The Lockheed Constellation is a propeller-driven, four-engine airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California. Lockheed built 856 in numerous models—all with the same triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. Most were powered by four 18-cylinder Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclones; the Constellation was used as a civil airliner and as a military and civilian air transport, seeing service in the Berlin and the Biafran airlifts. The Constellation series was the first pressurized-cabin civil airliner series to go into widespread use, its pressurized cabin enabled large numbers of commercial passengers to fly well above most bad weather for the first time, thus improving the general safety and ease of air travel. Three of them served as the presidential aircraft for Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur, a four-engine, pressurized airliner, since 1937. In 1939, Trans World Airlines, at the instigation of major stockholder Howard Hughes, requested a 40-passenger transcontinental airliner with a range of 3,500 mi —well beyond the capabilities of the Excalibur design.
TWA's requirements led to the L-049 Constellation, designed by Lockheed engineers including Kelly Johnson and Hall Hibbard. Willis Hawkins, another Lockheed engineer, maintains that the Excalibur program was purely a cover for the Constellation; the Constellation's wing design was close to that of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, differing in size. The triple tail kept the aircraft's height low enough to fit in existing hangars, while features included hydraulically boosted controls and a de-icing system used on wing and tail leading edges; the aircraft had a maximum speed of over 375 mph, faster than that of a Japanese Zero fighter, a cruise speed of 340 mph, a service ceiling of 24,000 ft. According to Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky, Lockheed may have undertaken the intricate design, but Hughes' intercession in the design process drove the concept, capabilities and ethos; these rumors were discredited by Johnson. Howard Hughes and Jack Frye confirmed that the rumors were not true in a letter in November 1941.
With the onset of World War II, the TWA aircraft entering production were converted to an order for C-69 Constellation military transport aircraft, with 202 aircraft intended for the United States Army Air Forces. The first prototype flew on January 9, 1943, a short ferry hop from Burbank to Muroc Field for testing. Edmund T. "Eddie" Allen, on loan from Boeing, flew left seat, with Lockheed's own Milo Burcham as copilot. Rudy Thoren and Kelly Johnson were on board. Lockheed proposed the model L-249 as a long-range bomber, it received the military designation XB-30. A plan for a long-range troop transport, the C-69B, was canceled. A single C-69C, a 43-seat VIP transport, was built in 1945 at the Lockheed-Burbank plant; the C-69 was used as a high-speed, long-distance troop transport during the war. A total of 22 C-69s were completed before the end of hostilities, but not all of these entered military service; the USAAF cancelled the remainder of the order in 1945. However, some aircraft remained in USAF service into the 1960s, serving as passenger ferries for the airline that relocated military personnel, wearing the livery of the Military Air Transport Service.
At least one of these airplanes had rear-facing passenger seats. After World War II, the Constellation came into its own as a fast civilian airliner. Aircraft in production for the USAAF as C-69 transports were finished as civilian airliners, with TWA receiving the first on 1 October 1945. TWA's first transatlantic proving flight departed Washington, D. C. on December 3, 1945, arriving in Paris on December 4 via Shannon. TWA transatlantic service started on February 6, 1946 with a New York-Paris flight in a Constellation. On June 17, 1947, Pan American World Airways opened the first-ever scheduled round-the-world service with their L-749 Clipper America; the famous flight "Pan Am 1" operated until 1982. As the first pressurized airliner in widespread use, the Constellation helped to usher in affordable and comfortable air travel. Operators of Constellations included TWA, Eastern Air Lines, Pan Am, Air France, BOAC, KLM, Lufthansa, Iberia Airlines, Panair do Brasil, TAP Portugal, Trans-Canada Air Lines, Aer Lingus, VARIG, Cubana de Aviación, Línea Aeropostal Venezolana Avianca the national airline of Colombia.
Sleek and powerful, Constellations set a number of records. On April 17, 1944, the second production C-69, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye, flew from Burbank, California, to Washington, D. C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes (about 2,300 miles at an average 331 miles per hour. On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field in Ohio to give Orville Wright his last flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, he commented. On September 29, 1957, a TWA L-1649A flew from Los Angeles to London in 18 hours and 32 minutes (about 5,420 miles at 292 miles per hour; the L-1649A holds the record for the longest-duration, non-stop passenger flight aboard a piston-powered airliner. On TWA's first London-to-San Francisco flight on October 1–2, 1957, the aircraft stayed aloft for 23 hours and 19 minutes (about 5,350 miles at 229 miles per hour. Jet airliners such as the de Havilland Comet, Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, Convair 880, Sud Aviation Caravelle rendered the Constella
William A. Berry was a Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court from 1958 to 1978. During World War II, Berry survived 33 months as a Japanese Prisoner of War. While serving on the supreme court, he revealed corruption. Berry was born in Ripley, Oklahoma, to Thomas Nelson Berry and Harrriet Virginia Berry, as a young man, he graduated from the Missouri Military Academy in 1930, earned degrees from Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma School of Law, he was County Attorney for Payne County, but after the U. S. became involved in WWII, he joined the U. S. Naval Intelligence Service with the rank of Ensign. Stationed in Manila, he was incarcerated as a prisoner of war, he escaped from confinement once, but was recaptured and given a sentence of death. However, the sentence was never carried out, he was liberated from Bilibid Prison by American forces during the liberation of the Philippines in 1945. He ended his military service with the rank of lieutenant commander and had earned the Purple Heart, the Bronze Star, two Presidential Unit Citations and two Battle Stars, including a Philippine Defense Citation.
Returning to civilian life, he moved to Stillwater,Oklahoma, where he began a private law practice in 1947, became Assistant District Attorney for the Western District of Oklahoma. He resigned that post in 1950 to run for a seat in a race that he lost. Moving to Oklahoma City, he ran for Division 2, a newly-created opening. Assigned to handle all juvenile cases coming before the County Court, he was in a position to persuade officialdom and voters that the county needed a juvenile detention facility; the facility was approved and opened in 1959. It was subsequently named "Berry House." A scandal affecting the Oklahoma Supreme Court erupted into public view on April 8, 1964, when a Federal Grand Jury indicted Justice Earl Welch and semi-retired Justice N. S. Corn on charges of income tax evasion. Welch evaded $13,364 in income taxes for 1957 through 1961, Corn evaded $11,063 in 1957 through 1959. Corn did not contest the charge and was sentenced to 18 months in prison and was fined $11,250; the U.
S. Attorney told the court that he had a witness who would testify that he gave Corn $150,000 for a favorable decision in a corporate case coming up before the Oklahoma Supreme Court, had receipts showing the money was delivered to Corn in cash via armored car; the witness had told the district attorney that Corn told him the money was to "...assist himself and other members of the Supreme Court in meeting campaign expenses." Berry, a relative newcomer to the Supreme Court, was not involved in any of the scandalous behavior. He was one of the people who first learned of the scandal, was morally outraged by the details and helped bring it to public attention. Afterward, assisted by James E. Alexander, he related the affair in a book: Justice for Sale: Shocking Scandal of the Oklahoma Supreme Court; the book documented the bribes that were the downfall of Corn and Welch, but similar behavior over a long time, helped build pressure for changing the way Oklahoma selects and monitors the behavior of its judges.
After retiring from the Supreme Court, Berry practiced as a private attorney and as a director and chairman of the board of the Thomas N. Berry Company, his family's oil and gas business, headquartered in Stillwater. Berry died on June 2004, in Oklahoma City. A funeral service for the judge was held on June 18 at the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints of Oklahoma City, his widow, died on October 18, 2013. The Berrys were survived by two children, five grandchildren, three great grandchildren. Berry has been credited with starting the Oklahoma County Juvenile Detention home in June 1953, when he was the Oklahoma County Juvenile Judge, he brought together a number of disparate supporters who shared an interest in creating such a facility. These included: the Juvenile Council of Oklahoma City, county officials, United Church Women, PTA groups, as well as professional groups of social workers and members of the bar and medical professions. Prodded by these efforts, a bill was passed in the Oklahoma Legislature to allow Oklahoma County to fund construction of a home for delinquent young people, under 18 years old.
Construction began in March, 1958, the first child was admitted December 20, 1958. On February 8, 1960, the Oklahoma County Commissioners Court named the facility "Berry House," in honor of Judge Berry. List of Justices of the Oklahoma Supreme Court William A. Berry at Find a Grave
Nassib Nassar is an American computer scientist and classical pianist. As a computer scientist, Nassar was among the architects of information retrieval software for the World Wide Web and was the creator of Isearch, one of the earliest open source search engines, in 1994, he was president of Etymon Systems, an open source software company founded in 1998 and best known for producing Etymon PJ, which became the standard library for generating Portable Document Format documents in Java, Amberfish, a large scale information retrieval system for semi-structured text and XML. As a pianist Nassar was the winner of The American Prize in 2014 for his performance of the Brahms F minor piano sonata. Other performances have included the 32 piano sonatas of Beethoven, played in a series of seven recitals