The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk is a retired American single-seat, twin-engine stealth attack aircraft, developed by Lockheed's secretive Skunk Works division and operated by the United States Air Force. The F-117 was based on the Have Blue technology demonstrator; the Nighthawk was the first operational aircraft to be designed around stealth technology. Its maiden flight took place in 1981 at Groom Lake and the aircraft achieved initial operating capability status in 1983; the Nighthawk was shrouded in secrecy until it was revealed to the public in 1988. Of the 64 F-117s built, 59 were production versions, with the other five being prototypes; the F-117 was publicized for its role in the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Although it was referred to as the "Stealth Fighter", it was a ground-attack aircraft. F-117s took part in the conflict in Yugoslavia, where one was shot down by a surface-to-air missile in 1999; the U. S. Air Force retired the F-117 in 2008 due to the fielding of the F-22 Raptor. Despite the type's retirement, a portion of the fleet has been kept in airworthy condition, Nighthawks have been observed flying as as July 2019.
In 1964, Pyotr Ufimtsev, a Soviet mathematician, published a seminal paper titled Method of Edge Waves in the Physical Theory of Diffraction in the journal of the Moscow Institute for Radio Engineering, in which he showed that the strength of the radar return from an object is related to its edge configuration, not its size. Ufimtsev was extending theoretical work published by the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld. Ufimtsev demonstrated that he could calculate the radar cross-section across a wing's surface and along its edge; the obvious and logical conclusion was that a large aircraft could reduce its radar signature by exploiting this principle. However, the resulting design would make the aircraft aerodynamically unstable, the state of computer technology in the early 1960s could not provide the kinds of flight computers which would allow aircraft such as the F-117 and B-2 Spirit to stay airborne. By the 1970s, when Lockheed analyst Denys Overholser found Ufimtsev's paper and software had advanced and the stage was set for the development of a stealth airplane.
The F-117 was born after combat experience in the Vietnam War when sophisticated Soviet surface-to-air missiles downed heavy bombers. It was a black project, an ultra-secret program for much of its life: few people in the Pentagon knew the program existed, until the F-117s were revealed to the public in 1988; the project began in 1975 with a model called the "Hopeless Diamond". The following year, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency issued Lockheed Skunk Works a contract to build and test two Stealth Strike Fighters, under the code name "Have Blue"; these subscale aircraft incorporated jet engines of the Northrop T-38A, fly-by-wire systems of the F-16, landing gear of the A-10, environmental systems of the C-130. By bringing together existing technology and components, Lockheed built two demonstrators under budget, at $35 million for both aircraft, in record time; the maiden flight of the demonstrators occurred on 1 December 1977. Although both aircraft were lost during the demonstration program, test data proved positive.
The success of Have Blue led the government to increase funding for stealth technology. Much of that increase was allocated towards the production of an operational stealth aircraft, the Lockheed F-117A, under the program code name "Senior Trend"; the decision to produce the F-117A was made on 1 November 1978, a contract was awarded to Lockheed Advanced Development Projects, popularly known as the Skunk Works, in Burbank, California. The program was led with Alan Brown as manager of the project. Rich called on Bill Schroeder, a Lockheed mathematician, Denys Overholser, a computer scientist, to exploit Ufimtsev's work; the three designed a computer program called "Echo", which made it possible to design an airplane with flat panels, called facets, which were arranged so as to scatter over 99% of a radar's signal energy "painting" the aircraft. The first YF-117A, serial number 79-10780, made its maiden flight from Groom Lake, Nevada, on 18 June 1981, only 31 months after the full-scale development decision.
The first production F-117A was delivered in 1982, operational capability was achieved in October 1983. The 4450th Tactical Group stationed at Nellis AFB, Nevada were tasked with the operational development of the early F-117, between 1981 and 1989 they used LTV A-7 Corsair IIs for training, to bring all pilots to a common flight training baseline and as chase planes for F-117A tests; the F-117 was secret for much of the 1980s. Many news articles discussed what they called a "F-19" stealth fighter, the Testor Corporation produced a inaccurate scale model; when a F-117 crashed in Sequoia National Forest in July 1986, killing the pilot and starting a fire, the Air Force established restricted airspace. Armed guards prohibited entry, including firefighters, a helicopter gunship circled the site. All F-117 debris was replaced with remains of a F-101A Voodoo crash stored at Area 51; when another fatal crash in October 1987 occurred inside Nellis, the military again provided little information to the press.
The Air Force denied the existence of the aircraft until 10 November 1988, when Assistant Secretary of Defense J. Daniel Howard displayed a grainy photograph at a Pentagon press conference, disproving the many inaccurate rumors about the shape of the "F-19". After the announcement pilots could fly the F-117 d
Be Dear to Me is a 1957 Danish film directed by Annelise Hovmand. Eva Cohn - Lene Lily Weiding - Mor - Skuespillerinde Maria Lehmann Hans Kurt - Far - Direktør Mogens Vestergaard Jørgen Reenberg - Lærer Harting Yvonne Petersen - Anne Annelise Jacobsen - Frk. Sørensen Johannes Marott - Viggo Gerda Madsen - kolonialforretningsejer Fru. Jørgensen Karen Berg - Teaterdirektør Betty Helsengreen - Bondekone Evald Gunnarsen - Erik Grethe Paaske - Erik's mor Preben Lerdorff Rye - Erik's far Bent Christensen - Veninden Fru Jørgensen Mimi Heinrich - Gårmandsdatter WonBodil Award for Best Danish FilmNominated7th Berlin International Film Festival: Golden BearThe film was chosen as Denmark's official submission to the 30th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, but did not manage to receive a nomination. List of submissions to the 30th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Danish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Be Dear to Me on IMDb
Rudolph of Anhalt-Zerbst, was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the unified Principality of Anhalt. From 1603, he was ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst. Rudolph was the fifth son of Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt, but third-born son by his second wife Eleonore, daughter of Christoph, Duke of Württemberg. In 1586, after the death of his father, Rudolph inherited the principality of Anhalt jointly with his half- and full brothers, but because he was still a minor, his older brother John George I acted as regent. By the accounts of contemporary witnesses, Rudolph was an eager student. In 1596 the twenty-year-old prince was invited to the coronation of King Christian IV of Denmark in Copenhagen, his Grand Tour began in 1600. With his younger brother Louis, Rudolph spent a year in Florence. On 21 November 1601 he was admitted to the University of Siena. A year in 1602, the prince left Switzerland and returned to Dessau. In 1603, a formal division of the principality of Anhalt was agreed upon by Rudolph and his surviving brothers.
He received Zerbst, where his main residence was, supported there the renovation of the Gymnasium Francisceum, beginning with the addition of a library. In 1618, Rudolph joined the Fruitbearing Society. In Wolfenbüttel on 29 December 1605 Rudolph married Dorothea Hedwig, daughter of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, they had four daughters: Stillborn daughter. Dorothea, married on 26 October 1623 to Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Eleonor, married on 15 February 1632 to Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg. Stillborn daughter; the death of his wife caused Rudolph to fall into a deep depression, according to contemporary witnesses. In Oldenburg on 31 August 1612 Rudolph married for a second time to Magdalene, heiress of Jever and daughter of John VII, Count of Oldenburg, they had two children: Elisabeth. John VI, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. Franz Kindscher: Rudolf. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 29, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1889, S. 519–523. Marek, Miroslav.
"Complete Genealogy of the House of Ascania". Genealogy. EU. Genealogical database by Herbert Stoyan