Long Beach Naval Shipyard

The Long Beach Naval Shipyard, which closed in 1997, was located on Terminal Island between the city of Long Beach and the San Pedro district of Los Angeles 23 miles south of the Los Angeles International Airport. The primary role of NSY Long Beach at the time of its closure was overhaul and maintenance of conventionally-powered US Navy surface ships, but it had served as the homeport for several auxiliary ships during its operating history; the Long Beach NSY industrial area encompassed. There were 120 permanent, 39 semi-permanent, 6 temporary buildings, for a total of 165 buildings. There were 2,400,000 square feet of covered building space; the shipyard had three graving docks, five industrial piers. There were 12,307 feet of ship berthing space. Crane capacity ranged from 25 short tons from 25 short tons to 112 short tons. One of the large cranes at Long Beach NSY, YD-171, was nicknamed "Herman the German" based on its origin as a floating crane for the Kriegsmarine, it is a large self-propelled crane standing 374 feet tall with a lifting capacity of 385 short tons, was claimed to be the largest floating crane in operation as of 1957.

"Herman the German" was seized as a war prize following the end of World War II. "Herman" was dismantled and transported across the Atlantic through the Panama Canal to Long Beach, where it subsequently served at the Long Beach NSY from 1946 to 1996. While serving at Long Beach, it participated in the refurbishment of the battleships USS Missouri and New Jersey in the 1980s and lifted the Hughes H-4 from its original hangar in Long Beach when it was relocated to its geodesic dome from 1980 to 1982 for tourist display by the Wrather Corporation. Following the closure of the shipyard, the crane was sold to the Panama Canal Commission and was transported on the semi-submersible ship "Sea Swan" to the Panama Canal Zone, where it serves as the floating crane "Titan". Dry Dock 1 had plan dimensions of 143 by 1,092 feet, Dry Docks 2 and 3 and plan dimensions of 92 by 693 feet; the total naval presence on Terminal Island included two installations, for a total of 1,095 acres on Terminal Island and 319 acres of off-base housing.

Half to two-thirds of the area of the finished NSY was built on new fill, so structures were supported on piles. Navy presence on Terminal Island started in 1938; the Terminal Island Naval Dry Docks were authorized in June 1940, construction began in August 1940 on one large drydock and two smaller docks. Recreation facilities and shop buildings were ordered in February 1942, work began on Drydocks 2 and 3 and several piers in April 1942. On 9 February 1943, the Secretary of the Navy established the facilities as the US Naval Dry Docks, Roosevelt Base, California. In 1943, a barrack for Marines was built, work began on another approach pier, a 50 short tons drydock crane was erected, several shop buildings were started. In 1944, work started on the pontoons destined to be used in a "temporary" bridge to Terminal Island; the pontoon bridge would not be removed until the opening of the Gerald Desmond Bridge in 1968. The name of this facility was changed to Terminal Island Naval Shipyard on 30 November 1945.

On 15 November 1946, the adjoining Naval Station Long Beach was established. The shipyard was renamed to Long Beach Naval Shipyard in March 1948. During World War II, the naval dry docks provided routine and battle damage repairs to a parade of tankers, cargo ships, troop transports and cruisers. Peak employment of 16,091 civilian employees was reached in August 1945. Long Beach NSY was equipped with facilities and skills to perform all non-nuclear structural, sheet metal, rigging, electrical, lagging, sandblasting, machining, painting, pipe fitting, other work pertaining to the overhaul and repair of surface ships; the shipyard possessed complete design, combat systems, quality assurance and public works capabilities to support its industrial work. Dry dock No. 1 was designated the West Coast nuclear powered aircraft carrier emergency dry dock. Long Beach NSY was placed in an inactive status on 1 June 1950; the Korean War began less than one month and the shipyard was reactivated on 4 January 1951.

Through the years the shipyard accomplished several special projects in addition to its primary mission. These included support or scientific projects in conjunction with programs like POLARIS, POSEIDON, SEALAB. Long Beach NSY was evaluated under every round of Base Realignment and Closure for possible closure since the inception of the BRAC process in 1988. In 1993, California congressmen Horn and Rohrabacher cited the military value of the shipyard in a successful attempt to keep it open. Mare Island NSY was closed following the 1993 evaluations, the vote in favor of keeping LBNSY open was narrowly decided by the BRAC Commission chairman's tiebreaking vote. However, two years the naval shipyard was recommended for closure in the 1995 round of BRAC evaluations by then-Defense Secretary William Perry. Although the commission toured Long Beach NSY in April 1995, the BRAC Commission elected not to override the recommendation to close Long Beach NSY, closure was completed on 30 September 1997. By 2004, 72% of the land had been turned over to the

Type C escort ship

The Type C escort ships were a class of escort ships in the service of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese called them "Type C" ocean defense ships, they were the fifth class of Kaibōkan, a name used to denote a multi-purpose vessel; the Type C, like the Ukuru and Mikura classes, were dedicated to the anti-aircraft and anti-submarine roles. On 22 April 1943, the Navy General Staff decided a mass production of escort ships, because of the urgent need to protect the convoys which were under constant attack; the plan was to build a basic escort ship of around 800 tons, with a simple design for easy construction. The first designs, for "Type A" Etorofu class and "Type B" Mikura class, still needed too many man-hours for building, so in June 1943, the Navy General Staff planned for a simplified design; the result was the Ukuru class, a scaled-down model of the Mikura class, which became the "Type C" and "Type D" escort classes. Because of Japan's deteriorating war situation, the Type C was a further simplification of the Ukuru design.

They were smaller by 200 tons and the diesel engines that propelled them were smaller, at 1,900 shaft horsepower versus 4,200 shaft horsepower for the Ukurus. Because of the decrease in engine power, the speed fell from 19.5 knots to 16.5 knots. The range remained the 6,500 nautical miles at 14 knots; the number of 4.7-inch guns went from three to two. The number of depth charges aboard was the same, 120, but the number of depth charge throwers was decreased from 18 to 12 and the depth charge chutes were decreased from two to one. Due to the simplifications of the design, a significant saving was made in construction time; the Type C escorts required 20,000 man-hours each, compared to the 35,000 man-hours of the Ukurus and the 57,000 man-hours of the Mikuras. The design work of the Type C ships started in the same time as the Ukuru class, they were built concurrently with the Ukuru class and the Type D. The Type C vessels were given odd numbers, while the Type D were given numbers; the Type C were constructed using prefabricated sections that enabled them to be built in as little as three to four months.

The lead ship, No.1 was constructed at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, laid down on 15 September 1943, completed with No.3 on 29 February 1944. The Type C escorts were assigned to the Destroyer Divisions and Escort Divisions for convoy escort operations. However, by 1944 the advantage had passed to the US, many Type C vessels became casualties as the Japanese merchant fleet was devastated by the American submarine offensive. There were 53 finished during the war of the 300 planned, several completed after World War II ended. 26 were sunk during the war. USS Growler was sunk on 8 November 1944 by CD-19 with destroyer Shigure. USS Trigger was sunk on 28 March 1945 by CD-59 with Mikura. USS Bonefish was sunk on 19 June 1945 by Type C vessels CD-63, CD-75 and CD-207 with Okinawa and CD-158. USS Salmon was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-33 and CD-29 with CD-22 on 30 October 1944. Odd numbers were assigned, while numbers were assigned to Type D escorts. Hiburi-class escort ship Shimushu-class escort ship Destroyer escort Tacoma-class frigate Flower-class corvette Kaibokan C type escorts @IJN C class @warships of WWII US Submarine losses @NavalHistory&Heritage ja:丙型海防艦 Worth, Fleets of World War II, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-81116-2


CKTB is a radio station in St. Catharines, Canada. Broadcasting at 610 AM, the station airs a news/talk format. CKTB is housed in the former mansion of William Hamilton Merritt, the main promoter of the first Welland Canal, located on Yates Street in downtown St. Catharines, its transmitters are located on Grassy Brook Road east of Port Robinson. CKTB was launched in 1930 by Edward T. Sandell at 1120 on the AM dial, as a phantom station of CKOC in Hamilton; as with most early AM radio stations, the station changed frequencies a number of times in its early years, moving to 1200 in 1933, 1230 in 1941, 1550 in 1946, 620 in 1950 and its current 610 in 1959. Sandell died in 1943, the station was acquired by Niagara District Broadcasting the following year. Niagara District Broadcasting subsequently launched CKTB-FM in 1949; the stations were acquired by Standard Broadcasting in 1980. Standard sold CKTB to Affinity Radio Group in 1997. Affinity was in turn acquired by Telemedia in 2000. In October 2007, Astral Media acquired Standard Broadcasting's terrestrial radio and television assets, including CKTB.

Ownership changed hands again in July 2013 when most of Astral Media's broadcasting properties including CKTB were sold to Bell Media, a subsidiary of Bell Canada. CKTB's programming is a mixture of locally produced Canadian programming and American syndicated programs, owing to St. Catharines's position halfway between the cities of Hamilton and Buffalo, New York; as of February 2020, local weekday hosts include Tom McConnell. Weekend local programming consists of a morning show hosted by married hosts Carol and Paul Mott, syndicated on 610 AM and 1010 CFRB. Past hosts of locally produced programming include Joe Cahill, Kevin Jack, Stephanie Sabourin, Rob McConnell, Larry Fedoruk, Chris Biggs and John Michael. CKTB was the only affiliate in Canada to carry the controversial The Phil Hendrie Show until 2006, when Phil Hendrie retired for the first time. CKTB continued to air the best of Phil Hendrie on Saturdays from 6-10p.m. Until April 2007. At that point, the show was replaced with other programming.

With Hendrie's return to radio, however, CKTB returned him to the lineup on a daily basis. The show, was subsequently dropped and replaced by Joy Browne, another American show. Browne's program was subsequently dropped in favour of two-hour-long'best of' programming blocks, edited from the day's local programming. CKTB carries broadcasts of the Niagara IceDogs junior hockey team and the Toronto Maple Leafs of the NHL, along with select programming simulcast with sister station CKOC in Hamilton; until 2005, CKTB had carried sports programming from the Buffalo Bills of the NFL and the NHL's Buffalo Sabres. In that year, CKTB dropped Bills coverage, while the Sabres rights were revoked as Entercom Communications, owners of WGR in Buffalo and WROC in Rochester, New York, gained exclusive rights to the team's games. While St. Catharines is considered a part of the Buffalo market when dealing with syndicated programming, CKTB does not show up in Buffalo's Arbitron ratings. A lack of knowledge of the station, its distance from Buffalo, its Canadian content during the day contribute to this.

However, BBM registers CKTB as a popular station in the St. Catharines market, with audience share comparable to that of CHML's audience share in nearby Hamilton. CKTB CKTB history - Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CKTB