Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London. The current crossing, which opened to traffic in 1973, is a box girder bridge built from concrete and steel, it replaced a 19th-century stone-arched bridge, which in turn superseded a 600-year-old stone-built medieval structure. This was preceded by a succession of timber bridges, the first of, built by the Roman founders of London; the current bridge stands at the western end of the Pool of London and is positioned 30 metres upstream from previous alignments. The approaches to the medieval bridge were marked by the church of St Magnus-the-Martyr on the northern bank and by Southwark Cathedral on the southern shore; until Putney Bridge opened in 1729, London Bridge was the only road-crossing of the Thames downstream of Kingston upon Thames. London Bridge has been depicted in its several forms, in art and songs, including the nursery rhyme "London Bridge Is Falling Down".
The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, an independent charity of medieval origin overseen by the City of London Corporation. It carries the A3 road, maintained by the Greater London Authority; the crossing delineates an area along the southern bank of the River Thames, between London Bridge and Tower Bridge, designated as a business improvement district. The abutments of modern London Bridge rest several metres above natural embankments of gravel and clay. From the late Neolithic era the southern embankment formed a natural causeway above the surrounding swamp and marsh of the river's estuary. Between the embankments, the River Thames could have been crossed by ford when the tide was low, or ferry when it was high. Both embankments the northern, would have offered stable beachheads for boat traffic up and downstream – the Thames and its estuary were a major inland and Continental trade route from at least the 9th century BC. There is archaeological evidence for scattered Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement nearby, but until a bridge was built there, London did not exist.
A few miles upstream, beyond the river's upper tidal reach, two ancient fords were in use. These were aligned with the course of Watling Street, which led into the heartlands of the Catuvellauni, Britain's most powerful tribe at the time of Caesar's invasion of 54 BC; some time before Claudius's conquest of AD 43, power shifted to the Trinovantes, who held the region northeast of the Thames Estuary from a capital at Camulodunum, nowadays Colchester in Essex. Claudius imposed a major colonia at Camulodunum, made it the capital city of the new Roman province of Britannia; the first London Bridge was built by the Romans as part of their road-building programme, to help consolidate their conquest. The first bridge was a Roman military pontoon type, giving a rapid overland shortcut to Camulodunum from the southern and Kentish ports, along the Roman roads of Stane Street and Watling Street. Around AD 55, the temporary bridge over the Thames was replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge and guarded by a small garrison.
On the high, dry ground at the northern end of the bridge, a small, opportunistic trading and shipping settlement took root and grew into the town of Londinium. A smaller settlement developed at the southern end of the bridge, in the area now known as Southwark; the bridge was destroyed along with the town in the Boudican revolt, but both were rebuilt and Londinium became the administrative and mercantile capital of Roman Britain. The upstream fords and ferries remained in use but the bridge offered uninterrupted, mass movement of foot and wheeled traffic across the Thames, linking four major arterial road systems north of the Thames with four to the south. Just downstream of the bridge were substantial quays and depots, convenient to seagoing trade between Britain and the rest of the Roman Empire. With the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century, Londinium was abandoned and the bridge fell into disrepair. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the river became a boundary between the emergent, mutually hostile kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex.
By the late 9th century, Danish invasions prompted at least a partial reoccupation of the site by the Saxons. The bridge may have been rebuilt by Alfred the Great soon after the Battle of Edington as part of Alfred's redevelopment of the area in his system of burhs, or it may have been rebuilt around 990 under the Saxon king Æthelred the Unready to hasten his troop movements against Sweyn Forkbeard, father of Cnut the Great. A skaldic tradition describes the bridge's destruction in 1014 by Æthelred's ally Olaf, to divide the Danish forces who held both the walled City of London and Southwark; the earliest contemporary written reference to a Saxon bridge is c.1016 when chroniclers mention how Cnut's ships bypassed the crossing, during his war to regain the throne from Edmund Ironside. Following the Norman conquest in 1066, King William I rebuilt the bridge; the London tornado of 1091 destroyed it damaging St Mary-le-Bow. It was repaired or replaced by King William II, destroyed by fire in 1136, rebuilt in the reign of Stephen.
Henry II created a monastic guild, the "Brethren of the Bridge", to oversee all work on London Bridge. In 1163, Peter of Colechurch and warden of the bridge and its brethren, supervised the bridge's last rebuilding in timber. After the murder of his erstwhile friend and opponent Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, the penitent King Henry II commissioned a new stone bridge in place of the old, with a chapel at its centre
The PeaceOUT Homo Hop Festival, was an annual festival of hip hop music and culture created by Lesbian, Gay and Transgender people from 2001 to 2007. The main festival took place in Oakland, although sibling festivals were held in New York City and London; the festival was first held in August 2001 as a part of the East Bay LGBT Pride, following the suggestion of East Bay Pride organizer Pete King. Though King was not a fan of hip hop music or culture, he was familiar with the numerous out queer hip hop artists performing in the San Francisco Bay Area and felt the growing scene was an important component of the LGBT arts community. In June 2001, King approached Juba Kalamka of the group Deep Dickollective about his ideas and inquired as to the possibility of organizing the event. Though at first reticent as a result of what he viewed as racial and class antagonism toward hip hop at mainstream pride events, Kalamka relented, which led to the organization of "Cypher 2000:One" by his Deep Dickollective bandmate Tim'm West and London-based DJ Christopher "Mister Maker" Harvey, who founded the Gayhiphop.com website in 2000.
The success of the event led to plans to create a larger scale event in 2002. East Bay Pride sponsored the event until its own dissolution after PeaceOUT 2003, at which time main financial sponsorship and organization was coordinated by Kalamka's micro-label Sugartruck Recordings and Matt Wobensmith of the zine and record label Outpunk and the Queercorps imprint. Among the performers who appeared at the festival were Deep Dickollective, Tori Fixx, God-des and She, Jen-Ro, Jaycub Perez and soce, the elemental wizard. Numerous performances from the festival are featured in the documentary film Pick Up the Mic, which premiered at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, 2005. Despite initial plans to continue with PeaceOUT as a biannual event following the 2007 festival, Kalamka decided to close the event permanently in July 2008; the official website is maintained as a permanent historical archive of the festival
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is a form of memory responsible for the recording of information about one's environment and spatial orientation. For example, a person's spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rat's spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze, it is argued that in both humans and animals, spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map. Spatial memory has representations within short-term memory and long-term memory. Research indicates. Many methods are used for measuring spatial memory in children and animals. Short-term memory can be described as a system allowing one to temporarily store and manage information, necessary to complete complex cognitive tasks. Tasks which employ short-term memory include learning and comprehension. Spatial memory is a cognitive process that enables a person to remember different locations as well as spatial relations between objects; this allows one to remember.
Spatial memories are said to form after a person has gathered and processed sensory information about her or his environment. Working memory can be described as a limited capacity system that allows one to temporarily store and process information; this temporary store enables one to complete or work on complex tasks while being able to keep information in mind. For instance, the ability to work on a complicated mathematical problem utilizes one's working memory. One influential theory of WM is the Baddeley and Hitch multi-component model of working memory; the most recent version of this model suggests that there are four subcomponents to WM, namely the phonological loop. One component of this model, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, is said to be responsible for the temporary storage and manipulation of both visual and spatial information. In contrast to the multi-component model, some researchers believe that STM should be viewed as a unitary construct. In this respect, visual and verbal information are thought to be organized by levels of representation rather than the type of store to which they belong.
Within the literature, it is suggested that further research into the fractionation of STM and WM be explored. However, much of the research into the visuo-spatial memory construct have been conducted in accordance to the paradigm advanced by Baddeley and Hitch. Research into the exact function of the visuo-spatial sketchpad has indicated that both spatial short-term memory and working memory are dependent on executive resources and are not distinct. For instance, performance on a working memory but not on a short-term memory task was affected by articulatory suppression suggesting that impairment on the spatial task was caused by the concurrent performance on a task that had extensive use of executive resources. Results have found that performances were impaired on STM and WM tasks with executive suppression; this illustrates how, within the visuo-spatial domain, both STM and WM require similar utility of the central executive. Additionally, during a spatial visualisation task concurrent executive suppression impaired performance indicating that the effects were due to common demands on the central executive and not short-term storage.
The researchers concluded with the explanation that the central executive employs cognitive strategies enabling participants to both encode and maintain mental representations during short-term memory tasks. Although studies suggest that the central executive is intimately involved in a number of spatial tasks, the exact way in which they are connected remains to be seen. Spatial memory recall is built upon a hierarchical structure; that is to say that people remember the general layout of a particular space and "cue target locations" within that spatial set. This paradigm includes an ordinal scale of features that an individual must attend to in order to inform his or her cognitive map. Recollection of spatial details is a top-down procedure that requires an individual to recall the superordinate features of a cognitive map, followed by the ordinate and subordinate features. Thus, two spatial features are prominent in navigating a path: general layout and landmark orienting. People are not only capable of learning about the spatial layout of their surroundings, but they can piece together novel routes and new spatial relations through inference.
Yet, this field has traditionally been hampered by confounding variables, such as cost and the potential for previous exposure to an experimental environment. Thankfully, technological leaps have opened a new, albeit virtual, world to psychologists. A cognitive map is "a mental model of objects' spatial configuration that permits navigation along optimal path between arbitrary pairs of points." This mental map is built upon two fundamental bedrocks: layout known as route knowledge, landmark orientation. Layout is the first method of navigation that people learn to utilize. Hermer and Spelke determined that when toddlers begin to walk, around eighteen months, they navigate by their sense of the world's layout. Indeed, it would seem that a sojourning toddler's world is a place of axial lines and contrasting boundaries. McNamara and Hirtle identified region membership as a major building block of anyone's cognitive map. Region memb