South London is the southern part of London, England. Situated south of the River Thames, it consists of the boroughs of Southwark, Merton, Bromley, Richmond, Wandsworth and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea and Greenwich. South London emerged from Southwark, first recorded as Suthriganaweorc, meaning ‘fort of the men of Surrey’. From Southwark, London extended further down into northern Surrey and western Kent. South London consists of 11 whole boroughs and part of the cross-river borough of Richmond Upon Thames. South London began at Southwark at the southern end of London Bridge, the first permanent crossing over the river, with early development of the area being a direct result of the existence and location of the bridge. Southwark was first known as Suthriganaweorc, the fortress of the men of Surrey, mentioned in the Burghal Hidage as part of military system created by Alfred the Great to defeat the Great Heathen Army of the Vikings. Southwark was known as the Borough due to be it being an incorporated Borough from 1295.
From 1550 to 1899 it was administered as part of the City of London and referred to as the ward of Bridge Without. In 1720, John Strype’s ‘Survey of London’ described Southwark as one of the four distinct areas of London; the area now referred to as North London developed later. As late as the mid 18th century, there were no other bridges crossing the river and as a result urban growth was slower in the south than in areas north of the Thames; the opening of Westminster Bridge and other subsequent bridges to the west encouraged growth in the south-west, but only Tower Bridge was built to the east of London Bridge, so south-east London grew more at least until the Surrey Commercial Docks were built. The development of a dense network of railway lines in the mid nineteenth century accelerated growth. A significant feature of south London’s economic geography is that while there are more than thirty bridges linking the area with West London and the City, there is only one, Tower Bridge, linking the area with East London.
Little of London’s underground rail network lies south of the river due to the challenging geology, however 21st century technology makes tunnelling much cheaper than before and this may well lead to an improved underground provision in south London with the Crossrail 2 line proposed alongside extensions to the Northern and Bakerloo Lines. South London contains a extensive overground rail network and all of London’s trams operate within the area; the 12 boroughs included, in whole or part are: The term ‘south London' has been used for a variety of formal purposes with the boundaries defined according to the purposes of the designation. In 2017 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies; the Commission's study, was to start with existing regions of England and group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division. The South London sub-region included the 11 boroughs which lay south of the river, plus the parts of cross-river Richmond upon Thames that did so.
An earlier 2013 study, whose recommendations were not adopted, took a different approach by including all of Richmond in its South London sub-region. For the purposes of progress reporting on the London Plan, there was a south London sub-region in operation from 2004 to 2008 consisting of Bromley, Kingston, Merton and Sutton. In 2001 this area had a population of 1,329,000; this definition is used by organisations such as Connexions. Between 2008 and 2011 it was replaced with a South East sub-region consisting of Southwark, Greenwich and Bromley and a South West sub-region consisting of Croydon, Lambeth, Sutton and Wandsworth. In 2011 a new south London region was created consisting of Bromley, the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames, Sutton, Bexley and Lewisham. South London is, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Three Met Office weather stations collect climate data south of the river.
Long term climate observations dating back to 1763 are available for Greenwich, although observations ceased here in 2003. Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning the southern margins of south London are a couple of degrees cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Snow can be seen to lie on the North Downs near Croydon when central London is snow free; the record high temperature at Greenwich is 37.5 °C recorded during August 2003. Sunshine is notably lower than other London area weather stations, suggesting Greenwich may be a fog trap in winter, that the hillier land to the south may obscure early morning and late evening sunshine; the highest temperature recorded across south London was 38.1 °C on the same occasion at Kew Gardens. Although the Met Office accepts a higher reading from Brogdale in Kent, many have questioned the accuracy of this and regard the Kew reading as the most reliable highest UK temperature reading.
Central London East London North London West London South Bank Time Out editors. "North London v South London – T
Highway Technologies, Inc. was a large, Houston-based US construction company with offices in 33 cities that filed for bankruptcy in May 2013, laying off 740 of its 825 employees. The company was founded 30 years ago; the company supplied "highway barriers, traffic control devices and rent barriers for detours and emergency closures". Liquidation of company assets began in June 2013 and continued through November 2013, with some local branches sold in their entirety to new owners; the company operated in over 30 US cities, with as many as 50 to 80 employees at some locations: Flagstaff, Arizona Fort Mohave, Arizona Prescott, Arizona Tempe, Arizona Tucson, Arizona San Jose, California Ventura, California Denver, reopened as Colorado Barricade in August 2013. Loveland, Colorado Clearwater, Florida Fort Myers, Florida Jacksonville, Florida Jupiter, Florida Orlando, Florida Bloomington, Illinois Carbondale, Illinois East St. Louis, reopened as Warning Lites of Southern Illinois, LLC in August 2013 Springfield, Illinois Villa Park, Illinois Baton Rouge, Louisiana Minneapolis, Minnesota Springfield, Missouri Missoula, Montana Richland, New Jersey North Las Vegas, Nevada Portland, Oregon Austin, Texas Corpus Christi, Texas Fort Worth, Texas Houston, Texas San Antonio, Texas The Houston-based company laid off 740 employees, of 825 total, on May 17, 2013, filed for bankruptcy on May 22.
The bankruptcy filing indicated that company assets were between $50 and $100 million while liabilities were between $100 and $500 million. Event disruptions occurred as a result of the suspension of operations in a number of cities. In Denver, the Colfax Marathon and the American Ninja Warrior competition lost the contracted support services for the provision of traffic barricades for the event. Fifteen active projects were shut down in Montana by the closure of the Missoula office, where 180 employees lost their jobs. "Bankruptcy was seen as the best option to protect the company's assets for its creditors". At the May 23, 2013, bankruptcy court hearing, approval was given "to start to sell any assets below $200,000; the company pursued the sale of its assets both piecemeal and on a turnkey — intact branches — basis through private sales and auctions"Some Highway Technologies local enterprises were sold in their entirety to new owners. In early August, the Denver branch emerged from bankruptcy as Colorado Barricade, sold at a price of US$775,000 plus assumption of certain liabilities pertaining to the existing operation, hired back some 20 of the 50-plus employees of Highway Technologies Denver operation within the first week of operation.
Over 60,000 remaining assets were sold off in auctions held between August and November 2013, including 4700 items sold at one two-day auction in Texas in late August
The 1968–69 Pittsburgh Penguins season was the franchise's second season in the National Hockey League. The Penguins were unable to make the playoffs for the second straight year. Skaters Goaltenders†Denotes player spent time with another team before joining the Penguins. Stats reflect time with the Penguins only. ‡Denotes player was traded mid-season. Stats reflect time with the Penguins only. Leo Boivin became the first to play 100 games for the Penguins during a 1–2 loss to Los Angeles on December 14, he played 100 of Pittsburgh's first 101 games. Ken Schinkel established a new franchise record for lowest plus-minus with –39, he topped the previous record of –23 held by Val Fonteyne. Jean Pronovost established a rookie record for the Penguins in terms of points; the Penguins were involved in the following transactions during the 1968–69 season: Player statistics on Hockey Database Game log on NHL Database