Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, visible light, radio frequency spectrum, audio, collectively known as stealth technology. F-117 Nighthawk is the first operational aircraft designed around stealth technology. Other examples of stealth aircraft include the B-2 Spirit, the F-22 Raptor, the F-35 Lightning II, the Chengdu J-20, the Sukhoi Su-57. While no aircraft is invisible to radar, stealth aircraft make it more difficult for conventional radar to detect or track the aircraft increasing the odds of an aircraft avoiding detection by enemy radar and/or avoiding being targeted by radar guided weapons. Stealth is the combination of passive low observable features and active emitters such as low-probability-of-intercept radars and laser designators; these are combined with active measures such as planning all mission maneuvers in order to minimize the aircraft's radar cross-section, since common actions such as hard turns or opening bomb bay doors can more than double an otherwise stealthy aircraft's radar return.
It is accomplished by using a complex design philosophy to reduce the ability of an opponent's sensors to detect, track, or attack the stealth aircraft. This philosophy takes into account the heat and other emissions of the aircraft as these can be used to locate it. Sensors made to reduce the impact of current low observable technologies exist or have been proposed such as IRST systems to detect reduced heat emissions, long wavelength radars to counter stealth shaping and RAM focused on shorter wavelength radar, or radar setups with multiple emitters to counter stealth shaping; however these do so with disadvantages compared to traditional radar against non-stealthy aircraft. Full-size stealth combat aircraft demonstrators have been flown by the United States and China; as of January 2020, the only combat-ready stealth aircraft in service are the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. There are various aircraft with reduced detectability, either unintentionally or as a secondary feature.
During World War I, the Germans experimented with the use of Cellon, a transparent covering material, in an attempt to reduce the visibility of military aircraft. Single examples of the Fokker E. III Eindecker fighter monoplane, the Albatros C. I two-seat observation biplane, the Linke-Hofmann R. I prototype. However, it proved ineffective, counterproductive, as sunlight glinting from the covering made the aircraft more visible; the material was found to be degraded both by sunlight and in-flight temperature changes so the attempt to make transparent aircraft was not proceeded with. In 1916, the British modified a small SS class airship for the purpose of night-time aerial reconnaissance over German Empire lines on the Western Front. Fitted with a silenced engine and a black gas bag, the craft was both invisible and inaudible from the ground, but several night-time flights over German-held territory produced little useful intelligence, the idea was dropped. Nearly three decades a more serious attempt at radar "invisibility" was tried with the Horten Ho 229 flying wing fighter-bomber, developed in Nazi Germany during the last years of World War II.
In addition to the aircraft's shape, the majority of the Ho 229's wooden skin was bonded together using carbon-impregnated plywood resins designed with the purported intention of absorbing radar waves. Testing performed in early 2009 by the Northrop-Grumman Corporation established that this compound, along with the aircraft's shape, would have rendered the Ho 229 invisible to the top-end HF-band, 20–30 MHz primary signals of Britain's Chain Home early warning radar, provided the aircraft was traveling at high speed at low altitude – 50–100 feet. > Modern stealth aircraft first became possible when Denys Overholser, a mathematician working for Lockheed Aircraft during the 1970s, adopted a mathematical model developed by Petr Ufimtsev, a Soviet scientist, to develop a computer program called Echo 1. Echo made it possible to predict the radar signature of an aircraft made with flat panels, called facets. In 1975, engineers at Lockheed Skunk Works found that an aircraft made with faceted surfaces could have a low radar signature because the surfaces would radiate all of the radar energy away from the receiver.
Lockheed built a model called "the Hopeless Diamond", a reference to the famous Hope Diamond and the design's predicted instability. Because advanced computers were available to control the flight of a Hopeless Diamond, for the first time designers realized that it might be possible to make an aircraft, invisible to radar. Reduced radar cross section is only one of five factors the designers addressed to create a stealthy design such as the F-22; the F-22 has been designed to disguise its infrared emissions to make it harder to detect by infrared homing surface-to-air or air-to-air missiles. Designers addressed making the aircraft less visible to the naked eye, controlling radio transmissions, noise abatement; the first combat use of purpose-designed stealth aircraft was in December 1989 during Operation Just Cause in Panama. On 20 December 1989, two United States Air Force F-117s bombed a Panamanian Defense Force barracks in Rio Hato, Panama. In 1991, F-117s were
Douglas Urbanski is an American film producer and occasional film actor. He is an Academy Award nominated, as well as a BAFTA Award winning film producer. Urbanski was born in New Jersey, he is a business/producing partner of actor Gary Oldman, runs a talent management firm, DMG. Urbanski's film producing credits include The Contender, which received two Academy Award Nominations and starred Gary Oldman, Jeff Bridges, Joan Allen, Christian Slater, Sam Elliott. In 1997 Urbanski received his first British Academy Award for Outstanding British Film of The Year for Nil By Mouth and directed by Gary Oldman, for which Oldman received the Best Original Screenplay British Academy Award; the film received a total of four nominations for the 1997 BAFTAs. For 1997's Cannes Film Festival, Nil By Mouth was selected to inaugurate the Main Competition and received the 1997 Cannes Film Festival Award for actress Kathy Burke. In 1998 the film received six nominations for the British Independent Film Awards, won three awards.
During the 1980s, Urbanski and/or his companies were among the most active theatrical producers on Broadway and in London. In 2010, as an actor he was featured in David Fincher and Aaron Sorkin's Academy Award winning motion picture The Social Network, playing the role of Larry Summers, for which he received personal acclaim and shared the Hollywood Ensemble Acting Award from the Hollywood Film Festival, the Ensemble Acting Award from the Palm Springs International Film Festival, shared with Jesse Eisenberg, Andrew Garfield, Justin Timberlake. In 2010/11 executive produced the film version of John le Carré's Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, which stars Gary Oldman as master spy George Smiley, features Colin Firth, Tom Hardy, Benedict Cumberbatch, John Hurt and Kathy Burke, was directed by Tomas Alfredson. Tinker, Soldier, Spy received eleven 2012 British Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Director. In 2012, Tinker became the second Urbanski film to win the British Academy Award for Outstanding British Film of the Year.
Urbanski was executive producer of the film Criminal, released in late 2015. It was directed by Ariel Vromen and stars Kevin Costner, Gary Oldman, Tommy Lee Jones. In 2016 Urbanski was executive producer of Hitman's Bodyguard, which stars Samuel L. Jackson and Ryan Reynolds, as well as Hunter Killer, which stars Gerard Butler. Urbanski produced Darkest Hour, which stars Gary Oldman as Winston Churchill, was written by Anthony McCarten and directed by Joe Wright. Oldman won the Oscar for Best Actor for his portrayal of Churchill and thanked Urbanski during his speech; the film received 6 Academy Award Nominations, won 2, including Best Actor, Best Makeup for Kazu Tsuji, who thanked Urbanski in his speech. The film had a total of 72 major nominations, won 23 according to the List of accolades received by Darkest Hour. In 2018, executive produced Steven Soderbergh's The Laundromat, which stars Gary Oldman and Meryl Streep; the 2018 Cannes Film Festival invited Urbanski and Oldman to host a sold out public conversation as a highlight of the festival, entitled "In Conversation With".
In 2019 Urbanski exec produced Nicholas Jarecki's Dreamland, which stars Gary Oldman and Armie Hammer. In 2019, fulfilling a long held dream, he joined with Ceán Chaffin to produce David Fincher's MANK, which revolves around Citizen Kane and screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz and will star Gary Oldman in the title role. Urbanski is married to television producer Diane Wilk and they live in Beverly Hills in a home once lived in by Olivia DeHavilland, John Huston, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, Dorothy Parker and in Palm Springs in White Gables, the old Joseph Cotten estate, he is Catholic. Profile at Douglas Management Group Douglas Urbanski on IMDb Douglas Urbanski at the Internet Broadway Database
Career Woman is a 1936 American drama film directed by Lewis Seiler and written by Lamar Trotti. The film stars Claire Trevor, Michael Whalen, Isabel Jewell, Eric Linden, Virginia Field and Gene Lockhart; the film was released on December 1936, by 20th Century Fox. Claire Trevor as Carroll Aiken Michael Whalen as Barry Conant Isabel Jewell as Gracie Clay Eric Linden as Everett Clark Virginia Field as Fifi Brown Gene Lockhart as Uncle Billy Burly Edward Brophy as Doc Curley El Brendel as Chris Erleson Guinn "Big Boy" Williams as Bede Sanders Sterling Holloway as George Rogers Charles Middleton as Matt Clay Charles Waldron as Milt Clark Kathleen Lockhart as Mrs. Milt Clark Frank McGlynn, Sr. as Sheriff Duncan June Storey as Edith Clark Lynne Berkeley as Helen Clark Raymond Brown as Judge Hite George Meeker as Mr. Smith Howard Hickman as Judge Whitman Spencer Charters as Coroner McInery Erville Alderson as Dr. Anderson Eily Malyon as Miss Brinkerhoff Otto Hoffman as Frank Jackson Career Woman on IMDb