protestant Europe, the Dutch and Germans worked to retain these. In 1653 a naval battle, the Battle of Leghorn was fought near Livorno during the First Anglo-Dutch War.

At the end of the 17th century, Livorno underwent a period of expansion. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress was built, together with the town walls and the system of navigable canals through neighborhoods. After the port of Pisa had silted up in the 13th century, its distance from the sea increased and it lost its dominance in trade, so Livorno took over as the main port in Tuscany. By 1745 Livorno's population had risen to 32,534 persons; the more successful of the European powers re-established trading houses in the region the British with the Levant Company. In turn, the trading networks grew, with it, Britain's cultural contact with Tuscany. An increasing number of British writers, artists and travelers visited the area and developed the unique historical ties between the two communities; the British referred to the city as "Leghorn". Through the centuries

James Fankhauser

James Lee Fankhauser is an American conductor and educator, known for his work within the field of choral music in Canada. Fankhauser began his professional studies at Purdue in 1957, he entered the music program at Southwestern College in his native Kansas in the Fall of 1958 and transferred after two years to the Oberlin Conservatory of Music where he obtained a Bachelor of Music in 1962. He was awarded a Fulbright Grant which enabled him to pursue graduate studies in vocal performance in London at the Royal Academy of Music and choral conducting with Sir David Lumsden at New College, University of Oxford in 1962-1963. In 1972 he received a Rockefeller Fellowship to study with Maestro John Nelson at the Aspen Choral Institute as a Conducting Fellow, he was appointed Nelson's Assistant Director of the Institute for the next summer, during which he conducted concerts in a Bach Cantata SeriesIn 1973 he was appointed the music director of the Vancouver Cantata Singers, remaining in that position until 2000.

Under his leadership the VCS won several notable music competitions, including the BBC International Choral Competition and the CBC National Radio Competition. He has made several recording with VCS, one of, nominated for a Juno Award in 1994; the choir has appeared numerous times on Canadian television and radio under his direction. In 1981 the choir won the BBC's International Choral Competition, "Let the people sing," winning the Israeli Silver Cup for best performance; the Cantata Singers made three professional CDs over the years: Venetian Vespers of 1640, Skylark Records. The Venetian Vespers of 1640 won the Association of Canadian Choral Conductor's 1994 National Choral Award: Outstanding Choral Recording. Fankhauser returned to the United States to attend the University of California, Berkeley where he studied musicology from 1963-1966. After the first year he was appointed Director of the UC men's Glee Club and women's Treble Clef, touring yearly throughout California, he sang several tenor roles in the Berkeley production and professional recording of Monteverdi's opera, L'Incoronazione di Poppea.

Graduating in 1966 with an M. A. in musicology, he received the Eisner Prize for outstanding musical talent. In the summer of 1964 he studied voice on a scholarship at the Tanglewood Music Center where he gained the opportunity to perform as a soloist at the Tanglewood Music Festival. In 1966 Fankhauser joined the faculty as a sabbatical replacement for Professor Iva Dee Hiatt at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts where he conducted choirs and taught voice during the 1966-1967 school year, he accepted a job at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York where he taught music theory and conducted the university's choirs from 1967-1973. During this period a great performance of the Mozart Vespers K. 339 under his baton was recorded and issued on a now rare lp. He left there to join the voice and choral conducting faculty at the University of British Columbia where he remained until 2000, he directed the UBC University Singers for many years during which time the group won several singing competitions, including the CBC National Radio Competition in 1994, which led to the BBC's International Radio Competition at which they were out-sung by the Norwegians.

But in 1995 they went to the prestigious International Chamber Choir Competition Marktoberdorf, where they won First Prize against choirs from many countries in Europe and Asia. Fankhauser served as the director of the Manitoba Youth Choir Camp in 1983, he was principal conductor for the Saskatchewan Sings in 1987. He has worked as a clinician for choirs in Canada and has led masterclasses and workshops in conducting in Alberta and British Columbia. Interestingly, Fankhauser stated in 2018: "When I graduated from college during the Vietnam war and was granted a Fulbright scholarship to study music at Oxford University, my ignorant, small town draft board refused to let me go. I asked for a reconsideration by the state draft board, which refused. I had one more place to appeal the decision: the President of the United States. I did so, John F. Kennedy agreed with me. I did study at Oxford and went on to win national and international competitions with my choirs from the three universities at which I taught during my career.

Thank you, JFK!"

Hanson baronets

There have been two baronetcies created for persons with the surname Hanson, both in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. One creation is extant as of 2010; the Hanson Baronetcy, of Bryanston Square in the County of Middlesex, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 6 June 1887 for Reginald Hanson, Lord Mayor of London between 1886 and 1887 and Conservative Member of Parliament for the City of London. The title became extinct on the death of the fourth Baronet in 1996. Sir Francis Hanson, second son of the first Baronet, was a well-known London merchant and was knighted in 1908; the Hanson Baronetcy, of Fowey in the County of Cornwall, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 6 July 1918 for Charles Hanson, Lord Mayor of London between 1917 and 1918 and Conservative Member of Parliament for Bodmin. Sir Reginald Hanson, 1st Baronet Sir Gerald Stanhope Hanson, 2nd Baronet Sir Richard Leslie Reginald Hanson, 3rd Baronet Sir Anthony Leslie Oswald Hanson, 4th Baronet Sir Charles Augustin Hanson, 1st Baronet Sir Charles Hanson, 2nd Baronet.

Hanson was the son of 1st Baronet. He was a Lord Lieutenant of the City of London in 1910 and High Sheriff of Cornwall in 1936. Sir John Hanson, 3rd Baronet Sir Rupert Patrick Hanson, 4th Baronet Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets