In North American broadcasting, a local marketing agreement, or local management agreement, is a contract in which one company agrees to operate a radio or television station owned by another party. In essence, it is a sort of time-buy. Under Federal Communications Commission regulations, a local marketing agreement must give the company operating the station under the agreement control over the entire facilities of the station, including the finances and programming of the station, its original licensee still remains responsible for the station and its operations, such as compliance with relevant regulations regarding content. A "local marketing agreement" may refer to the sharing or contracting of only certain functions, in particular advertising sales; this may be referred to as a time brokerage agreement, local sales agreement, management services agreement, or most a joint sales agreement or shared services agreement. JSAs are counted toward ownership caps for radio stations. In Canada, local marketing agreements between domestic stations require the consent of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, although Rogers Media has used a similar arrangement to control a U.
S.-based radio station in a border market. The increased use of sharing agreements by media companies to form consolidated, "virtual" duopolies became controversial between 2009 and 2014 arrangements where a company buys a television station's facilities and assets, but sells the license to an affiliated third-party "shell" corporation, who enters into agreements with the owner of the facilities to operate the station on their behalf. Activists have argued that broadcasters were using these agreements as a loophole for the FCC's ownership regulations, that they reduce the number of local media outlets in a market through the aggregation or outright consolidation of news programming, allow station owners to have increased leverage in the negotiation of retransmission consent with local subscription television providers. Station owners have contended that these sharing agreements allow streamlined, cost-effective operations that may be beneficial to the continued operation of lower-rated and/or financially weaker stations in smaller markets.
In 2014 under chairman Tom Wheeler, the FCC began to increase its scrutiny regarding the use of such agreements—particularly joint sales—to evade its policies. On March 31, 2014, the commission voted to make joint sales agreements count as ownership if the senior partner sells 15% or more of advertising time for its partner, to ban coordinated retransmission consent negotiations between two of the top four stations in a market. Wheeler indicated that he planned to address local marketing and shared services agreements in the future; the change in stance prompted changes to then-proposed acquisitions by Gray Television and Sinclair Broadcast Group, rather than use sharing agreements to control them, moved their existing programming and network affiliations to digital subchannels of existing company-owned stations in the market, or a low-power station, relinquished control over the original stations by selling their licenses to third-parties, such as minority-owned broadcasters Due to the FCC's limits on station ownership at the time, local marketing agreements in radio, in which a smaller station would sell its entire airtime to a third-party in time-buy, were widespread between the 1970s and early 1990s.
These alliances gave larger broadcasters a way to expand their reach, smaller broadcasters a means of obtaining a stable stream of revenue. In 1992, the FCC began allowing broadcasting companies to own multiple radio stations in a single market. Following these changes, local marketing agreements fell out of favor for radio, as it was now possible for broadcasters to buy another station outright rather than lease it – consequentially triggering a wave of mass consolidation in the radio industry. However, broadcasters still used local marketing agreements to help transition acquired stations to their new owners; the first local marketing agreement in North American television was formed in 1991, when the Sinclair Broadcast Group purchased Fox affiliate WPGH-TV in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As Sinclair had owned independent station WPTT in that market, which would have violated FCC rules which at the time had prohibited television station duopolies, Sinclair decided to sell the lower-rated WPTT to the station's manager Eddie Edwards, but continued to operate the station through an LMA.
Sinclair's use of local marketing agreements would lead to legal issues in 1999, when Glencairn, Ltd. announced that it would acquire Fox affiliate KOKH-TV in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma from Sullivan Broadcasting. As the family of Sinclair Broadcast Group founder Julian Smith controlled 97% of Glencairn's stock assets and the company was to be paid with Sinclair stock in turn for the purchases, KOKH and Sinclair-owned WB affiliate KOCB would constitute a duopoly in violation
John Beckwith, is a Canadian composer, pianist and administrator. Born in Victoria, British Columbia, he studied piano with Alberto Guerrero at the Toronto Conservatory of Music in 1945, he received a Mus. B. in 1947 and a Mus. M. in 1961 from the University of Toronto, Faculty of Music. From 1950 to 1951, he studied with Nadia Boulanger in Paris, he started teaching in the Faculty of Music at the University of Toronto in 1952. From 1970 to 1977, he was the dean of the faculty, he was founding director of the Institute for Canadian Music at the University of Toronto. He retired in 1990, he has written over 130 compositions covering stage, chamber and choral genres. In 1987, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada. In 1945, after several years of studying piano at the Royal Conservatory of Music, Beckwith received a Royal Conservatory scholarship, which allowed him to study piano with Alberto Guerrero at the University of Toronto, his other professors included Leo Smith and John Weinzweig and it was here that he obtained his B.
Mus. In 1950 he was awarded this time from the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association; this scholarship allowed him to travel to Paris. He has received five honorary doctorates from Canadian universities. After studying in Paris, Beckwith returned to Toronto to pursue further studies and became active as a performing musician, critic, radio commentator, writer and broadcaster. In 1952, he returned to the University of Toronto, but this time as a part-time lecturer at the Faculty of Music, he was appointed full-time lecturer in 1955. He remained in this position for several years, served a term as the Dean of the faculty from 1970 to 1977. Beckwith was appointed the first Jean A. Chalmers Professor of Canadian Music and the first director of the Institute for Canadian Music at the University of Toronto, he retired in 1990 with plans to devote more time to composing. Some of his notable pupils include Brian Cherney, Gustav Ciamaga, Omar Daniel, John Fodi, Clifford Ford, Ben McPeek, James Rolfe, Clark Ross, Matthew Davidson, Timothy Sullivan.
While teaching, Beckwith remained active in several areas of the musical community. He wrote for the Toronto Star from 1959 to 1965 as an arts critic and columnist and planned a number of documentaries and music series for CBC radio. Beginning in 1981, he worked as a director for the Canadian Musical Heritage Society, which he had co-founded that same year, he prepared two of the Society's 25-volume series of pre-1950 Canadian-composed music. In 1986, the Anthology of Canadian music included a five-record set of his music. A collection of 25 of his music articles and talks was published by Golden Dog Press in 1997 under the title Music Papers; the Canadian Conference of the Arts awarded Beckwith with its Diplôme d'honneur in 1996 and he was made an honorary member of the Canadian University Music Society in 1999. Beckwith has composed over 130 large works. While the majority of his works are settings of Canadian texts for voice, he has many compositions for orchestral and chamber groups, as well as solo instrumental pieces and choral music.
While some of his music explores 20th Century techniques, most of his compositions have themes that connect in some way to historical or regional Canada. He spent much of his time creating arrangements of Canadian folk songs, has set around 200 of these songs, including Four Love Songs and Five Songs. Most of these were set between the years 1991 during his involvement with Music at Sharon. Beckwith collaborated with many Canadian writers when setting tect for voice, including James Reaney, Jay Macpherson, Margaret Atwood, Dennis Lee; the longest of these collaborations was with James Reaney. As recorded in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada at The Killdeer, incidental. 1960, rescored 1961. Prepared piano. Ms The Hector, documentary cantata. 1990. Soprano, early-instr ens. Ms See Crazy to Kill, Night Blooming Cereus, The Shivaree Music for Dancing. 1948, orch 1959. BMI Canada 1961. CBC SM-47/5-ACM 26 Montage. 1953, rescored 1955. Med orch. Ms Fall Scene and Fair Dance. 1956. Violin, strings. BMI Canada 1957.
1977. Lethbridge Symphony Assn LSA-101 Concerto Fantasy. 1959. Piano, orch. Berandol Flower Wheels. 1962. Med orch. Berandol Concertino. 1963. Horn, orch. Berandol Jonah, cantata. 1963. BMI Canada 1969 Place of Meeting. 1967. Speaker, blues singer, SATB, orch. Ms Elastic Band Studies. 1969, rev 1975. Concert band. Ms All the Bees and All the Keys. 1973. Narrator, orch. Berandol, Press Porcépic 1976 A Concert of Myths. 1983. Flute, orch. Ms Peregrine. 1989. Viola, percussion, sm orch. Ms The Great Lakes Suite. 1949. Soprano, clarinet, piano. Ms Five Pieces for Brass Trio. 1951. Ms. 1981. Music Gallery Edns MGE-34 Five Pieces for Flute Duet. 1951. BMI Canada 1962 Four Pieces for Bassoon Duet. 1951. Ms Quartet for Woodwind Instruments. 1951. Ms Three Studies for String Trio. 1956. Ms Circle, with Tangents. 1967. Harpsichord, 13 strings. BMI Canada 1968 Taking a Stand. 1972. 8 brass, 14 music stands, 5 players. Berandol 1975 Musical Chairs. 1973. Strin
The Restaurant is a British reality television series in which a group of couples compete for the chance to set up a restaurant financially backed and supported by French chef Raymond Blanc. The winning couple was given their own restaurant to run. For the winners of the first series the prize restaurant was in Oxfordshire, near to Blanc's own Le Manoir aux Quat' Saisons. For the second series the prize restaurant was in Buckinghamshire; the first series aired on BBC Two on 29 August 2007 and a second series aired on 10 September 2008. The first series had its own spin-off, The Restaurant: You're Fried! which aired on BBC Three after the main programme. This did not return for either of the subsequent series; the third and final series was broadcast on 29 October 2009. In the US, the show was retitled Last Restaurant Standing by BBC America; the first series aired in spring 2008, the second in spring 2009, the third in winter 2010. In July 2010, the BBC announced that the show has ended. Nine couples with little or no restaurant experience competed in a series of challenges whilst running their own restaurants.
Challenges were set by Raymond Blanc, a successful French chef who owns a number of restaurants in the UK, most notably Le Manoir aux Quat' Saisons. The couples lived together in a shared house during the eight-week series; each week, Blanc set a task, such as to make as much profit from selling desserts. Each couple's restaurant was visited by Blanc's "inspectors" – restaurant industry experts David Moore and Sarah Willingham - who reported back to Blanc on the service and organisation of each. There was a "boardroom" showdown in which each couple was given individual feedback. All couples were called in together and the "Restaurant of the Week" award was presented to the couple deemed to have performed the best during the task. Blanc named the three poorest performing couples that would perform a further challenge. In the specific challenge, the three couples chose or were assigned helpers from amongst the other contestants, they competed again in tasks such as selling the most meals in a cafeteria.
The couple deemed to be the worst-performing were eliminated by Blanc, with the line "I'm closing your restaurant". For its first two series, The Restaurant was shown twice a week. In the third series, this was reduced to one episode a week; the theme music was written by Dru Masters, other music used included "Waltz No. 2" from Shostakovich's Jazz Suite and'"Showtime" from the soundtrack to Magnolia composed by Jon Brion. Some music from the Amelie soundtrack was used the series. "Let's Groove Again" by Gonzales was used as the music for the programme's promotional trailer. The BBC announced the production of The Restaurant in October 2006, with chef and restaurateur Raymond Blanc named as the star of the series. Blanc invested a six-figure sum of money into the programme, was described as being "very excited" about the series; the first series began airing on 29 August 2007 and drew to a close on 17 October 2007. The series saw married couple Jeremy and Jane Hooper win the chance to set up their own restaurant, Eight at the Thatch, in the Oxfordshire town Thame, which opened in November 2007.
After a period of maternity/paternity leave and Jane stepped down and left Eight at the Thatch, on 5 May, 2008 their brief tenure marked by reported rampant arguments and failure. On 28 January 2008 the BBC confirmed the return of the programme for a second series, which began airing on 10 September 2008, it is reported in The Aylesbury Commuter newspaper that two local restaurants, The Green Dragon in Haddenham and Le Bistro in Wendover are to feature in the next series, which commenced filming 21 May 2008. The Ben Johnson at Weston On The Green, near Oxford features in the next series; the final episode of the second series was screened on 29 October 2008, in which finalists Michele and Russell competed against James Knight-Pacheco and Alasdair Hooper to provide a high class five-course meal to passengers on the Orient Express. The programme concluded as Raymond Blanc chose to start a new restaurant with winners Michele English and Russell Clement. A third series of The Restaurant aired on BBC2 and BBC HD in 2009 and was won by JJ Goodman and James Hopkins.
The victory was surprising to some. The BBC defended the decision stating "the judges liked their ability to think on their feet, their work ethic and their concept." They beat runners up Nathan Gooding in the final. The Restaurant at BBC Programmes The Restaurant on IMDb