Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School is the graduate medical school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, the school has a large and distinguished faculty to support its missions of education and clinical care. These faculty hold appointments in the science departments on the HMS Quadrangle. There are approximately 2,900 full- and part-time voting faculty members consisting of assistant and full professors, and over 5,000 full or part-time, non-voting instructors. The school is the third-oldest medical school in the United States and was founded by John Warren on September 19,1782, with Benjamin Waterhouse, the first lectures were given in the basement of Harvard Hall and in Holden Chapel. The first class, composed of two students, graduated in 1788 and it moved from Cambridge to 49 Marlborough Street in Boston in 1810. From 1816 to 1846, the school, known as Massachusetts Medical College of Harvard University, was located on Mason Street, in 1847 the school relocated to North Grove Street, and to Copley Square in 1883.
The school moved to its current location on Longwood Avenue in 1906, the architect for the campus was the Boston firm of Shepley and Coolidge. The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology offers an alternative MD program with a emphasis on biomedical research. The HST MD program is significantly smaller than the Pathways program, every winter, second year students at HMS write and perform a full-length musical parody of Harvard, their professors, and themselves. Upon matriculation, medical students at Harvard Medical School are divided into five named after famous alumni. Each society has an advisory dean along with several associate deans who serve as advisors to students. Students work in small group tutorials and lab sessions within their societies, every year, the five societies compete in Society Olympics for the famed Pink Flamingo trophy in a series of events that test the unorthodox talents of the students in each society. Francis Weld Peabody William Bosworth Castle Walter Bradford Cannon Oliver Wendell Holmes Irving M.
London Harvard Medical School has a medical-consulting arm, other long-standing relationships include PHMIs work with Asan Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea, and Tokyo Medical and Dental University in Japan. In 2007 PHMI began a 10‑year collaboration with Lebanese American University, in October 2009 LAU opened a new medical school with assistance from PHMI
Brooklyn Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Originally referred to as Brooklyn Village, it has been a prominent area of Brooklyn since 1834, the neighborhood is noted for its low-rise architecture and its many brownstone rowhouses, most of them built prior to the Civil War. It has an abundance of churches and other religious institutions. Brooklyns first art gallery, the Brooklyn Arts Gallery, was opened in Brooklyn Heights in 1958, in 1965, a large part of Brooklyn Heights was protected from unchecked development by the creation of the Brooklyn Heights Historic District, the first such district in New York City. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, directly across the East River from Manhattan and connected to it by subways and regular ferry service, Brooklyn Heights is easily accessible from Downtown Brooklyn. The neighborhood stretches from Old Fulton Street near the Brooklyn Bridge south to Atlantic Avenue and from the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway to Court Street, adjacent neighborhoods are Dumbo, Downtown Brooklyn, Cobble Hill, and Boerum Hill.
Columbia Heights, an upscale six-block-long street next to the Brooklyn Heights Promenade, is considered to be its own neighborhood. As of 2000, Brooklyn Heights had a population of 22,594 people, the neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community Board 2, and is served by the 84th Precinct of the New York City Police Department at 301 Gold Street in nearby Downtown Brooklyn. Brooklyn Heights occupies a palisade that rises sharply from the rivers edge, before the Dutch settled on Long Island in the middle of the seventeenth century, this promontory was called Ihpetonga by the native Lenape American Indians. Ferries across the East River were running as early as 1642, the most significant of the ferries went between the current Fulton Street and Peck Slip in Manhattan, and was run by Cornelius Dirksen. The ferry service helped the area to thrive, with both farms and some factories along the water, but the higher ground was sparsely used. They sold part of their land to John Jackson, who created the Vinegar Hill community, Pierrepont had accumulated 60 acres of land, including 800 feet which directly overlooked the harbor, all of which he planned to sub-divide.
Since his intention was to sell to merchants and bankers who lived in Manhattan, he needed easy access between Brooklyn Heights and New York City, which Fultons company provided. A resident of the Heights could leave the office at three oclock, have dinner at home at four oclock, and still have time for a drive to the outskirts of town. A select neighborhood and circle of society, where there had been only seven houses in the Heights in 1807, by 1860 there were over six hundred of them, and by 1890 the area was almost completely developed. Throughout the 19th century, Brooklyn Heights remained an elegant neighborhood and its development gave rise to offshoots such as Cobble Hill and, Carroll Gardens. Beecher was a nationally-known figure famous on the circuit for his novel oratorical style, in which he employed humor, dialect. To dramatize the plight of those held in captivity, Beecher once brought a female slave to the church and held an auction, with the highest bidder purchasing not the slave, but her freedom
Berkeley Carroll School
The Berkeley Carroll School is a coed independent college prep school in New York City. Located in Park Slope, Brooklyn, it has a Lower School, Middle School and its mission is to prepare our graduates for success in college and for the greater endeavor—a life of critical and global thinking. The school has three divisions, from preschool through high school. All divisions focus on the mission of preparing students for success in college. The Lower School, with preschool through four, focuses on the fundamentals of reading, math, technology, the arts. Every fifth and sixth grader learns to play a wind and string instrument, in 2016, the Middle School math team won the Brooklyn MathCounts competition and the Middle and Upper School speech & debate teams won any awards at the state and local level. In the Upper School, grades nine through twelve, academic programs include English, math, computer science, the arts, world language, and speech and debate. Research and independent courses include a selective three-year Science Research and Design program, a two-week Spring Intensives program, the Upper School offers academic travel programs to France, Africa and Spain.
Every senior gives a speech to the entire Upper School, a long-standing Berkeley Carroll Tradition, many students are involved in varsity and JV athletic teams, student government, choir, student clubs, and affinity groups. Berkeley Carroll has a center at its President Street location. The facility has a four-lane, 75-foot long swimming pool, a gymnasium, a mezzanine area for fitness and strength training. Including alumni of The Berkeley Institute and Carroll Street School, Berkeley Carroll School has over 2,000 alumni, over the summer, Berkeley Carroll offers two summer camp programs, The Childrens Day Camp located at Carroll Street, and the Creative Arts Program at Lincoln Place. In December 2006, given the baby boom, Berkeley Carroll experienced an unprecedented overload of preschool applicants. This led the school to stop accepting applications early, much to the dismay of parents, the schools parent base is heavily drawn from the publishing world, and the editor-novelist crowd affects the school.
After tenth-graders read Motherless Brooklyn, author Jonathan Lethem came in to some classes on it. A Writers in Residence program has included Pulitzer Prize winner Jhumpa Lahiri, an honor code was implemented in the Upper School at the start of the 2007-2008 academic year. In 2013, the school implemented free bus service to students who live in all boroughs of NYC, in 2011, the school bought 152 Sterling Place from the First Church of Christ Scientist, Brooklyn for $3.8 million. The church continues to hold services in the building and is now home to the schools 300-seat Marlene Clary Performance Space, the school is a member of the New York State Association of Independent Schools Athletic Association
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21,1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania and it is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U. S. state not located in the Americas, the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast, Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group, it is called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania, Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel.
Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U. S. states. It is the state with an Asian plurality. The states coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska, the state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that was named for Hawaiʻiloa and he is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan. According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the home, but in Hawaii. A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as an official state language.
The title of the constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii, diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the okina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length
Carlisle is a borough in and the county seat of Cumberland County, United States. The name is pronounced as in British English with emphasis on the second syllable /kɑːrˈlaɪl/. Carlisle is located within the Cumberland Valley, a productive agricultural region. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,682. Including suburbs in the townships,37,695 live in the Carlisle urban cluster. Carlisle is an exurb of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, to the east, Carlisle is the slightly smaller principal city of the Harrisburg−Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Cumberland and Perry counties in South Central Pennsylvania. In 2010, Forbes rated Carlisle and Harrisburg the second-best place to raise a family, the U. S. Army War College, located at the Carlisle Barracks, prepares high-level military personnel and civilians for strategic leadership responsibilities. Carlisle Barracks ranks among the oldest U. S. Army installations, Carlisle Barracks is home of the United States Army Military Heritage Museum.
Carlisle hosts Dickinson College and Penn State Dickinson School of Law, aholds U. S. headquarters are in Carlisle. American pioneer John Armstrong Sr. laid the plan for the settlement of Carlisle in 1751 and he fathered John Armstrong Jr. who was born in Carlisle in 1758. Scots-Irish immigrants settled in Carlisle and farmed the Cumberland Valley and they named the settlement after its sister town of Carlisle, Cumbria and even built its former jailhouse to resemble The Citadel in Carlisle, Cumbria. In 1757, Colonel Commandant John Stanwix—for whom Fort Stanwix in upstate New York is named—–made his headquarters in Carlisle, Stanwix had sat in Parliament as Member for Carlisle during the 1740s. Later during the French and Indian Wars, the Forbes Expedition organized in Carlisle in 1758, and Henry Bouquet organized an expedition there for Pontiacs War, Carlisle served as a munitions depot during the American Revolutionary War. The depot was developed into the United States Army War College at Carlisle Barracks.
Revolutionary War legend Molly Pitcher died in the borough in 1832, a hotel was built in her honor, called the Molly Pitcher Hotel, it has since been renovated to house apartments for senior citizens. Carlisle was incorporated as a borough a few years after the war on April 13,1782, a decade later, during the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, the troops of Pennsylvania and New Jersey assembled in Carlisle under the leadership of President George Washington. While in Carlisle, the president worshiped in the First Presbyterian Church at the corner of Hanover Street, one of the colleges more famous alumni, the 15th U. S. president, James Buchanan, graduated in 1809. The Dickinson School of Law, founded in 1834 and affiliated with Dickinson College, ranks as the fifth-oldest law school in the United States, a general borough law of 1851 authorized a burgess and a borough council to administer the government of the borough of Carlisle
Racism is discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term racism does not easily fall under a single definition, the Holocaust is the classic example of institutionalized racism which led to the death of millions of people based on their race. Ethnicity is often used in a close to one traditionally attributed to race. Therefore and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, according to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms racial and ethnic discrimination. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life, Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, in the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, the origin of the root word race is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, a recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ras, which means head, origin or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists generally held that some races were inferior to others and these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions, the collective endeavors to adequately define and form hypotheses about racial differences are generally termed scientific racism. To date, there is evidence in human genome research indicating that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism simply as An earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it. The revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term racism in a quote from the year,1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as he theory that human characteristics and abilities are determined by race.
Additionally, the Oxford English Dictionary records racism as a synonym of racialism, as its history indicates, popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism. It is commonly agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups, second, a set of ideas about racial differences, third, the UDHR was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form a part of humanity
Staten Island /ˌstætən ˈaɪlənd/ is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the U. S. state of New York. In the southwest of the city, Staten Island is the southernmost part of both the city and state of New York, with Conference House Park at the tip of the island. The borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull, with a 2015 Census-estimated population of 474,558, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in area at 58 sq mi. Staten Island is the borough of New York with a non-Hispanic White majority. The borough is coextensive with Richmond County, and until 1975 was the Borough of Richmond and its flag was changed to reflect this. Staten Island has been called the forgotten borough by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government. The East Shore is home to the 2. 5-mile F. D. R, the fourth-longest in the world. The South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, the West Shore is the least populated and most industrial part of the island.
Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, Staten Island is the only borough that is not connected to the New York City Subway system. The free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. The landfill is being redeveloped as Freshkills Park, a devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island fairly rapidly after the retreat of the ice sheet, archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island, various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since then, on property owned by Mobil Oil.
The island was abandoned later, possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Rossville points are a type of arrowhead that defines a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period. They are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building, at the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape. In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning as far as the place of the bad woods, or Eghquhous, the area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking
The Giver (film)
The film is based on the 1993 novel of the same name by Lois Lowry. The Giver premiered on August 11,2014 and was released theatrically in the United States on August 15,2014, the film earned $67 million on a $25 million budget. It received a Peoples Choice Award nomination for Favorite Dramatic Movie, following a calamity referred to as The Ruin, society is reorganized into a series of communities, and all memories of the past are held by one person, the Receiver of Memory. Since the Receiver of Memory is the individual in the community who has the memories from before, he must advise the Chief Elder. Jonas is a 16-year-old boy who is anxious about the career he will be assigned and his two best friends are Asher and Fiona. On the day of graduation, everyone is assigned a career, Jonas is briefly skipped, as he has not been assigned a career. Instead, Jonas is to become the next Receiver of Memory, upon assuming his role as The Receiver, Jonas learns of the Givers past and of his child, who preceded Jonas as Receiver of Memory.
She was so distraught from the memories that she committed suicide and they regard its nature as mysterious, the audience learns that it is death by lethal injection. Jonas begins to teach his findings to his friend Fiona, with whom he decides to share the idea of emotions, who is unable to fully comprehend the idea of emotion, is unsure how she feels. Jonas kisses Fiona, an action which is antiquated and unknown to the community, Jonas sneaks out at curfew, and decides to get Gabe at the Nurturing Center, who is to be released due to his general weakness. Asher, his longtime friend beside Fiona, tries to stop him before he leaves the neighborhood. Asher lies on the ground and Jonas rides his bike to the Nurturing Center and he tells Fiona his plan and wants to take her with him, but she refuses and instead helps him retrieve Gabe. Before he leaves, she kisses him and helps him escape, Jonas mother and Asher go to the Chief Elder to tell them Jonas is missing. Guards are sent to contain Jonas, who they say has become dangerous, Asher is assigned, by the Chief Elder, to use a drone to find Jonas and lose him, but when Asher finds Jonas stumbling through the desert, he instead captures him with the drone.
After Jonas implores Asher to think that, if he cared for Jonas, he would let him go, Asher drops him into a river. Jonas stumbles through the land of Elsewhere, while Fiona has been condemned to be released for helping him, as this happens Jonas mother sheds a single tear finally understanding the feeling of love. Various barriers marred the production of the film, including when Warner Bros. bought the rights in 2007, the rights ended up at The Weinstein Company and Walden Media. Bridgess actual vision was that his own father, Lloyd Bridges, filming began on October 7,2013 in Cape Town and Johannesburg
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba.
These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston.
Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representation
Washington Heights (Tokyo)
Washington Heights was a United States Armed Forces housing complex located in Shibuya, Tokyo during the occupation of Japan by Allied forces. Constructed in 1946, it remained in operation until 1964, by which point all land had been returned to Japanese control, the site encompasses Yoyogi Park, Yoyogi National Gymnasium, the NHK Broadcasting Center, and other facilities. Covering an area of 924,000 square meters, Washington Heights was home to 827 housing units for United States Army Air Force and, and it hosted support facilities, including schools, theaters and officers clubs. Japanese citizens were not permitted to enter the area, which was fenced in with multiple gates, Washington Heights was predominantly a middle-class area, although much of Tokyo had been devastated by firebombing during the war. Before the surrender of Japan, the area was used as a ground by the Imperial Japanese Army. The U. S. military ordered the construction of the Washington Heights complex by the Japanese government, although the treaty returned Japanese sovereignty in late April 1952, military forces would remain, including those housed at Washington Heights.
This resulted in protests from Japanese university students in early May, the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, signed in 1960, determined that Washington Heights would remain in operation. The following year, the land was deemed necessary for construction of facilities connected with the 1964 Summer Olympics, the transfer was completed in 1964, with the Japanese government bearing the full amount of relocation expenses for U. S. military families moving to Chofu Airport. A number of the military barracks were used as athlete housing during the Games. Other athletes were housed in a newly constructed facility that became the National Olympics Memorial Youth Center. After the Olympics, nearly all the housing was razed, with one house. Washington Heights, Dependents Housing Area by Satoko Akio, ex-GIs Returning To Tokyo Wont Find The Same City They Once Knew. Washington Heights Housing Complex and personal recollections
Brown is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the United States to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation and its engineering program was established in 1847 and was the first in the Ivy League. It was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding master, Browns New Curriculum is sometimes referred to in education theory as the Brown Curriculum and was adopted by faculty vote in 1969 after a period of student lobbying. In 1971, Browns coordinate womens institution Pembroke College was fully merged into the university, Pembroke Campus now operates as a place for dorms and classrooms. Undergraduate admissions is very selective, with a rate of 8.3 percent for the class of 2021. The University comprises The College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health, and the School of Professional Studies.
The Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a course that awards degrees from both institutions. Browns main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, the Universitys neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. On the western edge of the campus, Benefit Street contains one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth-, Browns faculty and alumni include eight Nobel Prize laureates, five National Humanities Medalists, and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later, there is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762.
On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles, should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it, I heartily wish you Success therein. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September,1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, stiless first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3,1764, in September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Governor Stephen Hopkins was chosen chancellor and future governor Samuel Ward was vice chancellor, John Tillinghast treasurer, the Charter stipulated that the Board of Trustees be composed of 22 Baptists, five Quakers, five Episcopalians, and four Congregationalists.
Of the 12 Fellows, eight should be Baptists—including the College president—and the rest indifferently of any or all Denominations, the Charter was not the grant of King George III, as is sometimes supposed, but rather an Act of the colonial General Assembly. In two particulars, the Charter may be said to be a uniquely progressive document, the oft-repeated statement is inaccurate that Browns Charter alone prohibited a religious test for College membership, other college charters were liberal in that particular
Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other elements as a main plot element, theme. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, in popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy works by many writers, filmmakers. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, history. The identifying trait of fantasy is the reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent. This differs from realistic fiction in that whereas realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, an author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Fantasy has often compared with science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction.
Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements, a science fiction narrative is unlikely, though seeming possible through logical scientific and/or technological extrapolation, whereas fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. The imagined elements of fantasy do not need an explanation to be narratively functional. Authors have to rely on the suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment. Despite both genres heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable, horror primarily evokes fear through the protagonists weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Beginning perhaps with the earliest written documents and other elements that would come to define fantasy. MacDonald was an influence on both J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, lord Dunsany established the genres popularity in both the novel and the short story form.
Many popular mainstream authors began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Indeed, juvenile fantasy was considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy in A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, intended for children, though works for adults only verged on fantasy. Political and social trends can affect a societys reception towards fantasy, in the early 20th century, the New Culture Movements enthusiasm for Westernization and science in China compelled them to condemn the fantastical shenmo genre of traditional Chinese literature