Tai Po is an area in the New Territories of Hong Kong. It refers to the vicinity of the traditional market towns in the area presently known as Tai Po Old Market or Tai Po Kau Hui on the north of Lam Tsuen River and the Tai Po Hui on Fu Shin Street on the south of the Lam Tsuen River, near the old Tai Po Market railway station of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. Both market towns became part of the Tai Po New Town in the early 1980s. In present-day usage, "Tai Po" may refer to the area around the original market towns, the Tai Po New Town, or the entire Tai Po District. In Chinese, the place, Tai Po, was written as 大步. Treating the Chinese characters separately, the pronounce of Po in the third tone in Cantonese are shared with many words, not only Po in the sixth tone. For example the "Po" of Sham Shui Po deep water port. Moreover, according to the Kangxi Dictionary, the word 埠; as a coincidence, Tai Po is a seashore town. The name Tai Po Hoi was appeared in Nanhai Zhi of the Yuan dynasty, which stated that pearl was the product of the Tai Po sea.
In Ming dynasty's Yue Daji, recorded the names Tai Po Hoi and Tai Po Tau. In the attached map of that book, the sea next to Tai Po Tau was labelled with "can shelter hurricane". In early Qing dynasty Kangxi 27th Year edition of Xin'an Xianzhi, Tai Po Tau Hui as market centre, Tai Po Tau as village and Tai Po Hoi as water body, were recorded. According to Hong Kong sinologist and historian Jao Tsung-I, the character Po in Tai Po, should interpreted as port or sea side. However, there was another urban legend version of the meaning of Tai Po. In the urban legend, the area around Tai Po was a habitat of wild animal, which people have to "Big-Step". Tai Po as a populated place, could be traced back to the Stone Age. Archaeological site in Yuen Chau Tsai, had discovered stone axe and pottery, believed to be made in Neolithic era; the indigenous inhabitants of Tai Po lived by clamming and pearl farming in Tai Po Hoi since at least AD 963. The pearl making business reached its peak during the Song Dynasty and started to decline in the midst of the Ming Dynasty.
Tai Po had been developed as a fishing port around the Qing Dynasty. While a village that belong to the modern day Tai Po area, Wun Yiu, had developed into a center of porcelain industry in the Ming dynasty. Tang clan migrated from the area north of the border of the modern day Hong Kong to the modern day the New Territories of Hong Kong in the Song dynasty of China. A branch of Tang clan was split from Lung Yeuk Tau of the modern day the New Territories, to establish the village in Tai Po Tau; the Tai Po Tau branch and Lung Yeuk Tau branch founded the first Tai Po Hui the market town, despite it is now defunct and the area now known as Tai Po Old Market. The area around the first market town lived other people that were not from the Tang clan, they formed an inter-villages alliance Tai Po Tsat Yeuk. The inter-villages alliance founded another market town Tai Wo Shi after the Qing government ruled that Tai Po Hui was belonged to Tangs, other clans cannot open shops in Tang's market town. However, Tai Wo Shi replaced the original Tai Po Hui as the main market, took the name Tai Po Hui.
The old market town thus became Tai Po Kau Hui. During the British colonial rule, a District Office, a police station, two railway stations: Tai Po Market railway station and Tai Po Kau railway station and other public facilities were built with-in the modern day area that belong to the new town and the administrative district. Most of them in close distance with the market town of Tai Po at that time. In the 1970s, the Hong Kong government began to develop satellite towns: Tai Po Industrial Estate, the first industrial estate in Hong Kong was built in the reclaimed land of the former Tai Po Hoi in 1974; the new town was designed to incorporate and interact with the existing market town. The first public housing estate of Tai Po New Town: Tai Yuen Estate – was established in 1981; the population has soared to 320,000, Tai Po New Town began to prosper following the completion of the Tolo Highway which were integrated with the older urban areas. At present, due to the development of the new town, the place name Tai Po may refer to Tai Po New Town or the historical area centre Tai Po Market, or the Tai Po District that cover the new town and Lam Tsuen Valley and other area.
However, the boundary of Tai Po was not defined. In contrast, a namesake election constituency of Tai Po Market had its defined boundary, as well as Tai Po District. Moreover, Hong Kong police, as well as primary and seconda
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Wan Chai is a metropolitan area situated at the western part of the Wan Chai District on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong. Its other boundaries are Canal Road to the east, Arsenal Street to the west and Bowen Road to the south; the area north of Gloucester Road is referred to as Wan Chai North. Wan Chai is one of the busiest commercial areas in Hong Kong with offices of many small and medium-sized companies. Wan Chai North features office towers, hotels and an international conference and exhibition centre; as one of the first areas developed in Hong Kong, the locale is densely populated yet with noticeable residential zones facing urban decay. Arousing considerable public concern, the government has undertaken several urban renewal projects in recent years. There are various landmarks and skyscrapers within the area, most notably the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Central Plaza and Hopewell Centre. Wan Chai began as Ha Wan meaning "a bottom ring" or "lower circuit".
As one of the earliest developed areas in Hong Kong along the Victoria Harbour, Sheung Wan, Sai Wan and Wan Chai are collectively known as the four rings by the locals. Wan Chai means "a cove" in Cantonese from the shape of its coastal line; the area is no longer a cove, due to drastic city development and continual land reclamation. Wan Chai was first home to the many Chinese villagers living along the undisturbed coastlines in proximity to Hung Shing Temple. Most of them were fishermen, who worked around the area near Hung Shing Temple overlooking the entire harbour. Hung Shing Ye, the God of the Sea, was one of the deities worshiped by the locals. With the growth of the British Hong Kong administration, centred in old Victoria, Wan Chai attracted those on the fringes of society, such as "coolie" workers, who came to live on Queen's Road East. A focal point of development at that time was a red-light zone. By the 1850s the area was becoming a Chinese residential area. There were dockyards on McGregor Street for building and repairing ships.
The edge of Sun Street, Moon Street and Star Street was the original site of the first power station in Hong Kong, operated by the Hongkong Electric Company, which began supplying power in 1890. One of the first water-front hospitals was the Seaman's Hospital, built in 1843, funded by the British merchant group Jardine's, it was sold to the British Royal Navy in 1873 and subsequently redeveloped into the Royal Naval Hospital. After the Second World War, the hospital was revitalised as the Ruttonjee Hospital and became one of the main public hospitals in Hong Kong; the district was home to several well-known schools. One of these schools was established by Mo Dunmei. Started as a shushu in 1919, the school was renamed Dunmei School in 1934 after him, it taught Confucian ethics. In 1936, the Chinese Methodist Church moved its building from Caine Road, Mid-levels Central, to Hennessy Road, Wanchai, a thoroughfare of the district running from west to east; this church building became the landmark of the district.
In 1998, this building was replaced by a 23-storey building. During the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, many bombardments took place in Wan Chai. There were abundant incidences of cannibalism, starvation and abuses of the local population by the Japanese soldiers, including the illegal use of child labour. Senior residents could recall vividly how they survived the hardships: this oral history became an important, first-hand source of the harsh life conditions in Hong Kong under the Japanese period; the Dunmei school was closed during the Japanese occupation period. After the war, the school continued to provide Chinese education for children from families of higher income. During the 1950s the pro-Communist underground cell network Hailiushe established their headquarters at the rooftop of a multi-story house on Spring Garden Lane; this group was raided by the Hong Kong police. Prostitution has been one of the oldest occupations in Wan Chai. There are numerous historical accounts of women trading sex for western merchandise with sailors from trading ships visiting this area.
In the 1960s, Wan Chai became legendary for its exotic night life for the US servicemen resting there during the Vietnam War. Despite rapid changes of Wan Chai's demography from reclamation and redevelopment, the presence of sex workers operating among ordinary residential areas has continued to be a distinctive feature; some of the lifestyle was illustrated in past movies such as The World of Suzie Wong. Wan Chai's HKCEC has been home to major economic events, it was the site of the Hong Kong handover ceremony in 1997, in which the last governor of Hong Kong, Chris Patten, formally concluded the British chapter and transferred Hong Kong to China. The WTO Ministerial Conference in 2005 was one of the largest international events hosted in Hong Kong, with delegates from 148 countries participating. In May 2009, 300 guests and staff members at the Metropark Hotel in Wan Chai were quarantined, suspected of being infected or in contact with the H1N1 virus during the global outbreak of swine flu.
A 25-year-old Mexican man who had stayed at the hotel was found to have caught the viral infection. He had travelled to Hong Kong from Mexico via Shanghai. Wan Chai's coastal line has been extended outward after a series of land reclamation schemes. Early in 1841, the coastline was located at Queen's Road East; the first reclamation took place and new land
Shanghai railway station
Shanghai station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, the others being Shanghai South, Shanghai Hongqiao, Shanghai West. The station is located on Moling Road, to the North of the city centre, it is governed by Shanghai Railway Bureau and is one of the most important hubs of the railway network in China. Shanghai station is called "the new railway station" by locals since it replaced Shanghai North railway station as the city's main train station in 1987. In the late'80s, the old North railway station was inadequate to handle the increasing railway traffic in Shanghai; the government decided to pull down the Shanghai East railway station and build a new railway station at the same place. On 28 December 1987, the North railway station was closed. At the same time, the new Shanghai railway station was started its operation. In 2006, some railway lines of the station were moved to the reopened Shanghai South railway station, which lessened the increasing pressure of passenger traffic.
In August 2006, a decision was made to renovate its surrounding area. Many new ticket machines were installed to increase efficiency. In June 2008, in order to co-operate with the opening of World Expo Shanghai 2010, Shanghai Government and Zhabei District carried out a new renovation called the "Shanghai Railway Station North Plaza Comprehensive Transportation Hub Project" with a total investment over 4.1 billion RMB. On May 29, 2010, the renovation was completed, it expanded the north building from 1,000 square meters to 15,560 square meters, refurbished the south building and added a new designed wave-shaped roof over the platform. In late 2015, rumours of the demolition of the Shanghai railway station arose. Many locals had believed this because of the many residential developments and needlessness of the station as there are the Shanghai Hongqiao, Shanghai South, Shanghai West stations. However, this rumour has been rejected by the Shanghai Municipal Government. Shanghai station serves north–south and westward locations.
It is the terminus of the main Beijing-Shanghai railway line. There are two Z trains to Xi'an every day. Most long-haul, non high-speed trains bound for Jiangsu Province, Anhui Province and the North depart from Shanghai railway station, it offers regional high-speed CRH trains to Nanjing and Hefei as well as overnight high-speed trains to Beijing and Xi’an. It offers T trains to Dalian, Beijing, Ürümqi, Yangzhou, Xian, Jinan, Tianjin and Ningbo in mainland China, as well as across the border to Kowloon in Hong Kong. K trains to Anyang, Changsha, Kunming, Yinchuan, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Yichang, Fuyang, Shijiazhuang, Qingdao, Taiyuan and Jilin. In addition, a lot of pass-by trains from the north to the south of China use Shanghai station as an intermediate stop. Shanghai station can be reached by taking Shanghai Metro Line 1, 3 or 4. Due to its pervasive connections with the Shanghai street network, the station is accessible by numerous bus lines and by taxi. Taxis are not at an underground taxi stop.
Shanghai Hongqiao railway station Shanghai South railway station Shanghai West railway station Rapid transit in the People's Republic of China Shanghai Train Guide - Timetables, tips and schedules
Chinese University of Hong Kong
The Chinese University of Hong Kong is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. It is the territory's second oldest university and was founded as a federation of three existing colleges – Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College – the oldest of, founded in 1949. Today, CUHK is organized into nine constituent colleges and eight academic faculties, remains the only collegiate university in the territory; the university operates in both English and Chinese, although classes in most colleges are taught in English. Four Nobel laureates are associated with the university, it is the only tertiary institution in Hong Kong with recipients of the Nobel Prize, Turing Award, Fields Medal and Veblen Prize sitting as faculty in residence; the university was formed in 1963 as a federation of three existing colleges. The first of these, New Asia College, was established in 1949 by anti-Communist Confucian scholars from Mainland China amid the revolution there.
Among the founders were Ch'ien Mu, Tang Junyi, Tchang Pi-kai. Curriculum focused on Chinese heritage and social concerns; the early years of this school were tumultuous, with the campus relocating several times between rented premises around Kowloon. Academics there were self-exiled from the mainland and they struggled financially, with students sometimes sleeping on rooftops and teachers foregoing pay to sustain the college. Funds were raised and the school moved to a new campus in Kau Pui Lung, built with the support of the Ford Foundation, in 1956. Following the Communist revolution and the breakdown in relations between China and the United States at the 1950 outbreak of the Korean War, all Christian colleges and universities in the People's Republic of China were shut down. Chung Chi College was founded in 1951 by Protestant churches in Hong Kong to continue the theological education of mainland churches and schools; the 63 students of its first year operating were taught in various church and rented premises on Hong Kong Island.
The college moved to its present location in Ma Liu Shui in 1956. By 1962, a year before the founding of CUHK, Chung Chi had 531 students in 10 departments taught by a full-time faculty of 40, excluding tutors. United College was founded in 1956 with the merging of five private colleges in Guangdong province: Canton Overseas, Kwang Hsia, Wah Kiu, Wen Hua, Ping Jing College of Accountancy; the first school president was Dr F. I. Tseung; the original campus on Caine Road on Hong Kong Island accommodated over 600 students. These three colleges helped fill a void in the post-secondary education options available to Hong Kong Chinese students. Before 1949, such students could attend a university in the mainland, but with this option spoiled by the upheavals in China, students were unable to further their studies at a university unless their English proficiency was sufficient to enrol at the University of Hong Kong the only university in the territory. In 1957, New Asia College, Chung Chi College, United College came together to establish the Chinese Colleges Joint Council.
In June 1959, the Hong Kong government expressed its intent to establish a new university with a medium of instruction of Chinese. The same year the Post-Secondary Colleges Ordinance was announced to provide government funding and official recognition to New Asia, Chung Chi and United colleges in hopes that the money would "enable them to raise their standards to a level at which they might qualify for university status on a federal basis"; the ordinance was enacted on 19 May 1960. The Chinese University Preparatory Committee was established in June 1961 to advise the government on possible sites for the new university; the following May, the Fulton Commission was formed to assess the suitability of the three government-funded Post-Secondary Colleges to become constituent colleges of the new university. The commission, headed by Vice-Chancellor John Fulton of the newly established University of Sussex, visited Hong Kong over the summer and produced an interim report recommending the establishment of the federal university comprising the three colleges.
The Fulton Commission report was tabled in the Legislative Council in June 1963, the Chinese University of Hong Kong Ordinance was passed in September of that year. The school was inaugurated in a ceremony at City Hall on 17 October 1963, officiated by the founding chancellor, Sir Robert Brown Black; the next year Dr. Li Choh-ming was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor of the university; the university comprised the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Social Science. Construction began at the site of the new campus in the Ma Liu Shui area, where Chung Chi College was established, for new facilities to house central administration and the relocated New Asia and United colleges. Construction on the new campus continued throughout the 1960s to a development plan produced by W. Szeto and Partners. Above the valley occupied by Chung Chi College, on two plateaux formed by granite quarrying for the Plover Cove dam, the quarters for the other two colleges would flank the Central campus housing administration and shared facilities.
Some of the most iconic buildings on campus, like the University Library, were built in this period along the monumental axis of the University Mall in the subdued concrete aesthetic for which the school is known. The School of Education, which would become a faculty, was founded in 1965; the Graduate School, the first in Hong Kong, was founded in 1966 and the first batch of master's degrees were awarded the following year. In the early 1970s, New Asia and United Co
Austin Road is a road in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It was named after John Gardiner Austin, Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong from 1868 to 1879; the northeast part of this street is noted for clubs and military buildings, while the western section is densely populated. Austin Road starts at Canton Road in the west, crosses Nathan Road at its halfway point, ends at Chatham Road South in the east, dividing Tsim Sha Tsui and Yau Ma Tei; the Hong Kong Scout Centre, Tsim Sha Tsui Police Station and the north entrance to Kowloon Park are located along the section of the road between Canton Road and Nathan Road, while the Kowloon Bowling Green Club, the south entrance to the Gun Club Hill Barracks and St. Mary's Canossian College are found along the section between Nathan Road and Chatham Road. Austin Road West was created by extending Austin Road on the western side of Canton Road, over to the West Kowloon reclamation; the Austin Station, opened on 16 August 2009, was so-named due to its proximity to Austin Road West, although this may have been more influenced by geographical considerations rather than any direct link to John Gardiner Austin himself.
List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google Maps of Austin Road
Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge
The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge, is a 55-kilometre bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, four artificial islands. It is the longest open-sea fixed link on earth; the HZMB spans the Lingding and Jiuzhou channels, connecting Hong Kong and Zhuhai—three major cities on the Pearl River Delta. The HZMB was designed to cost 127 billion yuan to build; the cost of constructing the Main Bridge was estimated at 51.1 billion yuan funded by bank loans and shared among the governments of mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. Set to be opened to traffic in late 2016, the structure was completed on 6 February 2018 and journalists were subsequently taken for a ride over the bridge. On 24 October 2018, the HZMB was opened to the public after its inauguration a day earlier by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. Hopewell Holdings founder and then-managing director Gordon Wu proposed the concept of a bridge-tunnel linking China, Hong Kong and Macau in the 1980s.
Wu stated. In 1988, Wu pitched the concept to Beijing officials, he envisaged a link farther north than the current design, beginning at Black Point near Tuen Mun, Hong Kong and crossing the Pearl River estuary via Neilingding Island and Qi'ao Island. His proposed bridge would have ended at the Chinese village of Tangjia, a new road would have continued south through Zhuhai before terminating at Macau. Discussions stalled after the Tiananmen Square massacre in mid-1989 "unnerved" Wu and other foreign investors, caused Hopewell's Hong Kong share prices to plunge; the route proposed by Wu was promoted by the Zhuhai government under the name Lingdingyang Bridge. In the mid-1990s, Zhuhai built a bridge between the mainland and Qi'ao Island, intended as the first phase of this route, though the full scheme had not been approved by either the Chinese or Hong Kong governments at the time. China's central government showed support for this project on 30 December 1997; the new Hong Kong government was reticent, stating that it was still awaiting cross-border traffic study results, Hong Kong media questioned the environmental impact of the project with regard to air pollution and marine life.
In December 2001, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a motion urging the Administration to develop the logistics industry including the construction of a bridge connecting Hong Kong and Macao. In September 2002, the China/Hong Kong Conference on Co-ordination of Major Infrastructure Projects agreed to a joint study on a transport link between Hong Kong and Pearl River West. To coordinate the project, the Advance Work Coordination Group of HZMB was set up in 2003. Officials from three sides solved issues such as landing points and alignments of the bridge, operation of the Border Crossing Facilities, project financing. In August 2008, China's Central Government, the governments of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 42 percent of the total costs; the remaining 58% consisted of loans from the Bank of China. In March 2009, it was further reported that China's Central Government, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 22 percent of the total costs; the remaining 78 percent consisted of loans from a consortium of banks led by Bank of China.
Construction of the HZMB project began on 15 December 2009 on the Chinese side, with then-Politburo Standing member and Vice Premier of China Li Keqiang holding a commencement ceremony. Construction of the Hong Kong section of the project began in December 2011 after a delay caused by a legal challenge regarding the environmental impact of the bridge; the last bridge tower was erected on 2 June 2016, the last straighted-element of the 4,860-metre-long straight section of the undersea tunnel was installed on 12 July 2016, while the final tunnel joint was installed on 2 May 2017. Construction of the Main Bridge, consisting of a viaduct and an undersea tunnel, was completed on 6 July 2017, the entire construction project was completed on 6 February 2018; the 55-km HZMB consists of three main sections: the Main Bridge in the middle of the Pearl River estuary, the Hong Kong Link Road in the east and the Zhuhai Link Road in the west of the estuary. The Main Bridge, the largest part of the HZMB project, is a bridge-cum-tunnel system constructed by the mainland Chinese authorities.
It connects an artificial island, housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities for both mainland China and Macau in the west, to the Hong Kong Link Road in the east. This section includes a 22.9-km viaduct and a 6.7-km undersea tunnel that runs between two artificial islands. The viaduct crosses the Pearl River estuary with three cable-stayed bridges spanning between 280 and 460 metres, allowing shipping traffic to pass underneath. Under Hong Kong jurisdiction, the Hong Kong Link Road was built by Highways Department to connect the Main Bridge to an artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities; this section includes a 9.4-km viaduct, a 1-km Scenic Hill Tunnel and a 1.6-km at-grade road along the east coast of the Hong Kong International Airport. The Zhuhai Link Road starts from an artificial island housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities for both mainland China and Macau, passes through the developed area of Gongbei via a tunnel towards Zhuhai, connects to three major express