A book is a set of written, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are sold in some department stores and newspaper vendors. Books can be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published.
In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation.
Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
Anastasia at Your Service
Anastasia At Your Service is a young-adult novel by Lois Lowry. It is the part of a series of books Lois Lowry wrote about Anastasia. The first edition was illustrated by Diane De Groat, a long, boring summer—thats what Anastasia has to look forward to when her best friend goes off to camp. Shes thrilled when old Mrs. Bellingham answers her ad for a job as a Ladys Companion, Anastasia is sure her troubles are over—shell be busy and earn money. But she doesnt expect to have to polish silver and serve at Mrs. Bellinghams granddaughters birthday party as a maid, as if that isnt bad enough, she accidentally drops a piece of silverware down the garbage disposal and must use her earnings to pay for it. Is the summer destined to be a disaster, lowrys website Complete list of books by Lowry
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
American Library Association
The American Library Association is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey, Fred B. Perkins, Charles Evans, and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia, in attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor, William Frederick Poole, Charles Ammi Cutter, Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from England, the aim of the Association, in that resolution, was to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense. The Association has worked throughout its history to define, protect, during this period, the first Library Bill of Rights was drafted by Forrest Spaulding to set a standard against censorship and was adopted by the ALA in 1939. This has been recognized as the moment defining modern librarianship as a committed to intellectual freedom.
The ALA formed the Staff Organizations Round Table in 1936 and the Library Unions Round Table in 1940, the ALA appointed a committee to study censorship and recommend policy after the banning of The Grapes of Wrath and the implementation of the LBR. The committee reported in 1940 that intellectual freedom and professionalism were linked and recommended a permanent committee – Committee on Intellectual Freedom, in 1961, the ALA took a stand regarding service to African Americans and others, advocating for equal library service for all. An amendment was passed to the LBR in 1961 that made clear that an individuals library use should not be denied or abridged because of race, national origin, some communities decided to close their doors rather than desegregate. In 1963, the ALA commissioned a study, Access to Public Libraries, in 1967 some librarians protested against a pro-Vietnam War speech given by General Maxwell D. This group called themselves the Organizing Committee for the ALA Round Table on Social Responsibilities of Libraries and this group drew in many other under-represented groups in the ALA who lacked power, including the Congress for Change in 1969.
This formation of the committee was approved in 1969 and would change its name to the Social Responsibilities Round Table in 1971). After its inception, the Round Table of Social Responsibilities began to press ALA leadership to address such as library unions, working conditions, wages. The Freedom to Read Foundation was created by ALAs Executive Board in 1969, the Black Caucus of the ALA and the Office for Literacy and Outreach were set up in 1970. His comments were inappropriate and fell far short of the commitment to diversity. Handlers remarks come at a time when the world has little diversity. Works from authors and illustrators of color make up less than 8 percent of children’s titles produced in 2013, the ALA hopes this regrettable incident will be used to open a dialogue on the need for diversity in the publishing industry, particularly in regards to books for young people. The ALA Archives, including documents, non-current records
The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association. The award is given to the author of the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children. Named for John Newbery, an 18th-century English publisher of juvenile books, the medal was designed by Rene Paul Chambellan and depicts an author giving his work to a boy and a girl to read. The Newbery and the Caldecott Medal are considered the two most prestigious awards for literature in the United States. Beside the Newbery Medal, the awards a variable number of citations to worthy runners-up. As few as zero and as many as eight have been named, the Honor Books must be a subset of the runners-up on the final ballot, either the leading runners-up on that ballot or the leaders on one further ballot that excludes the winner. Every book considered must be written by a United States citizen or resident, the Newbery Medal was established June 22,1921, at the annual conference of the American Library Association.
Proposed by Publishers Weekly editor Frederick Melcher, the idea was received by the childrens librarians present. The award was administered by the ALA from the start, but Melcher provided much needed funds that paid for the design, the Newbery Medal was inaugurated in 1922, considering books published in 1921. In retrospect it is officially dated 1922 and that convention is followed here, according to The Newbery and Caldecott Awards—the official guide, updated annually—Melcher and the ALA Board agreed to establish the award for several reasons that related to childrens librarians. They wanted to encourage quality, creative childrens books and to demonstrate to the public that childrens books deserve recognition and praise. In 1932 the committee felt it was important to encourage new writers in the field, the rule was in place until 1958 and Joseph Krumgold became the first winner of two Newberys in 1960. Another change, in 1963, made it clear that joint authors of a book were eligible for the award, several more revisions and clarifications were added in the 1970s and 1980s.
As Barbara Elleman explained in The Newbery and Caldecott Awards, the original Newbery was based on votes by a jury of Childrens Librarian Section officers. Books were first nominated by any librarian, the jury voted for one favorite, hendrik van Loons non-fiction history book The Story of Mankind won with 163 votes out of 212. In 1924 the process was changed, and instead of using popular vote it was decided that an award committee would be formed to select the winner. The award committee was made up of the Childrens Librarian Section executive board, in 1929 it was changed again to the four officers, the chairs of the standing committees and the ex president. Nominations were still taken from members at large, in 1937 the American Library Association added the Caldecott Award, for the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children published in the United States
Rescue of the Danish Jews
The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germanys occupation of Denmark during World War II. On October 1,1943, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered Danish Jews to be arrested and deported, on April 9,1940, Denmark and Norway were invaded by Nazi Germany. Realizing that successful armed resistance was impossible and wishing to avoid civilian casualties, the Nazi German government stated that its occupation was a measure taken against the Allies and that Germany did not intend to disturb the political independence of Denmark. Because the Danish government promised loyal cooperation with the Germans, the occupation of Denmark was thus relatively mild at first. German propaganda even referred to Denmark as the protectorate, earning the nickname the Cream Front, due to the relative ease of the occupation. King Christian X retained his throne, and the Danish government, the Rigsdag, even censorship of radio and the press was administered by the Danish government, rather than by the occupying German civil and military authorities.
During the early years of the occupation, Danish officials repeatedly insisted to the German occupation authorities that there was no Jewish problem in Denmark, in addition, the German Reich relied substantially upon Danish agriculture, which supplied meat and butter to 3.6 million Germans in 1942. In late 1941, during the visit of the Danish foreign minister, Erik Scavenius, to Berlin, the Danish state responded robustly, the courts imposed stiff fines and jail sentences on the editors and would-be arsonists, and the government took further administrative action. At the same time, the Danish resistance movement was becoming more assertive in its underground press, during the summer, several nationwide strikes led to armed confrontations between Danes and German troops. Deeming these terms unacceptable and a violation of sovereignty, the Danish government declared a state of emergency. Some 100 prominent Danes were taken hostage, including the Chief Rabbi Dr. Max Friediger, in response, the Danish government resigned on August 29,1943.
Without the uncooperative Danish government to impede them, Denmarks German occupiers began planning the deportation to Nazi concentration camps of the 7,800 or so Jews in Denmark. On September 28,1943, Duckwitz leaked word of the plans for the operation against Denmarks Jews to Hans Hedtoft, chairman of the Danish Social Democratic Party. Hedtoft contacted the Danish Resistance Movement and the head of the Jewish community, C. B. Henriques, the early phases of the rescue were improvised. Some simply contacted friends and asked them to go through telephone books, most Jews hid for several days or weeks, uncertain of their fate. Although the majority of the Danish Jews were in hiding, they would eventually have been caught if safe passage to Sweden could not have been secured, Sweden had earlier been receiving Norwegian Jews with some sort of Swedish connection. But the actions to save the Norwegians were not entirely efficient, when martial law was introduced in Denmark on August 29, the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs realized that the Danish Jews were in immediate danger.
On October 2, the Swedish government announced in a statement that Sweden was prepared to accept all Danish Jews in Sweden
Messenger is a 2004 young adult fiction by author Lois Lowry. It forms the third installment of The Giver Quartet begun by her 1993 Newbery Medal-winning novel The Giver and this novel takes place about eight years after the events of The Giver, and about six years after the events of Gathering Blue. Characters from the two earlier books reappear in Messenger, connecting the more strongly. Set in a community known simply as Village, this novel focuses upon a boy named Matty. Lowry introduced Matty in Gathering Blue, he is an energetic, Matty lives with Seer, an unseeing man who the people of the Village rescued years before. Matty is desperate for his new name to be Messenger, which is what he feels he is best at doing, many of the people in Village are like Seer, cast out from their old communities and sometimes seriously injured. They have made new homes in Village. Most of the Villagers are reasonably altruistic, and the Village never lacks in people who are willing to help another Villager overcome some disability.
Matty is from a community wherein people only know what the community tells them, outside the safe boundaries of Village is Forest, a foreboding realm which most of the Villagers fear. In spite of the lack of dangerous beasts, Forest itself is animated, if the person who was warned enters the Forest again, the Forest will kill them. Matty, whom Forest seems to favor, has gone through Forest many times without incident, consequently, he has become Villages messenger, carrying word to the other communities scattered throughout the region. At one point, Leader says that he received a full of books from the Community. Very early in the book, discord appears in Village, people who trade at a gathering called Trade Mart change from compassionate and generous to angry and impatient. The temperament of the Villagers changes, and they decide to close their borders, Seer, in the wake of this sudden change, decides to send Matty to travel through the Forest to retrieve his daughter, who lives in a town several days away.
The journey soon becomes gravely perilous, as the Forest begins to attempt to entangle Kira, leaders ability of remote viewing, which the book often refers to as seeing beyond, allows him to sense the danger. He enters the forest to save them, only to be captured himself, who has the ability to weave prophecy-like patterns in thread and cloth, uses her gift to contact Leader, who tells her to have Matty use his gift to save them. This gift is an ability which Matty possesses but hardly understands, which makes him mad, resulting in a fury, a power of healing. Matty puts his hands to the ground and manages to restore the integrity of Forest and people alike and this is spoken by the Villages schoolteacher, known as Mentor
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Anastasia, Ask Your Analyst
Anastasia, Ask Your Analyst is a young-adult novel by Lois Lowry. It is part of a series of books that Lowry wrote about Anastasia, feeling in desperate need of psychotherapy, seventh-grader Anastasia buys a plaster bust of Sigmund Freud at a garage sale and consults him as her life takes a series of twists and turns. Freud remains enigmatic and unjudgmental as Anastasias science project goes hopelessly awry and even her usually unflappable mother, Katherine Krupnik, with wonderful wit, emotional honesty and humors saving grace, the Anastasia books artfully offer an education in understanding the world. —Whats So Funny. Wit and Humor in American Childrens Literature, by Michael Cart Lowrys website Description from Lowrys website, loislowry. com Complete list of books by Lowry, loislowry. com
Sean Patrick Astin is an American actor, voice artist, and producer. He is known for his roles as Samwise Gamgee in The Lord of the Rings trilogy, Mikey Walsh in The Goonies. Astin was born in Santa Monica, the son of actress Patty Duke, at the time, it was reported that entertainer Desi Arnaz, Jr. was his biological father. When Michael Tell, a writer, music promoter and publisher of the newspaper The Las Vegas Israelite, came to sublet her apartment and offered to marry her as a way out of the scandal, Duke agreed. The marriage lasted only 13 days in 1970, and ended long before Astin was born, on August 5,1972, Duke married actor John Astin, after having been in a relationship with him for two years. When the wedding guests were invited to speak, 18-month-old Astin looked at John and cried, Daddy. to which the Episcopal priest performing the ceremony remarked, Well, in 1973, Duke gave birth to Astins brother, Mackenzie Astin, who became an actor. Duke and John Astin divorced in 1985, Duke married Mike Pearce in 1986, and they adopted a son, Kevin, in 1989.
When he was 14, Duke told Astin that Arnaz was his father, however, in his mid-20s, Astin met a relative of Michael Tell who suggested they were related. Sean set out to find the truth about his biological father, Astin maintains close relationships with all three men, Desi Arnaz Jr. loves me, and I love him. We are so close. Science tells me. that hes not my biological father, Science tells me that Mike Tell is. Astin considers John his father, as John was the one who raised him, Astin is close to his stepfather, Mike Pearce, saying, I can call any of them on the phone any time I want to, says Sean. John, Mike or Papa Mike. my four dads, Astin is of German and Irish ancestry through his mother, and Austrian German through his biological father. He graduated from UCLA with a B. A. in History, an alumnus of Los Angeles Valley College, Astin served on the schools board of directors of the Patrons Association and the Arts Council. Astins first acting role was in a 1981 television movie titled Please Dont Hit Me, Mom and he made his film debut at age 13 as Mikey in The Goonies.
After The Goonies, Astin appeared in more films, including the Disney made-for-TV movie. In 1994, Astin directed and co-produced the short film Kangaroo Court, many awards were bestowed upon the trilogy, particularly its final installment, which earned eleven Academy Awards, including Best Picture. Throughout the filming process, Astin became close friends with several cast members, Astins daughter, Alexandra, is in the closing scene of The Return of the King. She plays his daughter, Elanor Gamgee, who runs out to him as he returns from the harbor
Maniac Magee is a novel written by American author Jerry Spinelli and published in 1990. Exploring themes of racism and homelessness, it follows the story of a boy looking for a home in the fictional Pennsylvania town of Two Mills. He becomes a legend for feats of athleticism and fearlessness. It is popular in school curricula, and has been used in scholarly studies on the relationship of children to racial identity. A film adaptation was released in 2003, Jeffrey Lionel Maniac Magee is an orphan and finds himself in Two Mills, where he becomes a local legend while trying to find a home. He has astonishing athletic abilities, runs everywhere he goes, can untie any knot, is allergic to pizza and he has done many heroic feats such as running for a long period of time, hitting many home runs in a row, and entering Finsterwalds backyard. Amanda Beale is the first person Jeffrey meets in Two Mills and she carries her books in a suitcase so they arent ruined by her younger siblings and Lester. She defends Jeffrey from Mars Bar and eventually provides him with a home, Mars Bars Thompson is the worst kid in the East End and the books antagonist.
He dislikes Jeffreys presence in the East End, which is exacerbated when Jeffrey beats him in a race, however, he eventually rescues Russell McNab from the trolley truss, and offers Jeffery a place for a while. As his nickname implies, he is known for eating Mars Bars and his real first name is never revealed. John McNab is infuriated when he cannot strike out Jeffrey with his ball, after acting as a bully, he welcomes him into his home when he brings back Johns younger brothers and Russell, after their attempt to run away to Mexico. He remains convinced that the black East Enders are planning a rebellion and Russell McNab are John McNabs younger brothers who play hookey and constantly try to run away from home. In their house, they use toy machine guns to shoot the rebels from the East End, Piper had a party at the end of the book. Earl Grayson is the groundskeeper at the zoo and resident of the YMCA and he becomes friends with Jeffrey, who listens to his stories and Jeffrey teaches him to read.
They end up living together in a house, which makes him responsible and he is very kind and cares about Jeffrey. Mrs. Beale is the kind and caring mother of Amanda and she is very sweet and thoughtful to Maniac as well. Hester and Lester are the brother and sister of Amanda Beale, and they are very hyperactive, and will mess up anything that they can get their hands on by drawing on things with crayons. Jeffrey Magees parents were in a trolley when a driver crashed and sunk it into the Schuylkill River in Bridgeport, Pennsylvania
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The term is used for the confinement of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects. Thus, while it can simply mean imprisonment, it tends to refer to preventive confinement, use of these terms is subject to debate and political sensitivities. Interned persons may be held in prisons or in known as internment camps. In certain contexts, these may be known either officially or pejoratively, internment refers to a neutral countrys practice of detaining belligerent armed forces and equipment on its territory during times of war under the Hague Convention of 1907. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights restricts the use of internment, article 9 states that No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. The United States set up camps for Cherokee and other Native Americans in the 1830s. From 1863 to 1868, the U. S, military persecuted and imprisoned 9,500 Navajo and 500 Mescalero Apache.
Living under armed guards, more than 3,500 Navajo and Mescalero Apache men, the term concentration camp saw wider use during the Second Boer War, when the British operated such camps in South Africa for interning Boers. They built 45 tented camps for Boer internees and 64 for black Africans, of the 28,000 Boer men captured as prisoners of war, the British sent 25,630 overseas. The vast majority of Boers remaining in the camps were women and children. Some of them managed to go into exile or went off to join the armies of the Allies in order to fight against the Axis powers, while others ended up in Nazi concentration camps. During the 20th century, the internment of civilians by the state reached its most notorious excesses with the establishment of the Nazi concentration camps. The Nazi concentration camp system was notable for its size, with as many as 15,000 camps. Moreover, Nazi Germany established six camps, specifically designed to kill millions