Calbuco is a city and commune in southern Chile administered by the Municipality of Calbuco. Administratively Calbuco belongs to the Llanquihue Province of Los Lagos Region; the origin of the city was the Spanish Fort Calbuco founded in 1603, became an important fish market. The archaeological site of Monte Verde lies within the commune. Calbuco Island contains the city of Calbuco. There are thirteen other islands in the commune: Huar, Chidhuapi, Tabón, Mayelhue, Lín, Quihua, Huapi Abtao, Chaullín, Caicué o lagartija and Queullín; the settlement of Calbuco grew out of the fort Fuerte San Miguel de Calbuco, founded in 1603 by Francisco Hernández Ortiz-Pizarro. Calbuco was the capital of Calbuco Department, Chiloé between 1834 and 1855, of Carelmapu Department between 1855 and 1928, it was capital of Calbuco Department, Llanquihue between 1937 and 1975. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Calbuco spans an area of 590.8 km2 and has 31,070 inhabitants. Of these, 12,165 lived in 18,905 in rural areas.
The population grew by 15 % between the 2002 censuses. Besides the town of Calbuco, Calbuco Comuna is home to the settlements of: Pargua, Puluqui Island, San Rafael and Texas; the town of San Rafeal is across the estuary from the town of Calbuco. Texas was a refugee camp built after the 1960 earthquake on the outskirts of San Rafael. Pargua is the ferry port and gateway to the Chiloé Archipelago and the big island of Chiloé. Pargua was considered rural until the 2002 census, the 800+ people on Puluqui Island are still denominated as "rural" although clustered around the bay where the daily barge docks. Calbuca Comuna is divided into twenty districts. Calbuco is the most populous with the highest population density, while Río Tambor is the largest at 141.1 square kilometres and has the lowest density. Alfaro, Puluqui, Machildad, Quetrolauquén, Huayún and Río Tambor are more sparsely populated, further away from the towns of Calbuco and San Rafael; as a commune, Calbuco is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years.
The alcalde is Rubén Cárdenas Gómez, the council has the following members: Pedro Yáñez Uribe Juan Francisco Calbucoy Guerrero Oscar González Almonacid Sergio García Alvarez Iván Vásquez Gómez Manuel Oyarzo Barría Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Calbuco is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Marisol Turres and Patricio Vallespín as part of the 57th electoral district. The commune is represented in the Senate by Camilo Escalona Medina and Carlos Kuschel Silva as part of the 17th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Calbuco
Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos is a snow-capped volcanic chain located in the Andes, in Los Lagos Region of Chile, near Volcán Osorno. It lies between Todos los Santos Lake. "Volcán Puntiagudo" is a stratovolcano with a prominent 2,493 m high sharp-pointed summit that results from glacial dissection and gets its name from this feature. According to locals, the Puntiagudo volcano lost some of its sharp point in the earthquake of 1960. So the volcano was more pointed. Puntiagudo is given the name Cerro Cenizas. Puntiagudo is contained within Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park. List of volcanoes in Chile "Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution
Calbuco is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, located southeast of Llanquihue Lake and northwest of Chapo Lake, in the Los Lagos Region, close to the cities of Puerto Varas and Puerto Montt. With an elevation of 2,015 meters above sea level, the volcano and the surrounding area are protected within the Llanquihue National Reserve; the most recent eruption, a major VEI 4 event, happened with little warning on April 22–23, 2015, followed by a smaller eruption on April 30. This was Calbuco's first activity since 1972. Calbuco is located in Puerto Varas Commune and in Puerto Montt Commune, it lies 49 km from the city of 69 km from Puerto Montt. Its name is thought to come from the Mapuche words "kallfü" and "ko", meaning "blue water", it shares the name with Calbuco Island in nearby Reloncaví Sound as well as the city and commune of Calbuco, although it is not located there. Calbuco is a explosive andesite volcano whose lavas contain 55 to 60% silicon dioxide, it is capped by a 400-500 meter wide summit crater.
Its complex evolution included the collapse of an intermediate edifice during the late Pleistocene that produced a debris avalanche that reached Llanquihue Lake. Calbuco has had 36 confirmed eruptions during the Holocene, 13 of which have been recorded in historical times. 20th century eruptions took place in 1906, 1907, 1909, 1911, 1917, 1929, 1932, 1945, 1961, 1972. A series of three eruptions occurred from April 22–30, 2015; the 1893–95 Calbuco eruption was one of the largest to take place in southern Chile, with debris ejected to distances of eight kilometres, accompanied by voluminous hot lahars. The 1893 eruption disrupted the dayly life of German settlers in eastern Llanquihue Lake. In this area potato fields and apiculture was negatively impacted. Cattle was evacuated from the area and settlers lobbied the government of Jorge Montt to be relocated elsewhere. In the strong explosions of April 1917, a lava dome formed in the crater accompanied by hot lahars. Another short explosive eruption in January 1929 included an apparent pyroclastic flow and a lava flow.
The major eruption of 1961 sent ash columns 12–15 km high, produced plumes that dispersed to the south east and emitted two lava flows. There was a minor, four-hour eruption on August 26, 1972. Strong fumarolic emission from the main crater was observed on August 12, 1996; the most recent eruption happened in April 2015, when on April 22, the volcano erupted with little warning, sending a large ash column into the atmosphere. A smaller eruption occurred on April 30; the eruptions ranked as a 4 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. The volcano returned to the lowest alert level on August 18, 2015. List of volcanoes in Chile List of Ultras of South America González-Ferrán, Oscar. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Geográfico Militar. P. 640 pp. ISBN 956-202-054-1. Biggar, John; the Andes: A Guide for Climbers. Andes Publishing. P. 304 pp. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7. "Calbuco" Global Volcanism Program by Smithsonian Institution "Volcán Calbuco, Chile" on Peakbagger Roja: Declina actividad del volcán Calbuco tras segunda erupción on Sernageomin Se mantiene monitoreo permanente al volcán Calbuco on Onemi Calbuco volcano description with photo gallery of its historical eruptions Analysis of precursory activity of the 2015 eruption First studies with results of the 2015 eruption Videos 2015 EruptionVideo Calbuco Volcano Erupts by National Geographic 2015-04-23 Video Timelapse Calbuco Chile 2015-04-22 on YouTube
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Osorno Volcano is a 2,652-metre tall conical stratovolcano lying between Osorno Province and Llanquihue Province, in Los Lagos Region of Chile. It stands on the southeastern shore of Llanquihue Lake, towers over Todos los Santos Lake. Osorno is known worldwide as a symbol of the local landscape, is noted for its similar appearance to Mount Fuji. Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes, with 11 historical eruptions recorded between 1575 and 1869; the basalt and andesite lava flows generated during these eruptions reached both Llanquihue and Todos los Santos Lakes. The upper slopes of the volcano are entirely covered in glaciers despite its modest altitude and latitude, sustained by the substantial snowfall in the moist maritime climate of the region; this mountain produces pyroclastic flow, since it is a composite volcano. Osorno sits on top of La Picada, with a 6-km-wide caldera. Charles Darwin glimpsed Volcán Osorno from a distance in the course of the second voyage of the Beagle, catching sight of its eruption in January 1835.
Volcán Osorno was used as the backdrop for promotional photos and video in Motorola's 2005 global advertising campaign for the PEBL mobile phone. List of volcanoes in Chile Biggar, John; the Andes: A Guide for Climbers. Andes Publishing. P. 304 pp. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7. González-Ferrán, Oscar. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Geográfico Militar. P. 640 pp. ISBN 956-202-054-1
Frutillar is a city and commune located in southern Chile in the Los Lagos Region. The bay of Frutillar is placed on the banks of Lake Llanquihue, the largest lake within Chile. Frutillar is known as the "City of Music". After a period of clearing up the land, the city of Frutillar was founded by German settlers in 1856, among them Christian Winkler, Wilhelm Kaschel, Heinrich Kuschel, Theodor Niklitshek, Christian Nannig and Adams Schmidt. Vicente Perez Rosales on a expedition towards the south of Valdivia changed the course of the incoming colony to Lake Llanquihue. Rosales was searching for more land for the German settlers, south of Valdivia, as many sailing ships were arriving to the port of Valdivia from Germany sent by Bernardo Philippi under the official colonisation program of Southern Chile; this program was granted by President Manuel Bulnes and executed by president of Chile Manuel Montt naming Vicente Perez Rosales the head of the German colonisation of Llanquihue, as a continuation of the initial efforts done by Bernard Philippi.
Rosales, reached the lake through the dense wild forest and climbed to Osorno Volcano and at the height of 2,000 meters he was able to see the ocean to the south where he saw sailing ships navigating. It was the chilotes from Chiloe, sailing in the inner waters of Puerto Montt since 1550 and came from Galicia Spain, which has similar climate conditions, he informed this issue to the port of Valdivia and thus, from there on, the settlers started their incoming through Puerto Montt and travelled by land to Puerto Varas where other ships would sail the shores of lake Llanquihue to Frutillar and Puerto Octay. A quote of the time illustrates the discovery of lake Llanquihue during its first sighting by Philippi "The water of this lake is as clear as that of Geneva in Switzerland, its surface is about seven leagues long and one league wide, so I could not distinguish the opposite bank. On one hand, it has the snowy Alps, the Andes Mountain that rises from its eastern banks of a volcano covered with snow up to half of its height and goes into its waters."
Bernardo Philippi 1842 This illustrates the period when Philippi discovers Lake Llanquihue and its similarity with Lake Geneva in Switzerland. This information was given to the German settler in order to describe them the beauty of the region, it took over 10 years to be able to bring all the settlers from Germany to Chile and establish the first colonisation program in Lake Llanquihue. Although Bernhard Eunom Philippi did its discovery in 1842, when he was exploring the region with the Chilean army, he brought the idea to the Chilean government that the Southern Region of Chile would be best developed by bringing German Settlers that were having a hard time in Germany with the industrial revolution and had plans to migrate to America; this opportunity to attract German families to immigrate to Chile had to be done. The combined effort of Bernhard Eunom Philippi with Vicente Perez Rosales, made the colonisation a reality and proved to be a success, as the region was well developed in agricultural and forestry, with European technology.
German schools proved to be the best in the Southern region of Chile. The German Museum, Teatro del Lago, Cofradia Nautica de Frutillar and Patagonia Virgin are today's main attractions in Frutillar; the German Museum: The museum opens daily and it is located in the centre of the bay of Frutillar, one of the most beautiful touristic villages of Lake Llanquihue. The German Colony that arrived to the city in 1856 built their houses, water mill and gardens to live there, it is composed of a garden, the machine warehouse, the water mill to grind the seeds, the main house, located uphill with a great view to the Lake. Teatro del Lago: Offers concerts all year round and is located in the main coastal road of the bay; the theatre is considered the largest in the country and the best acoustic theatre built in South America. Every year the musical festival traditionally conducts a continuous 2 week concert, called Musical Festival or “Semanas Musicales” this takes place at the end of January and the first week of February in the theatre.
This cultural activity brings thousand of visitors every year. Cofradia Nautica de Frutillar - Yacht Club: Is the lake's largest and best equipped yacht club located in the bay 400 m south of Teatro del Lago, along the coastal road of Frutillar Bay; the Club has activity all year. The yacht Club was established in 1986. There are 3 sailing schools in the bay that have been founded and promoted by “Cofradia” during the spring and summer the yacht club makes Regattas on the Bay and around the lake. Patagonia Virgin: Is a new urban development that will have hotels, restaurants, golf course Nicklaus and houses, as well as trekking and tennis; the village, at the foot of Patagonia Virgin, will have over 40 stores and restaurants with wild forest and views to all four volcanoes accessing lake Llanquihue through the Frutillar Bay. It is located 200 m south of Cofradia yacht club. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Frutillar spans an area of 831.4 km2 and has 15,525 inhabitants.
Of these, 9,118 lived in 6,407 in rural areas. The population grew by 18.4 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Frutillar is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2016-2020 alcalde is Claus Lindemann, independent. Within the ele
Puerto Montt is a port city and commune in southern Chile, located at the northern end of the Reloncaví Sound in the Llanquihue Province, Los Lagos Region, 1,055 km to the south of the capital, Santiago. The commune spans an area of 1,673 km2 and has a population of 245,902 in 2017, it is bounded by the communes of Puerto Varas to the north, Cochamó to the east and southeast, Calbuco to the southwest and Maullín and Los Muermos to the west. Founded as late as 1853 during the German colonization of southern Chile, Puerto Montt soon outgrew older neighboring cities due to its strategic position at the southern end of the Chilean Central Valley being a gateway city into Chiloé Archipelago and Nahuel Huapi lakes and Western Patagonia. Puerto Montt has gained renown and grown due to the rise of Chile as the second largest salmon producer of the world during the 1990s and 2000s. However, the Chilean salmon aquaculture crisis of the late 2000s resulted at least temporarily in severe unemployment and exposed weaknesses in the local economy.
The city's cultural heritage mixes elements of Chiloé culture with German heritage although the city has attracted a significant number of newcomers from all over Chile in the last 30 years due to employment opportunities. The site was covered by thick forest and was called Melipulli, it was selected as an entrance to Lake Llanquihue. The expedition was entrusted to Bernardo Philippi, a German naturalist and cartographer, but after his death in 1851, Vicente Perez Rosales took over his duties, by the end of September started to chop trees at Reloncaví sound using local woodsman coming from Huar, Maillen and Calbuco Mainly. By December, after the forest was cut down, the area was burned to clear the land in anticipation of completing the settlement plan; the city itself was founded on February 12, 1853, after government-sponsored immigration from Germany that began in 1848 populated the region and integrated it politically to the rest of the country. It was named after Manuel Montt, President of Chile between 1851 and 1861, who set in motion the German immigration.
In 1912 the city was connected by train to Santiago, making it an important point of entry into Chilean Patagonia and augmenting its commercial development. By 1950 it had a population of 27,500, the city was urbanizing. However, the 1960 Valdivia earthquake destroyed much of Puerto Montt, collapsing the port and the train station along with many building and houses; the city recovered, becoming once again an important urban centre as well as a port of national interest. At the start of March 1969 90 landless persons received advice from Socialist member of parliament Luis Espinoza due to the local authority never granting them any land they needed to build homes. On March 4, 1969, they settled on farmland belonging to an absentee landlord. Having been denied titles by the local authorities, these families moved onto the empty, unoccupied land, they did so seeking squatters' rights, without making any payment of rent. Some four or five days the local Police Chief Rolando Rodríguez Marbán reassured the squatters that they would not be disturbed and could proceed with their home construction.
However, a change of plans by the ministry of the interior led to new orders. At midnight on March 9, Luis Espinoza was charged with breaking the law and moved to the city of Valdivia. Following direct orders from Interior Minister Edmundo Pérez Zujovic, 250 armed policemen launched an assault on the squatting families that dawn. Eight of the landless persons were shot dead and two, a 9-month child and an adult, died afterwards. All of the newly built homes were burned to the ground; the massacre is poignantly memorialized by singer-songwriter Víctor Jara in his song Preguntas por Puerto Montt. The massacre of Puerto Montt and the public outcry that followed were major factors contributing to the defeat of Eduardo Frei's party in the Chilean presidential election of 1970, succeeded by Salvador Allende's Unidad Popular. By 1979 Puerto Montt was nominated and becoming it, the Capital of Los Lagos Region as being the principal administrative and commercial centre in Southern Chile. According to 2017 census, Puerto Montt has 245,902 inhabitants which 25,759 live in rural areas and 220,143 in urban areas.
Of 218,858 inhabitants from 2012 census the population grew 12.36%. From overall population, 52,483 belong to aboriginal people with it being 50,247 Mapuche, 314 Aymara people, 73 Rapa Nui people, 19 Lican Antai, 84 Quechua people, 27 Colla, 136 Diaguita, 114 Kawésqar, 38 Yagan, 175 other and 1,256 declared but not belong to current classification or didn't respond to which one. About 1.46% are immigrant belonging to Peru 199, Colombia 596, Venezuela 269, Bolivia 40, Argentina 1,527, Haiti 44, Ecuador 194, South America 157, Central America and the Caribbean 153, North America 52, Europe 242, Asia 83, Africa 16, Oceania 6 and No declared 17. Puerto Montt has a wet oceanic climate with heavy rainfall throughout the year but a drying trend in the summer. Although temperatures are below 25 °C, frosts are rare and occur only a couple of times per month in the winter. For the 41st parallel south, closer to the equator than to the south pole, Puerto Montt is much cooler than areas further inland in terms of summer temperatures, due to cool ocean currents nearby.
This is compounded by the lack of a sizeable landmass on those parallels in the southern hemisphere. That means that Puerto Montt has mu