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Lock and key

A lock is a mechanical or electronic fastening device, released by a physical object, by supplying secret information, or by a combination thereof or only being able to be opened from one side such as a door chain. A key is a device, used to operate a lock. A typical key is a small piece of metal consisting of two parts: the bit or blade, which slides into the keyway of the lock and distinguishes between different keys, the bow, left protruding so that torque can be applied by the user. In its simplest implementation, a key operates one lock or set of locks that are keyed alike, a lock/key system where each keyed lock requires the same, unique key; the key serves. In more complex mechanical lock/key systems, two different keys, one of, known as the master key, serve to open the lock. Common metals include brass, plated brass, nickel silver, steel; the earliest known lock and key device was discovered in the ruins of Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria. Locks such as this were developed into the Egyptian wooden pin lock, which consisted of a bolt, door fixture or attachment, key.

When the key was inserted, pins within the fixture were lifted out of drilled holes within the bolt, allowing it to move. When the key was removed, the pins fell part-way into the bolt; the warded lock was present from antiquity and remains the most recognizable lock and key design in the Western world. The first all-metal locks appeared between the years 870 and 900, are attributed to the English craftsmen, it is said that the key was invented by Theodorus of Samos in the 6th century BC.'The Romans invented metal locks and keys and the system of security provided by wards.'Affluent Romans kept their valuables in secure locked boxes within their households, wore the keys as rings on their fingers. The practice had two benefits: It kept the key handy at all times, while signaling that the wearer was wealthy and important enough to have money and jewellery worth securing. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and the concomitant development of precision engineering and component standardization and keys were manufactured with increasing complexity and sophistication.

The lever tumbler lock, which uses a set of levers to prevent the bolt from moving in the lock, was invented by Robert Barron in 1778. His double acting lever lock required the lever to be lifted to a certain height by having a slot cut in the lever, so lifting the lever too far was as bad as not lifting the lever far enough; this type of lock is still used today. The lever tumbler lock was improved by Jeremiah Chubb in 1818. A burglary in Portsmouth Dockyard prompted the British Government to announce a competition to produce a lock that could be opened only with its own key. Chubb developed the Chubb detector lock, which incorporated an integral security feature that could frustrate unauthorized access attempts and would indicate to the lock's owner if it had been interfered with. Chubb was awarded £ 100. In 1820, Jeremiah joined his brother Charles in starting Chubb. Chubb made various improvements to his lock: his 1824 improved design didn't require a special regulator key to reset the lock.

The Chubb brothers received a patent for the first burglar-resisting safe and began production in 1835. The designs of Barron and Chubb were based on the use of movable levers, but Joseph Bramah, a prolific inventor, developed an alternative method in 1784, his lock used a cylindrical key with precise notches along the surface. The lock was at the limits of the precision manufacturing capabilities of the time and was said by its inventor to be unpickable. In the same year Bramah started the Bramah Locks company at 124 Piccadilly, displayed the "Challenge Lock" in the window of his shop from 1790, challenging "...the artist who can make an instrument that will pick or open this lock" for the reward of £200. The challenge stood for over 67 years until, at the Great Exhibition of 1851, the American locksmith Alfred Charles Hobbs was able to open the lock and, following some argument about the circumstances under which he had opened it, was awarded the prize. Hobbs' attempt required some 51 hours, spread over 16 days.

The earliest patent for a double-acting pin tumbler lock was granted to American physician Abraham O. Stansbury in England in 1805, but the modern version, still in use today, was invented by American Linus Yale, Sr. in 1848. This lock design used pins of varying lengths to prevent the lock from opening without the correct key. In 1861, Linus Yale, Jr. was inspired by the original 1840s pin-tumbler lock designed by his father, thus inventing and patenting a smaller flat key with serrated edges as well as pins of varying lengths within the lock itself, the same design of the pin-tumbler lock which still remains in use today. The modern Yale lock is a more developed version of the Egyptian lock. Despite some improvement in key design since, the majority of locks today are still variants of the designs invented by Bramah and Yale; each locks combination is determined by the off-set of two small w

Electronic dictionary

An electronic dictionary is a dictionary whose data exists in digital form and can be accessed through a number of different media. Electronic dictionaries can be found in several forms, including software installed on tablet or desktop computers, mobile apps, web applications, as a built-in function of E-readers, they may require payment. Most of the early electronic dictionaries were, in effect, print dictionaries made available in digital form: the content was identical, but the electronic editions provided users with more powerful search functions, but soon the opportunities offered by digital media began to be exploited. Two obvious advantages are that limitations of space become less pressing, so additional content can be provided. Electronic dictionary databases those included with software dictionaries are extensive and can contain up to 500,000 headwords and definitions, verb conjugation tables, a grammar reference section. Bilingual electronic dictionaries and monolingual dictionaries of inflected languages include an interactive verb conjugator, are capable of word stemming and lemmatization.

Publishers and developers of electronic dictionaries may offer native content from their own lexicographers, licensed data from print publications, or both, as in the case of Babylon offering premium content from Merriam Webster, Ultralingua offering additional premium content from Collins and Simon & Schuster, Paragon Software offering original content from Duden, Harrap, Merriam-Webster and Oxford. As well as Latin script, electronic dictionaries are available in logographic and right-to-left scripts, including Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Japanese, Korean and Thai. Dictionary software far exceeds the scope of the hand held dictionaries. Many publishers of traditional printed dictionaries such as Langenscheidt, Collins-Reverso, OED – Oxford English Dictionary, American Heritage, Hachette, offer their resources for use on desktop and laptop computers; these programs can either installed. Other dictionary software is available from specialised electronic dictionary publishers such as iFinger, Abbyy Lingvo, Collins-Ultralingua, Mobile Systems and Paragon Software.

Some electronic dictionaries provide an online discussion forum moderated by the software developers and lexicographers The well-known brands, such as Instant-Dict and Golden Global View, includes basic functions like dictionaries, TTS, calendar etc. They have functions other than just dictionary, for example, MP3 player, Video player, web browser, simple games; some support Adobe Flash. Most of them will have a touch screen, Qwerty keyboard, a speaker, SD card slot, sometimes microphone and camera for example, MD8500 from Instant-Dict, their functions can be comparable to smartphones, with the exception of phone capabilities since they do not have radios to make or receive phone calls. Dictionaries: This is one of the most basic function using Oxford and Longman dictionaries TTS: Includes Text-to-Speech and Speech-to-Text Data transport: Uses RS-232 in the earlier ones. Calculators: simple calculators, scientific calculators, unit converters Games: Play Flash games Handheld electronic dictionaries known as "pocket electronic dictionaries" or PEDs, resemble miniature clamshell laptop computers, complete with full keyboards and LCD screens.

Because they are intended to be portable, the dictionaries are battery-powered and made with durable casing material. Although produced all over the world, handheld dictionaries are popular in Japan, Taiwan and neighbouring countries, where they are the dictionary of choice for many users learning English as a second language; some of the features of hand held dictionaries include stroke order animations, voice output, handwriting recognition for Kanji and Kana, language-learning programs, a calculator, PDA-like organizer functions, time zone and currency converters, crossword puzzle solvers. Dictionaries that contain data for several languages may have a "jump" or "skip-search" feature that allows users to move between the dictionaries when looking up words, a reverse translation action that allows further look-ups of words displayed in the results. Many manufacturers produce hand held dictionaries that use licensed dictionary content that use a database such as the Merriam Webster Dictionary and Thesaurus while others may use a proprietary database from their own lexicographers.

Many devices can be expanded for several languages with the purchase of additional memory cards. Manufacturers include AlfaLink, Besta, Canon, Instant Dict, Franklin, Lingo, Maliang Cyber Technology, Compagnia Lingua Ltd. Nurian and Sharp; the market size as of 2014 was about 24.2 billion yen, although the market has been shrinking from 2007 because of smartphones and tablet computers. The targeted customer base has been being shifted from business users to students. Sony and Seiko have withdrawn from the market; as of 2016, Casio had 59.3% of the market share, followed by Sharp with 21.5% and Canon with 19.2%. At 2016, Seiko announced. Dictionaries of all types are available as apps for smartphones and for tablet computers such as Apple's iPad, th

Toom–Cook multiplication

Toom–Cook, sometimes known as Toom-3, named after Andrei Toom, who introduced the new algorithm with its low complexity, Stephen Cook, who cleaned the description of it, is a multiplication algorithm for large integers. Given two large integers, a and b, Toom–Cook splits up a and b into k smaller parts each of length l, performs operations on the parts; as k grows, one may combine many of the multiplication sub-operations, thus reducing the overall complexity of the algorithm. The multiplication sub-operations can be computed recursively using Toom–Cook multiplication again, so on. Although the terms "Toom-3" and "Toom–Cook" are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably, Toom-3 is only a single instance of the Toom–Cook algorithm, where k = 3. Toom-3 reduces 9 multiplications to 5, runs in Θ ≈ Θ. In general, Toom-k runs in Θ, where e = log / log, ne is the time spent on sub-multiplications, c is the time spent on additions and multiplication by small constants; the Karatsuba algorithm is a special case of Toom–Cook, where the number is split into two smaller ones.

It reduces 4 multiplications to 3 and so operates at Θ ≈ Θ. Ordinary long multiplication is equivalent to Toom-1, with complexity Θ. Although the exponent e can be set arbitrarily close to 1 by increasing k, the function c grows rapidly; the growth rate for mixed-level Toom–Cook schemes was still an open research problem in 2005. An implementation described by Donald Knuth achieves the time complexity Θ. Due to its overhead, Toom–Cook is slower than long multiplication with small numbers, it is therefore used for intermediate-size multiplications, before the asymptotically faster Schönhage–Strassen algorithm becomes practical. Toom first described this algorithm in 1963, Cook published an improved algorithm in his PhD thesis in 1966; this section discusses how to perform Toom-k for any given value of k, is a simplification of a description of Toom–Cook polynomial multiplication described by Marco Bodrato. The algorithm has five main steps: Splitting Evaluation Pointwise multiplication Interpolation RecompositionIn a typical large integer implementation, each integer is represented as a sequence of digits in positional notation, with the base or radix set to some value b.

Say the two integers being multiplied are: These are much smaller than would be processed with Toom–Cook but they will serve to illustrate the algorithm. The first step is to select the base B = bi, such that the number of digits of both m and n in base B is at most k. A typical choice for i is given by: i = max + 1. In our example we'll be doing Toom-3, so we choose B = b2 = 108. We separate m and n into their base B digits mi, ni: m 2 = 123456 m 1 = 78901234 m 0 = 56789012 n 2 = 98765 n 1 = 43219876 n 0 = 54321098 We use these digits as coefficients in degree- polynomials p and q, with the property that p = m and q = n: p = m 2 x 2 + m 1 x + m 0 = 123456 x 2 + 78901234 x + 56789012 q = n 2 x 2 + n 1 x + n 0 = 98765 x 2 + 43219876 x + 54321098 The purpose of defining these polynomials is that if we can compute their product r = pq, our answer will be r = m × n. In the case where the numbers being multiplied are of different sizes, it's useful to use different values of k for m and n, which we'll call km and kn.

For example, the algorithm "Toom-2.5" refers to Toom–Cook with km = 3 and kn = 2. In this case the i in B = bi is chosen by: i = max { ⌊ ⌈ log

Eve (Rapsody album)

Eve is the third studio album by American rapper Rapsody, released on August 23, 2019. Each song is named for an influential black woman, including Michelle Obama, Oprah Winfrey, Myrlie Evers, Aaliyah. Eve samples artists like Phil Collins, Nina Simone and Herbie Hancock. Rapsody decided to write the album in 2018 when a writer asked her if she felt that she was a successor to Nina Simone and Roberta Flack, she crafted an album with each song dedicated to one of her heroes. Eve was critically acclaimed by contemporary music critics at the time of its release. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 90, based on 8 reviews. Andy Kellman reviewed the album for AllMusic, concluding that " lyrical marksmanship, top-tier mike command, service to her people and culture are indisputable." Reviewing the album for HipHopDX, Kyle Eustice claimed that "The 16-track potent lyrical adventure is peppered with countless poetic musings masquerading as seamless Hip Hop tracks solidifying Rapsody’s musical legacy."

In the review for Pitchfork, Sheldon Pearce described Rapsody as "A self-professed rapper’s rapper, has been taut and inflexible in the past as if having to force her immense talent to overcome a deck stacked against her. It sounds like she’s in a home-run trot on Eve."Roisin O'Conner praised the album in the review for The Independent. On her new album, she explores a lineage of black female icons in a way, both tender and compelling." Writing about the album's content, Stephen Kearse stated in a review for Rolling Stone that "Throughout Eve, Rapsody speaks frankly of the burdens black women bear, citing infighting that perpetuates sexism as well as the psychic costs of the violence that black men endure and commit. These are not new themes for her; as she taps into the specific struggles and tribulations borne by her idols, she sees her own battles with visibility and self-assurance more clearly. Black girls are magic, but they are people." In the review for The Guardian, Aimee Cliff declared, "With a delivery cut from the same cloth as Jay-Z or Lauryn Hill, she’s a storyteller, counterbalances her wisdom with a dry, playful wit.

Plus, she’s the queen of the dismissive one-liner." Credits adapted from Tidal. Sample credits "Nina" contains a sample of "Strange Fruit" written by Lewis Allen and performed by Nina Simone. "Cleo" contains samples of "In The Air Tonight" performed by Phil Collins. "Aaliyah" contains a sample of "Natural" written by Sabrina Claudio, Brandon Canada and Derek Gamlan and performed by Sabrina Claudio. "Whoopi" contains a sample of "Watermelon Man" performed by Herbie Hancock. "Serena" contains samples of "I Wanna Rock written by Luther Campbell and Jacob Dutton and performed by Luke. "Tyra" contains a sample of "The Gate" written by Björk Guðmundsdóttir and Alejandra Ghersi and performed by Björk. "Maya" contains a sample of "Green Eyes" written by Erica Wright, Victor Cooke and James Poyser and performed by Erykah Badu. "Ibtihaj" contains a sample of "Groovin'" written by Edward Brigati and Felix Cavaliere and performed by Willie Mitchell and "Liquid Swords" written and performed by GZA "Sojourner" contains a sample of "If You Didn't Go" written by Kendra Morris and Jeremy Page and performed by Kendra Morris.

"Afeni" contains a sample of "Keep Ya Head Up" written by Tupac Shakur, Daryl Anderson, Deniece Williams, Hank Redd, Nathan Watts, Roger Troutman, Stan Vincent and Susaye Greene and performed by 2Pac, which itself samples "Be Alright" by Zapp and interpolates "O-o-h Child" by Five Stairsteps

Economy of the Mongolian People's Republic

On the eve of the 1921 revolution, Mongolia had an underdeveloped, stagnant economy based on nomadic animal husbandry. Farming and industry were nonexistent. Most of the people were illiterate nomadic herders, a large part of the male labour force lived in the monasteries, contributing little to the economy. Property in the form of livestock was owned by aristocrats and monasteries. Mongolia's new rulers thus were faced with a daunting task in building a socialist economy. Mongolia's economic development under communist control can be divided into three periods: 1921–1939. During the first period, which the Mongolian government called the stage of "general democratic transformation," the economy remained agrarian and underdeveloped. After an abortive attempt to collectivize herders, livestock remained in private hands; the state began to develop industry based on processing of animal husbandry products and crop raising on state farms. Transportation, communications and foreign trade, banking and finance were nationalized with Soviet assistance.

Ulan Bator became the nation's industrial center. During the second period, called the "construction of the foundations of socialism," agriculture was collectivized, industry was diversified into mining, timber processing, consumer goods production. Central planning of the economy began in 1931 with an abortive five-year plan and with annual plans in 1941. Soviet, after the victory of Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China forces over the Kuomintang forces in 1949, aid increased, allowing the construction of the Trans-Mongolian Railway, various industrial projects. Although industrial development still was concentrated in Ulan bator, economic decentralization began with the completion of the Ulan bator Railroad and the establishment of food processing plants in Aimag centers; the third stage, which the government called the "completion of the construction of the material and technical basis of socialism," saw further industrialization and agricultural growth, aided by Mongolia's joining the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in 1962.

After the Sino-Soviet split, Chinese aid ceased, but continued with Soviet and Eastern European financial and technical assistance in the forms of credits and joint ventures enabled Mongolia to modernize and to diversify industry in mining sector. New industrial centers were built in Baganuur, Choibalsan and Erdenet, industrial output rose significantly. Although animal husbandry was stagnant, crop production increased with the development of virgin lands by state farms. Foreign trade with Comecon nations grew substantially. Transportation and communications systems were improved, linking population and industrial centers and extending to more remote rural areas. By the late 1980s, Mongolia had developed into an agricultural-industrial economy, due to the efficiencies of a centrally planned and managed economy and communist foreign aid. Yet, Mongolian leaders decided to undertake a reform program modeled after the example of perestroika in the Soviet Union. In the late 1980s, Mongolia had a planned economy based on socialist ownership of the means of production.

According to the Constitution of the Mongolian People's Republic, socialist ownership has two forms: state ownership and cooperative ownership. Private ownership was negligible in all sectors of the economy, except animal husbandry, but economic reforms adopted since 1986 gave greater leeway for individual and cooperative enterprises; the economy was directed by a single state national economic plan, when confirmed by the legislature, the State Great Khural, had the force of law. In accordance with the plan, the state annually drew up a state budget, confirmed and published in the form of a law; the Council of Ministers constitutionally was charged with planning the national economy. In December 1987 and January 1988, the top-level state economic organizations under the Council of Ministers were reorganized; the State Planning and Economic Committee was formed out of the former State Planning Commission, the State Labor and Social Welfare Committee, the State Prices and Standards Committee, the Central Statistical Board.

New economic entities were the Ministry of Food Industry. Unaffected by the reorganization were the Ministry of Social Economy and Services, the Ministry of Communications, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Transport, the State Construction Committee, the State Bank of the Mongolian People's Republic. Local government organizations

1999–2000 Princeton Tigers men's basketball team

The 1999–2000 Princeton Tigers men's basketball team represented the Princeton University in intercollegiate college basketball during the 1999–2000 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The head coach was Bill Carmody and the team co-captains were Mason Rocca and Chris Young; the team played its home games in the Jadwin Gymnasium on the University campus in Princeton, New Jersey, was the runner-up of the Ivy League. The team earned an invitation to the 32-team 2000 National Invitation Tournament. Using the Princeton offense, the team recovered from a 1–4 start and posted a 19–11 overall record and an 11–3 conference record. On December 18, 1999, against UAB Blazers, Spencer Gloger made 10 three-point field goals in a single game to tie Matt Maloney's current Ivy League record with a total that continues to stand as the highest total by an Ivy League player against a non-league foe. In the National Invitation Tournament the team lost its first round contest against the Penn State Nittany Lions at Bryce Jordan Center State College, Pennsylvania, on March 15 by a 55–41 score.

The team was led by All-Ivy League first team selection Chris Young. The team won the twelfth of twelve consecutive national statistical championships in scoring defense with a 54.6 points allowed average. Young led the Ivy League in field goal percentage with a 55.3% average in conference games. He led the conference in blocked shots with 90, which continues to be the second highest single-season total in league history; this was the last season as coach for Carmody. Carmody helped Princeton achieve a 76.1% winning percentage for the decade of the 1990s, the eighth best in the nation. Carmody retired with the Ivy League's all-time highest winning percentage in all games, surpassing Butch van Breda Kolff's 76.9% mark, in conference games, surpassing Chuck Daly's 88.1% mark