London Borough of Croydon

The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in South London, part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km2, it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London; the borough is now one of London's leading business and cultural centres, its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre. The borough was formed in 1965 from the merger of the County Borough of Croydon with Coulsdon and Purley Urban District, both of, within Surrey; the local authority, Croydon London Borough Council, is now part of London Councils, the local government association for Greater London. The economic strength of Croydon dates back to Croydon Airport, a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once London's main airport for all international flights to and from the capital, it was closed on 30 September 1959 due to the lack of expansion space needed for an airport to serve the growing city.

It is now a Grade II listed tourist attraction. Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954, 2000, 2002 and 2012; the area is going through a large regeneration project called Croydon Vision 2020, predicted to attract more businesses and tourists to the area as well as backing Croydon's bid to become "London's Third City". Croydon is urban, though there are large suburban and rural uplands towards the south of the borough. Since 2003, Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation, it was the first London borough to have Fairtrade status, awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of the South East of England. Institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre, the Warehouse Theatre, went into administration in 2012 when the council withdrew funding, the building itself was demolished in 2013; the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum.

From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged an annual summer festival celebrating the area's black and Indian cultural diversity, with audiences reaching over 50,000 people. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by local people for the area; the borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in Selhurst, a stadium they have been based in since 1924. Other landmarks in the borough include Addington Palace, an eighteenth-century mansion which became the official second residence of six Archbishops of Canterbury, Shirley Windmill, one of the few surviving large windmills in Greater London built in the 1850s, the BRIT School, a creative arts institute run by the BRIT Trust which has produced artists such as Adele, Amy Winehouse and Leona Lewis. For the history of the original town see History of CroydonThe London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.

The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning "the valley of the crocuses", indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a centre for the collection of saffron. By the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Lanfranc lived at Croydon Palace. Visitors included Thomas Becket, royal figures such as Henry VIII of England and Elizabeth I. Croydon carried on through the ages as a prosperous market town, they produced charcoal, tanned leather, ventured into brewing. Croydon was served by the Surrey Iron Railway, the first public railway in the world, in 1803, by the London to Brighton rail link in the mid-19th century, helping it to become the largest town in what was Surrey. In the 20th century Croydon became known for industries such as metal working, car manufacture and its aerodrome, Croydon Airport.

Starting out during World War I as an airfield for protection against Zeppelins, an adjacent airfield was combined, the new aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920. It became the largest in London, was the main terminal for international air freight into the capital, it developed into one of the great airports of the world during the 1920s and 1930s, welcomed the world's pioneer aviators in its heyday. British Airways Ltd used the airport for a short period after redirecting from Northolt Aerodrome, Croydon was the operating base for Imperial Airways, it was due to the airport that Croydon suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II. As aviation technology progressed and aircraft became larger and more numerous, it was recognised in 1952 that the airport would be too small to cope with the ever-increasing volume of air traffic; the last scheduled flight departed on 30 September 1959. It was superseded as the main airport by both London Heathrow and London Gatwick Airport

Cashier as a service

Cashier as a service refers to using a third party service as payment. When a shopper buys merchandise online, the shopper does not pay the merchant directly, but rather through a third party – the cashier; the cashier is trusted by both the shopper and the merchant and is expected to allow for reliable and secure transfer of money. By paying a merchant through a cashier, shoppers are able to pay for merchandise without giving away their financial information to the merchants; when using CaaS, shopping online involves three parties – the shopper and CaaS. The shopper is the user who pays the merchant for the items; the merchant sells merchandise from a website. To sell merchandise, the merchant must provide a way for shoppers to add items to the shopping cart, provide a way for the shopper to pay the merchant, keep track of customer information. Popular open source merchant software include nopCommerce and Interspire, which provide this functionality and integration of several different CaaS; the CaaS provides a method for the shopper to pay the merchant.

Examples of popular CaaS include PayPal, Amazon Payments, Google Wallet, Venmo. Integrating a CaaS to a merchant website introduces issues in securing a payment from the shopper to the merchant. With three parties instead of two, securing a transaction becomes more complex when there is a malicious shopper; the CaaS and the merchant now need to stay in sync with each other to keep a consistent view of the transactions. Moreover, the shopper may try to masquerade as the merchant or CaaS to trick the other parties into changing their state or giving signed messages to the shopper. For a successful transaction from a shopper S buying and item I from a merchant M, the following invariants must hold true. M owns I A payment is guaranteed to be transferred from an account S to that of M in the CaaS The payment is for the purchase of I, is valid for only one piece of I The amount of this payment is equal to the price of I When a shopper buys merchandise from a merchant, the shopper calls public APIs of the merchant and the CaaS with HTTP requests.

The merchant and CaaS may call each other's APIs to give information to each other. Below is a detailed description of the generic flow:RT1.a) The shopper checks out the items in his shopping cart. RT1.a.a) The merchant notifies the CaaS that a customer will be paying. RT1.a.b) The CaaS acknowledges the merchant. RT1.b) The merchant redirects the shopper to the CaaS providing the shopper with information to identify the order and gross information. RT2.a) The shopper provides the information given by the merchant to the CaaS. RT2.a.a) The CaaS notifies the merchant that the shopper has paid. RT2.a.b) The merchant acknowledges the CaaS. RT2.b) The CaaS redirects the shopper to the merchant providing the shopper with information to pass back to the merchant. RT3.a) The shopper provides the information given by the CaaS to the merchant. RT3.b) After the merchant updates the database, the merchant sends a confirmation response back to the shopper and the transaction is complete. RT4.a/b) Represents the shopper masquerading as the CaaS.

The shopper calls a merchant API. RT5.a/b) Represents the shopper masquerading as the merchant. The shopper creates a merchant store and receives API calls from the CaaS. HTTP Headers and Fiddlers are two of the popular debugging tools are available to exploit on live stores; the following are examples of how malicious shoppers may be able to exploit the logic flaws in the merchant and CaaS software to buy items for free. These are real examples and the flaws have been patched; the following notation will be used: A is the shopper/attacker. T is the merchant C is the CaaS * indicates that the message is signed In nopCommerce's integration of PayPal standard, the shopper places an order and is redirected to PayPal, given an orderID and gross by the merchant. However, these arguments are not signed by the merchant, therefore the shopper may change this information before passing it along to PayPal. By changing the gross amount to 0, the CaaS expects the shopper to pay that amount; when the shopper is redirected back to the merchant, the merchant contacts PayPal about the status of the payment for that particular order and PayPal will reply that the shopper paid for the item.

The merchant updates the status of the order to "paid" without comparing the gross information that PayPal gave back to the price of the item. Thus, the shopper bought an item from the merchant for free. In nopCommerce's integration of Amazon Simple Pay, the shopper will place an order and be redirected to Amazon; the arguments given by the merchant are signed as indicated by the *, therefore preventing the shopper from tampering with the arguments. The shopper will pass these arguments to Amazon, be redirected to the returnURL, provided; the merchant that "status=PAID" and will finish the transaction. In this case, the shopper can create a separate merchant account that can sign a message which Amazon will accept. Thus, when the shopper places an order at a merchant store, the shopper will not give Amazon the message provided by the merchant, but instead create his own message and sign it with his merchant account; the arguments in this message will be the same as in the merchant's message but since the shopper's merchant account signed the message, the shopper will be paying himself.

However, the shopper will be redirected to the merchant's website because of the returnURL and the merchant will update its database that the order was paid for because it received a signed message from Amazon with "status=PAID". The shopper has bought an item from a mercha

Testifying (album)

Testifying is the debut album led by jazz organist Larry Young, recorded in 1960 and released on the New Jazz label. The Allmusic site awarded the album 3 stars and stated "Easily recommended to fans of the jazz organ". All compositions by Larry Young except as indicated "Testifying" - 9:52 "When I Grow Too Old to Dream" - 5:15 "Exercise for Chihuahuas" - 7:34 "Falling in Love With Love" - 5:04 "Some Thorny Blues" - 6:20 "Wee Dot" - 7:04 "Flamingo" - 5:23 Larry Young - organ Joe Holiday - tenor saxophone Thornel Schwartz - guitar Jimmie Smith - drums