The Adelaide Hills region is located in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges east of the city of Adelaide in the state of South Australia. The largest town in the area, Mount Barker, has a population of around 29,000 and is one of Australia's fastest growing towns; the Adelaide Hills region is one of the cooler wine regions of mainland Australia as, despite warm days in January and February when the grapes are ripening, the region experiences cool nights. This significant diurnal variation results in cool mean daily temperatures in summer and the consequence of this is high quality, cool-climate wines, leading to its world-famous reputation as a wine-producing region; the numerous wineries and cellar doors are represented by a regional association and geographical indication called the Adelaide Hills wine region. The Adelaide Hills were amongst the first areas of South Australia to be settled by European settlers. A number of towns in the Hills were started as German settlements; the original town names and architecture still reflect this.
Descendants of these first settlers and others of German origin still reside in the area. This explains the strong German cultural connection seen in the number of Lutheran churches, Lutheran schools which have German on the curriculum, the number of older residents who still speak German; some customs have grown, such as the Lobethal Christmas lights. For most Adelaide residents, a drive through the hills is a popular pastime due to proximity. With Adelaide being a linear city extending 90 kilometres north to south, the hills are within 20 kilometres of the majority of residents. Other significant attractions are the cooler temperatures in summer, lush green and sometimes frosty winters and the picturesque old-world towns situated among scenic landscapes; the Mount Lofty area, home to Adelaide's television transmission towers, has a lookout area and the fire-spotting tower that used to be run by the Country Fire Service. The area receives a light snowfall once every three to four years enough to stay on the ground for half a day.
The Adelaide Hills region is close enough to commute to the city, yet is the gateway to the country, so residents enjoy the best of both worlds – the country community life and the convenience of the city. Desirability of the area has increased since realignment of the road and construction of the Heysen Tunnels on the South Eastern Freeway improved road access. Rising real estate prices reflect this; the tunnels, completed in 1999 are named after Sir Hans Heysen, an eminent local landscape painter whose home and studio, "The Cedars", has been maintained as a cultural site located near Hahndorf. To this day, Hahndorf itself supports a thriving community of artists and craftspeople, either in the town or nearby countryside; the Adelaide Hills region is a premier wine region within Australia and one of the oldest. The veritable maze of valleys and sub-valleys, with slopes offering every conceivable aspect, means there is as much mesoclimatic variation as one can find anywhere in Australia, making generalisations of wine type hazardous.
The first vines were planted in the Hills in 1839, three years after South Australia was declared a province, a case of that wine was delivered to Queen Victoria in 1844. There are over 50 wineries within the Hills region which are open most days for tasting and cellar sales; the area is home to the annual Medieval Fair held at Gumeracha across one weekend every April, the English Ale Festival annually held each May. Highlights of the Medieval Fair include live jousting tournaments held on horseback and dance demonstrations and costume creation, authentic music provided by wandering troubadours; the genesis and popularity of these two colourful festivals, where patrons are encouraged to come in costume, springs from the large numbers of British ex-patriates who reside in the Hills. Throughout the year there are folk music sessions and concerts held in various small towns like Mt Pleasant and Balhannah - connected with this same cultural community. Gumeracha is home to the largest rocking horse in the world, standing at 18.3 metres and open to the public, it serves to advertise an adjacent wooden toy factory and wildlife park.
The town of Birdwood is home to the National Motor Museum and is the endpoint of the annual Bay to Birdwood run, in which more than 1,500 vintage motor vehicles are driven by their owners from Glenelg past the city and through the hills to finish at the museum where a festival is held. The museum holds a large and important collection of cars and commercial vehicles. Sporting and recreational activities are popular in the hills region, with sports such as Australian Rules Football and soccer having strong participation rates. Grounds and facilities within the Hills are of good quality, with some playing grounds placed amongst the rugged beauty of the Adelaide Hills. One example of this is the Basket Range Oval, which overlooks the wide sweeping hills views of the area; the Hills region has many conservation parks, including the Cleland Conservation Park with its free roaming kangaroos and emus. The park has enclosed areas for dingos, native birds & snakes, is a popular destination for school groups as well as international visitors.
Many native species of fauna can be encountered within the hills region. Among the more common species include the kookaburra, tawny frogmouth, southern brown bandicoot, kangaro
Charleston, South Australia
Charleston is a small town in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia. It is situated on the Onkaparinga Valley Road between Woodside and Mount Torrens, on the main route from the Adelaide Hills to the Barossa Valley, 3 km south-east of Lobethal. Charleston is close to the source of the River Onkaparinga; the town was laid out in 1857 by Charles Dunn, a brother of the prominent miller John Dunn, in a subdivision of section 5197, Hundred of Onkaparinga, may have been named "Charlestown", but the current spelling has always been more common in newspaper reports Most of the local businesses are on the Onkaparinga Valley Road, while the largest number of houses are on Newman Road. Charleston is served by a community postal agency called the Bookpost, a bookshop, internet cafe and General Store. Next to The Bookpost is the Charleston Hotel which received national attention as one of the main props in a car advertisement, based on Slim Dusty's famous song "Answer to a Pub With No Beer". Charleston was served by the Mount Pleasant railway line from 1918 to 1953.
It is on the Onkaparinga Valley Road and the Amy Gillett Bikeway on the former railway route
Hahndorf, South Australia
Hahndorf is a small town in the Adelaide Hills region of South Australia. An important tourism spot, it has been a centre for farming and services, it is accessible from the South Australian capital, via the South Eastern Freeway. The town was settled by Lutheran migrants from in and around a small village named Kay in Prussia and now known as Kije, Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland. Many of the settlers arrived aboard the Zebra on 28 December 1838; the town is named after the Danish captain of the Zebra. It is Australia's oldest surviving German settlement. German influence is apparent in Hahndorf and is seen in the traditional fachwerk architecture of the original surviving buildings. There are many restaurants in the town serving German cuisine. Due to the First World War in Europe, in 1917 the South Australian Government changed many German place names; the name Hahndorf was changed to Ambleside after the nearby Ambleside railway station. Hahndorf was re-instated as the town's name with the enactment of the South Australia Nomenclature Act of 1935 on 12 December 1935.
There are still references to the name Ambleside around the town today. Hahndorf is located in the federal division of Mayo, the state electoral district of Kavel, the local government areas of the District Council of Mount Barker and the Adelaide Hills Council. There are two prominent churches in Hahndorf. St Michael's is the oldest Lutheran church in Australia to still have a worshipping congregation on its original church site, it was founded in 1839. St Michael's is a member of the Lutheran Church of Australia. St Paul's was founded in 1846, as a result of a schism between the Pastor Kavel, Pastor Fritzsche; this schism is linked to the formation of two original Lutheran synods in Australia which coexisted until their merger in 1966. C3 Adelaide Hills is a church part of the C3 Church Global movement. Located in Nairne it moved to Hahndorf around 2007. Hahndorf's sporting clubs including basketball, netball, football and softball; the football and softball clubs are nicknamed The Magpies. The Hahndorf Bowling Club was established in 1976 and has a full size green, a woven carpet surface enabling all weather competition, a large clubhouse.
The Football Club was formed in 1979 and was a founding member of the Adelaide Hills Junior Soccer Association. The club plays home games at "Pine Avenue"; the senior men compete in the South Australian Amateur Soccer League. They won the 2004 Amateur League Division Two title. Watercolour artist Sir Hans Heysen established "The Cedars" close to the town in 1912, he lived and painted there until his death in 1968. "The Cedars" remains in his family, is open for guided tours. Matthew Jaensch was an AFL footballer, he retired in 2016 after 74 games with the Crows. German Australian Danish Australian Polish Australian Tourist Information on Hahndorf Flinders Ranges Research – Hahndorf Adhills – Hahndorf, South Australia Captain Hahn's narrative of the voyage SA Government State Heritage Areas State Heritage Area – Hahndorf Hahndorf - Emigration on LocalWiki The History of Hahndorf
The Onkaparinga River, known as Ngangkiparri in the Kaurna language, is a river located in the Southern Adelaide region in the Australian state of South Australia. The Onkaparinga River rises on the slopes of the Mount Lofty Range between Mount Torrens and Charleston and flows southwesterly, south of the Adelaide city centre, to reach its mouth at Port Noarlunga; the catchment area is over 500 square kilometres in area, in part includes the protected areas of the Encounter Marine Park, the Onkaparinga River National Park, the Onkaparinga River Recreation Park and the Port Noarlunga Reef Aquatic Reserve. The river descends 422 metres over its 88-kilometre course; the Onkaparinga River is the second major river within the Adelaide metropolitan area, after the River Torrens. It is a source of fresh water for Adelaide. Mount Bold Reservoir was constructed between 1932 and 1938 along a section of its path 20 kilometres inland. Much of its flow is diverted via a tunnel from the Clarendon Weir to the Happy Valley Reservoir, that in turn supplies some 40 per cent of Adelaide's water supply.
Most years the flow to the reservoir is supplemented by water pumped from the River Murray via a pipeline from Murray Bridge. Downstream from Mount Bold Reservoir is the Clarendon Weir. To maintain levels at Clarendon Weir, water is released only as required; the Onkaparinga Gorge extends from Clarendon to Old Noarlunga. An estuary extends from Old Noarlunga to the river's mouth between the suburbs of Port Noarlunga and Port Noarlunga South; the estuary is a significant breeding area for local marine fish species. The Coast to Vines rail trail crosses over the river just west of where Main South Road crosses over; the Seaford railway line passes over the river on a 1.2-kilometre elevated bridge, built between 2011 and 2014. The name derives from the indigenous Kaurna word, which translates as'The Women's River'. In 1837 Surveyor General Colonel William Light named it Field's River, or the Field River, after Lieutenant William George Field RN of the brig Rapid, who carried out the first surveys in the vicinity of its estuary, but subsequent Governor George Gawler soon reinstated the Indigenous name.
The first Europeans to explore its sources and the Onkaparinga Valley were the party of Dr. George Imlay and John Hill in January 1838. List of rivers of South Australia The Onkaparinga Catchment Water Management Board website Map of the Onkaparinga catchment
Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, priest, a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507, he came to reject several practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517, his refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin, his theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, all of Luther's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible, his hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews, his rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but towards Roman Catholics and nontrinitarian Christians. Luther died with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, County of Mansfeld in the Holy Roman Empire. Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours.
His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. The religious scholar Martin Marty describes Luther's mother as a hard-working woman of "trading-class stock and middling means" and notes that Luther's enemies wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant, he had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer, he sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, Eisenach in 1498. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. In accordance with his father's wishes, he enrolled in law but dropped out immediately, believing that law represented uncertainty. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel, he was influenced by two tutors, Bartholomaeus Arnoldi von Usingen and Jodocus Trutfetter, who taught him to be suspicious of the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience. Philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with Aristotle over the latter's emphasis on reason. For Luther, reason could be used to question institutions, but not God.
Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed, Scripture therefore became important to him. On 2 July 1505, while returning to university on horseback after a trip home, a lightning bolt struck near Luther during a thunderstorm. Telling his father he was terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He came to view his cry for help as a vow. He left university, sold his books, entered St. Augustine's Monastery in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. One friend blamed the decision on Luther's sadness over the deaths of two friends. Luther himself seemed saddened by the move; those who attended a farewell supper walked him to the door of the Black Cloister. "This day you see me, not again," he said. His father was furious over. Luther dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayer and frequent confession. Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair, he said, "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul."
Johann von Staupitz, his superior, pointed
A veranda or verandah is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch, attached to the outside of a building. A veranda is partly enclosed by a railing and extends across the front and sides of the structure. Although the form verandah is correct and common, some authorities prefer the version without an "h"; the veranda has featured quite prominently in Australian vernacular architecture and first became widespread in colonial buildings during the 1850s. The Victorian Filigree architecture style is used by residential and commercial buildings across Australia and features decorative screens of wrought iron, cast iron "lace" or wood fretwork; the Queenslander is a style of residential construction in Queensland, adapted to subtropical climates and characterized by its large verandas. The bandeirista style house from Brazil has a veranda positioned to face the sunrise. In Heavy Snowfall region in Japan Aomori and Niigata Prefectures, The structures are developed called Gangi-Zukuri since Edo period. For example, The total length of Gangi in old Takada city is over 16 Kilometers.
In Poland, the word "weranda" is used for the unheated roofed annex to a house, without walls or with glass walls. The Creole townhouse in New Orleans, Louisiana, is noted for its prominent use of verandas. In fact, most houses constructed in the Southern United States before the advent of air conditioning were built with a covered front porch or veranda. Spanish Colonial architecture incorporates verandas, both on the exterior of buildings and, in cases of buildings with courtyards, along the interior walls of courtyards. In some cases, homes were constructed with every room opening into a courtyard veranda, rather than interior corridors or direct connections to other rooms. Given its Portuguese and British rule many colonial Sri Lankan bungalows feature Verandahs. In the Sri Lankan Walauwa it is used as a space for leisure where families will spend time or read newspapers. Given the rarity of the architectural style in contemporary Sri Lanka houses with verandahs are featured in local films and dramas and symbolise a wealthy household.
Archnet discussion forum on Verandah British Empire Architecture Ajay Sinha Discovers Experimentation in Ancient Indian Temple Design See more verandahs in the State Library of Queensland's collection
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until