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Long March

The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west; the best known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province; the Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which traversed over 9,000 kilometers over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west north, to Shaanxi; the Long March began the ascent to power of Mao Zedong, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party.

The bitter struggles of the Long March, completed by only about one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi, would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China, would seal the personal prestige of Mao Zedong and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades. 1931: Unofficial founding of the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De. 1931: December, Zhou Enlai arrived in Ruijin and replaced Mao as leader of the CCP. 1932: October, at the Ningdu Conference, the majority of CCP military leaders criticized Mao's tactics. 1933: Bo Gu and Otto Braun arrived from the USSR, reorganized the Red Army, took control of Party affairs. They defeated four encirclement campaigns. 1933: September 25, the Fifth Encirclement Campaign started. Bo and Braun were defeated. 1934: October 16, 130,000 soldiers and civilians, led by Bo Gu and Otto Braun, began the Long March. 1934: November 25 – December 3, Battle of Xiang River. 1935: January 15–17, Zunyi Conference.

The leadership of Bo and Braun was denounced. Zhou became the most powerful person in the Party. 1935: June–July, troops under Zhou and Mao met with Zhang Guotao's troops. The two forces disagreed on strategy, separated. 1935: April 29 – May 8, crossing of the Jinsha River, the upper stream of the Yangtze River. 1935: May 22, Yihai Alliance, the Red Army allied with the Yi people. 1935: May 29, CCP forces captured Luding Bridge. 1935: July, CCP forces crossed the Jade Dragon Snow Mountains. 1935: August, CCP forces crossed the Zoigê Marsh. 1935: September 16, CCP forces crossed the Lazikou Pass. 1935: October 22, three Red Army fronts met in Shaanxi. The Long March ended. 1935: November, Mao became the leader of the CCP. Zhou became Mao's assistant. Although the literal translation of the Chinese Cháng Zhēng is "Long March", official publications of the People's Republic of China refer to it as "The Long March of the Red Army"; the Long March most refers to the transfer of the main group of the First Red Army, which included the leaders of the Communist Party of China, from Yudu in the province of Jiangxi to Yan'an in Shaanxi.

In this sense, the Long March lasted from October 16, 1934, to October 19, 1935. In a broader view, the Long March included two other forces retreating under pressure from the Kuomintang: the Second Red Army and the Fourth Red Army; the retreat of all the Red Armies was not complete until October 22, 1935, when the three forces linked up in Shaanxi. The divisions of the "Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" were named according to historical circumstances, not by chronological order. Indeed, early Communist units would form by defection from existing Kuomintang forces, they kept their original designations. By the time of the Long March, numerous small units had been organized into three unified groups: the First Red Army, the Second Red Army, the Fourth Red Army; some translations refer to these same units as the "First Front Red Army", "Second Front Red Army", "Fourth Front Red Army" to distinguish them from earlier organizational divisions. The First Red Army formed from the First and Fifth Army Groups in southern Jiangxi under the command of Bo Gu and Otto Braun.

When several smaller units formed the Fourth Red Army under Zhang Guotao in the Sichuan–Shaanxi border area, no standard nomenclature of the armies of the Communist Party existed. After the organization of these first two main forces, the Second Red Army formed in eastern Guizhou by unifying the Second and Sixth Army Groups under He Long and Xiao Ke. In this case, a "Third Red Army" was led by He Long, who established his base area in the Hunan–Hubei border; the defeat of his forces in 1932 led to a merge in October 1934 with the 6th Army Corps, led by Xiao Ke, to form the Second Red Army. These three armies would maintain their historical designation as the First and Fourth Red Armies until Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army, forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army, during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945; the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921 by Chen Duxiu with Soviet support. The CCP collaborated with the Chinese Nationalist Party or Kuomintang, founded by the revolutionary republican Sun

Birger Gerhardsson

Birger Gerhardsson was a Swedish New Testament scholar and professor in the Faculty of Theology at Lund University, Sweden. His primary academic focus was on the transmission and development of the oral traditions of the New Testament gospels. Gerhardsson, Birger. Memory and Manuscript: Oral Tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. Copenhagen: Uppsala. OCLC 1061433. ———. Memory and Manuscript: Oral Tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. Acta Seminarii Neotestamentici Upsaliensis. 22. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup. OCLC 936421713. ———. Tradition and Transmission in Early Christianity. Coniectanea Neotestamentica. 20. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup. ———. Memory and Manuscript: Oral Tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity with Tradition and Transmission in Early Christianity. Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802843661. OCLC 258554377. ———. The Origins of the Gospel Traditions. London: SCM Press.

ISBN 9780334011934. OCLC 732883624. ———. The Reliability of the Gospel Tradition. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 9781565636675. OCLC 799278805. Birger Gerhardsson's profile at Baker Publishing Group

German–Soviet Axis talks

In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II. The negotiations, which occurred during the era of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, included a two-day Berlin conference between Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, Adolf Hitler and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, followed by both countries trading written proposed agreements. After two days of negotiations from 12 to 14 November 1940, Germany presented the Soviets with a draft written Axis pact agreement defining the world spheres of influence of the four proposed Axis powers. Hitler and Molotov tried to set German and Soviet spheres of influence. Molotov remained firm, seeking to remove German troops from Finland and gain a warm water port in the Balkans. Soviet foreign policy calculations were predicated by the idea that the war would be a long-term struggle and therefore German claims that Britain would be defeated swiftly were treated with skepticism.

In addition, Stalin sought to remain influential in Yugoslavia. These factors resulted in Molotov taking a firm line. According to a study by Alexander Nekrich, on 25 November 1940, the Soviets presented a Stalin-drafted written counterproposal where they would accept the four power pact, but it included Soviet rights to Bulgaria and a world sphere of influence centered on the area around Iraq and Iran. Germany did not respond. Regarding the counterproposal, Hitler remarked to his top military chiefs that Stalin "demands more and more", "he's a cold-blooded blackmailer" and that "a German victory has become unbearable for Russia" so that "she must be brought to her knees as soon as possible." Germany broke the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1941 by invading the Soviet Union. During the summer of 1939, after conducting negotiations with both a British-French group and Germany regarding potential military and political agreements, the Soviet Union chose Germany, resulting in an August 19 German–Soviet Commercial Agreement providing for the trade of certain German military and civilian equipment in exchange for Soviet raw materials.

Four days the countries signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, which contained secret protocols dividing the states of Northern and Eastern Europe into German and Soviet "spheres of influence."Just before the signing of the agreements, the parties had addressed past hostilities, with German Foreign Minister Joachim Ribbentrop telling Soviet diplomats that "there was no problem between the Baltic and the Black Sea that could not be solved between the two of us." Diplomats from the two countries addressed the common ground of anti-capitalism and anti-democracy, stating "there is one common element in the ideology of Germany and the Soviet Union: opposition to the capitalist democracies," "neither we nor Italy have anything in common with the capitalist west" and "it seems to us rather unnatural that a socialist state would stand on the side of the western democracies."A German official explained that their prior hostility toward Soviet Bolshevism had subsided with the changes in the Comintern and the Soviet renunciation of a world revolution.

A Soviet official characterized the conversation as "extremely important". At the signing and Stalin enjoyed warm conversations, exchanging toasts and further discussing the prior hostilities between the countries in the 1930s. Ribbentrop stated that Britain had always attempted to disrupt Soviet-German relations, was "weak", "wants to let others fight for her presumptuous claim to world dominion". Stalin concurred, adding, "If England dominated the world, due to the stupidity of the other countries that always let themselves be bluffed." Ribbentrop stated that the Anti-Comintern Pact was directed not against the Soviet Union, but against Western democracies, "frightened principally the City of London and the English shopkeepers". He added. Stalin proposed a toast to Hitler, Stalin and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov toasted the German nation, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Soviet-German relations. Ribbentrop countered with a toast to a toast to the countries' relations; as Ribbentrop left, Stalin took him aside and stated that the Soviet Government took the new pact seriously, he would "guarantee his word of honor that the Soviet Union would not betray its partner."

One week after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact's signing, the partition of Poland commenced with the German invasion of western Poland. The Soviet Comintern suspended all anti-Nazi and anti-fascist propaganda, explaining that the war in Europe was a matter of capitalist states attacking each other for imperialist purposes; when anti-German demonstrations erupted in Prague, the Comintern ordered the Czech Communist Party to employ all of its strength to paralyze "chauvinist elements." Moscow soon forced the French Communist Party and the Communist Party of Great Britain to adopt an anti-war position. Two weeks after the German invasion, the Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland, coordinating with German forces. On September 21, the Soviets and Germans signed a formal agreement coordinating military movements in Poland, including the "purging" of saboteurs. A joint German-Soviet parade was held in Brest. Stalin had decided in August that he was going to liquidate the Polish state, a German-Soviet meeting in Se

Theatre Workshop

Theatre Workshop is a theatre group whose long-serving director was Joan Littlewood. Many actors of the 1950s and 1960s received their training and first exposure with the company, many of its productions were transferred to theatres in the West End, some, such as Oh, What a Lovely War! and A Taste of Honey, were made into films. Joan Littlewood and Ewan MacColl met and married in 1934, while both were working with the Theatre of Action, they started their own collaboration developing radio plays for the BBC, taking scripts and cast from local workers. However, both MI5 and the Special Branch maintained a watch on the couple because of their support for the Communist Party of Great Britain. Littlewood was precluded from working for the BBC as a children's programme presenter and some of MacColl's work was banned from broadcast. In the late 1930s Littlewood and MacColl formed; this was dissolved in 1940, but in 1945 many of its former members joined Joan Littlewood's new venture, the Theatre Workshop.

In 1948 the company toured Sweden. Touring was not successful for the company, in 1953 Joan Littlewood took the gamble of taking a lease on a permanent base at the Theatre Royal Stratford East, London; the theatre was derelict, no funds were available for renovation, the actors cleaned and painted the auditorium between rehearsals. To save money the cast and crew slept in the dressing rooms; the theatre opened on 2 February 1953 with Twelfth Night. MacColl had not supported the move to London, left the company to concentrate on folk music. With Littlewood, as director, Gerry Raffles as manager and John Bury as designer, the Theatre Workshop continued to present a mixed programme of classics and modern plays with contemporary themes; the cast and crew lived and worked as a commune, sharing the many tasks associated with running and maintaining a theatre, with a duty roster for "chef of the week". In April 1953, a request for funds was met with The Finance Committee at their last meeting was unable to recommend any grant for the purposes you have in mind.

However, the Committee indicated that they would be prepared to assist, where possible in the matter of publicity, providing this could be done without cost to the Committee Success came following an invitation from Claude Planson, the director of the Paris International Festival of Theatre, to represent England at the festival in 1955. The company travelled to Paris with costumes in their suitcases and scenery under their arms. In May 1955 Theatre Workshop presented acclaimed productions of Volpone and Arden of Faversham at the Théâtre Hébertot, though the company had to beg their fares home; the Arts Council and critics became aware of the company, they returned to Paris with six more productions. In 1963 they won the Award of the Grande Prix du Festival for Oh, What a Lovely War!. In 1955 Littlewood directed, took the leading role in, the London premiere of Bertolt Brecht's Mother Courage and Her Children. Finances continued to be tight, but the company was kept afloat with transfers of many successful plays to the West End stage and film productions.

This workload put a severe strain on resources, as these transfers meant that experienced cast members were tied up for long periods and had to be replaced in the repertory. Until 1968, the Theatres Act 1843 required scripts to be submitted for approval by the Lord Chamberlain's Office; this caused conflicts because of the improvisational theatre techniques used by Littlewood to develop plays for performance. She was twice fined for allowing the company to improvise in performance; the Fun Palace was an ambitious multi-arts project conceived by Littlewood and the company in conjunction with the architect Cedric Price. The project was never built, but the concept may have influenced projects such the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. Another project conceived in the 1960s was the formation of an acting school associated with Theatre Workshop to inspire a new generation of actors with the ideas and techniques of Littlewood. Although Littlewood herself disapproved, believing that acting was an unteachable skill, the East 15 Acting School became successful.

It is now based in its own premises in Loughton. In 2000 the school became part of the University of Essex. By the end of the 1960s both the company and the theatre were under threat; the Theatre Workshop presented revivals of its own productions and a campaign was begun to save the theatre from redevelopment as part of a new shopping centre planned to transform the centre of Stratford. Audiences mounted a campaign to save the theatre and for many years it remained open in the centre of a building site. In 1975 Gerry Raffles died of diabetes and in 1979 Littlewood moved to France, ceased to direct. Many well-regarded television and stage actors began their professional careers at Theatre Workshop under Littlewood's tutelage, they included Yootha Joyce, Glynn Edwards, Harry H. Corbett, George A. Cooper, Richard Harris, Stephen Lewis, Howard Goorney, Brian Murphy, Murray Melvin, Nigel Hawthorne and Barbara Windsor; the last three were cast by the director Ken Russell to appear in the film version of The Boy Friend with Twiggy.

Philip Hedley had worked as an assistant to Joan Littlewood for some years, took over the artistic directorship on her departure from the theatre. He continued her educational work, engaged with new Asian and Black audiences as the local demographic changed; the theatre continued Littlewood's agenda of portraying and expressing the experience of local people in East London. In 1999 Hadley began the Musical Theatre Initiatives scheme to encourage new writ

Bergen County Academies

The Bergen County Academies referred to as Bergen Academies or as the Academies due to its seven academic and professional divisions, is a tuition-free public magnet high school located in Hackensack, New Jersey that serves students in the ninth through twelfth grades from Bergen County, New Jersey. Founded in 1991, BCA was named as one of the 23 highest performing high schools in the United States by The Washington Post. BCA is a National Blue Ribbon School, a member of the National Consortium of Secondary STEM Schools, home of eleven 2020 Regeneron Science Talent Search Scholars including two Finalists, a Model School in the Arts as named by the New Jersey Department of Education; as of the 2017-18 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,098 students and 93.0 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 11.8:1. There were 17 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. Admission to BCA is selective, as the school accepts about 15% of students who apply each year through a process that includes middle school transcripts, letters of recommendation, an entrance test, an interview by a panel of faculty.

The school's strengths are its academics, extracurricular activities, notable faculty. While offering some 14 AP courses, BCA does not focus on them. Led by a faculty of which 20% hold PhDs, students at BCA enjoy courses that surpass AP courses in technical rigor and creativity. For the Class of 2020, the average SAT was 1492 and the average ACT was 33. In 2015, Bergen County Academies was one of 15 schools in New Jersey, one of 9 public schools, to be recognized as a National Blue Ribbon School in the exemplary high performing category by the United States Department of Education. In the same year, Newsweek ranked BCA 5th out of the top 500 public schools in America in 2015 and 4th in New Jersey. Inside Jersey magazine ranked BCA 1st in its 2014 ranking of New Jersey's Top Performing High Schools. In the same year, The Daily Beast ranked BCA 15th in the nation among over 700 magnet and charter schools, 2nd among the 25 Best High Schools in the Northeast, 1st among schools in New Jersey; the Washington Post designated BCA as one of 23 top-performing schools with elite students intentionally excluded from its list of America's Most Challenging High Schools "because, despite their exceptional quality, their admission rules and standardized test scores indicate they have few or no average students."

BCA is divided into seven academic and professional divisions which are referred to by their single-word nicknames or acronyms. However, BCA is treated as a single high school within the state. BCA has an extended school day from 8:00 AM to 4:10 PM; the day starts with a 4-minute Information Gathering Session followed by 27 modules that last 15 minutes each. There are 18 academic departments at BCA: Biology, Chemistry, Culinary Arts, English, Health/PE, Journalism, Music, Studio Arts and Graphic Communications, Theater Arts, Senior Experience, Visual Arts, World Languages. All academies require four years of English Language, social studies, physical education, as well as three years of science and world language. All students take three years of projects and clubs, with clubs placed at the last three mods on Wednesday. Seniors participate in Senior Experience, an internship program through which seniors work and learn for the full business day each Wednesday instead of reporting to school. In addition, 40 hours of community service are required for graduation.

While offering some 14 AP courses, BCA does not emphasize them. BCA gives its teachers great freedom in curriculum design to adequately engage the intellectual capacity of the student body. Thus, courses surpass AP courses in technical rigor and creativity; such courses include Series Hybrids and Electric Vehicles, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Digital Electronics and Lasers, Modern Optical Physics, Advanced Problems in Music Theory, Comparative Asian Cultures, Forensic Science, Foundations of Nanotechnology, Interactive Design, Medical Microbiology, Markets & Trading, Acting Methods, Bioethics and Physiology, Organic Chemistry and International Economics, Advanced Business Topics and Culinology. Research is available to students in all academies: the independent research opportunities offered allow students to compete in science fairs on local to international levels as well as submit papers for publication. Students of all academies participate in various performing arts courses; the BCA Concert and Chamber Choirs have won excellent ratings and awards at local and national competitions under Dr. Patrick D. Finley.

The instrumental performance program offers other features, including an opportunity for students to play with the North Jersey Philharmonic and the Guitar and Mandolin Society, the latter of, founded by BCA's instrumental music director Michael Lemma. The school features two studio art labs, one of, a visual arts lab with compositing and printing equipment that trains students in graphic communication and print media. Artwork produced by students have won awards in local and national competitions; the theatre department puts on musicals each year. AAST was founded on a charter school framework in 1992 with the mission of preparing students for careers in math and science by promoting a problem-solving, project-based, technical learning environment. AAST has departed from this model and has since adopted a more standard college-preparatory curriculum; the roo

Lillis Business Complex

The Lillis Business Complex is a building on the University of Oregon campus in Eugene, Oregon. It is home to the Charles H. Lundquist College of Business; the Complex consists of four buildings. The oldest building is Peterson Hall, completed in 1916 as the Education Building. In 1921, Anstett Hall called the Commerce Building, was completed to house the Business School; the two buildings were designed as a pair by the University Architect, Ellis F. Lawrence, were designed to serve as "entry pylons" for the main campus quadrangle. Commonwealth Hall opened in 1952, connected Oregon Hall and Commerce. In 1975, Commonwealth Hall was renamed after James H. Gilbert, Education was renamed Gilbert West, while Commerce became Gilbert East; the Chiles Business Center was completed in 1986 to accommodate the expanding Lundquist College of Business. In 2001, Gilbert Hall was demolished to make way for construction of the Lillis Business Complex. At that time, Gilbert West was renamed Peterson Hall, Gilbert East took the name Anstett Hall.

The 2003 construction of the Lillis Business Complex resulted in the linking of all three existing buildings with the new Lillis "backbone." In addition, Lillis Hall contains numerous faculty offices, classrooms, a lecture hall, an auditorium. The Lillis Business Complex combines 1920s architecture with state-of-the-art facilities and sustainable design; the front of the building features photovoltaic cells embedded in the glass, which provide a portion of the building's energy. In addition, the building and offices were oriented so as to maximize the use of natural light, all rooms are outfitted with the latest sensor technology to minimize energy usage. In 2005, the building received the U. S. Green Building Council's LEED-NC Silver designation, ranking it higher than any other business school in the nation. Additionally, it is among the most environmentally conscious buildings on any college campus in the U. S.. The atrium solar array is the largest installation of architectural solar glass in the Northwest United States, although about a third of the array does not generate power due to a large shade tree and the blocking of the afternoon sun by part of the building.

University maintenance crews placed trash cans in front of the lowest level of the solar panels, ensuring that this section of the array cannot generate electricity. Peterson Hall and Anstett Hall have been declared historic buildings, beginning in 2007 they are being internally renovated under LEED-EB standards. List of University of Oregon buildings Wind Fence, a sculpture on the north side of the complex Lundquist College of Business - official site Floor plans Official site of artist Ned Kahn UO Libraries' Architecture Guide