A plant cutting is a piece of a plant, used in horticulture for vegetative propagation. A piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting produces new roots, a root cutting produces new stems; some plants can be grown from leaf pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems and roots. The scions used in grafting are called cuttings. Propagating plants from cuttings is an ancient form of cloning. There are several advantages of cuttings that the produced offspring are clones of their parent plants. If a plant has favorable traits, it can continue to pass down its advantageous genetic information to its offspring; this is economically advantageous as it allows commercial growers to clone a certain plant to ensure consistency throughout their crops. The poet Theodore Roethke wrote about plant cuttings and root growth behavior in his poems "Cuttings" and "Cuttings" found in his book The Lost Son: And Other Poems.
Cuttings are used as a method of asexual reproduction in succulent horticulture referred to as vegetative reproduction. A cutting can be referred to as a propagule. Succulents have evolved with the ability to use adventitious root formation in reproduction to increase fitness in stressful environments. Succulents grow in shallow soils, rocky soils, desert soils. Seedlings from sexual reproduction have a low survival rate. Cuttings have both water and carbon stored and available, which are resources needed for plant establishment; the detached part of the plant remains physiologically active, allowing mitotic activity and new root structures to form for water and nutrient uptake. Asexual reproduction of plants is evolutionarily advantageous as it allows plantlets to be better suited to their environment though retention of epigenetic memory, heritable patterns of phenotypic differences that are not due to changes in DNA but rather histone modification and DNA methylation. Epigenetic memory is heritable through mitosis, thus advantageous stress response priming is retained in plantlets from excised stem.
Adventitious root formation refers to roots that form from any structure of a plant, not a root. Adventitious root formation from the excised stem cutting is a wound response. At a molecular level when a cutting is first excised at the stem there is an immediate increase in jasmonic acid, known to be necessary for adventitious root formation; when the cutting is excised from the original root system the root inhibiting hormones and strigolactone, which are made in the root and transported to the stem, decrease in concentration. Polyphenol degradation decreases; the increased auxin concentration increases nitric oxide concentration which initiates root formation through a MAPK signal cascade and a cGMP-dependent pathway that that both regulate mitotic division and are both necessary for the initiation of adventitious root formation. The root primordia form from cambial cells in the stem. In propagation of detached succulent leaves and leaf cuttings, the root primordia emerges from the basal callous tissue after the leaf primordia emerges.
It was known as early as 1935 that when indolyl-3-acetic acid known as auxin, is applied to the stem of root cuttings, there is an increase the average number of adventitious roots compared to cuttings that are not treated. Researchers applied this compound to stems without leaves that would not have any root formation and found that auxin induced root formation, thus determining auxin is necessary for root formation. Identification of this hormone has been important to industries that rely on vegetative propagation, as it is sometimes applied to fresh cuttings to stimulate root growth; some plants form roots much more than others. Stem cuttings from woody plants are treated differently, depending on the maturity of the wood: Softwood cuttings come from stems that are expanding, with young leaves. In many species, such cuttings form roots easily. Semi-hardwood cuttings come from have mature leaves. Hardwood cuttings come from matured stems, are propagated while dormant. Most plant cuttings are stem pieces, have no root system of their own, they are to die from dehydration if the proper conditions are not met.
They require a moist medium, however, cannot be too wet lest the cutting rot. A number of media are used in this process, including but not limited to soil, vermiculite, rock wool, expanded clay pellets, water given the right conditions. Most succulent cuttings can be left in open air until the cut surface dries, which may improve root formation when the cutting is planted. In temperate countries, stem cuttings may be taken of soft wood and hard wood which has specific differences in practice. Certain conditions lead to more favorable outcomes for cuttings. Stem cuttings of young wood should be taken in spring from the upper branches, while cuttings of hardened wood should be taken in winter from the lower branches. Common bounds on the length of stem cuttings are between 5–15 centimetres for soft wood and between 20–25 centimetres for hard wood. Soft wood cuttings do best when about two thirds of the fol
Korea Forest Service
The Korea Forest Service is charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands. It is an independent agency specializing in forestry, overseen by the Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries; the current minister is Mr. Kim Jae-Hyun; the headquarters of the agency is located at the Daejeon Government Complex. The Korea Forest Service has the overall responsibility for establishment and implementation of forest policies and laws; the KFS consists of 5 bureaus, 22 divisions, 5 Regional Forest Services, 27 National Forest Stations. There are KFS-affiliated agencies such as the Forest Aviation Headquarters, the Korea Forest Research Institute, the National Arboretum, the National Natural Recreation Forest Office; the province and metropolitan cities have their local forestry administrative organizations. The Korea Forest Service is involved in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Convention on Biological Diversity to contribute to global environmental issues.
Not to mention, initiative actions were taken to implement actual projects based on rehabilitation technologies in collaboration between the government and the private sector. In order to take the leading role in both bilateral and regional cooperation for mitigating desertification and drought, the Korea Forest Service is promoting closer cooperation through bilateral forestry cooperation arrangements and establishment of the Northeast Asia Forest Network; the Korea Forest Service hosted UNCCD-COP10 as an opportunity to raise awareness of the Korean people as well as the rest of the world on desertification issues, contribute to implementing more projects to combat desertification and establishing an effective cooperative mechanism. The Korea Forest Service, in close coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has taken the key role for the establishment of Asian Forest Cooperation Organization; the Korean peninsula is located between 33°7′ and 43°1′ in northern latitude, 124°11′ and 131°53′ in eastern longitude at the heart of the North Western Pacific, sharing a border with China and Russia to the north and lying near the Japanese archipelago to the south.
It extends about 960 km southward and its width is about 170 km from east to west, surrounded by three oceans and near 70% of the terrain is mountainous so its terrestrial and marine ecosystems have a variety of species with high biodiversity. The Korean peninsula encompasses 45 % of which makes up the Republic of Korea; the 20% of the total land area in the ROK is used for agriculture while forests cover 64%. The Korean peninsula lies in the east of the temperate forest zone, which contributes top the distinct seasonal temperature and precipitation; the main mountain range of the Korean peninsula is the BaekduDaegan Mountains. It stretches 1,400 km from Mt. Baekdu in North Korea all the way down to Mt. Jiri in South Korea, forming the great backbone of the Korean peninsula. Korea’s forest was devastated in the 1950~60s due to the Korean War and land use change for industrialization. Since the establishment in 1967, the Korea Forest Service has made diverse efforts for forest rehabilitation; these efforts returned dramatic increase in the growing stock volume.
The volume of 10㎥ in the 1960s increased more than 10 times in 40 years recording 103㎥ by the end of 2008. The public benefits of forests grew as well, it is equivalent to an economic value of around US$60 billion, which accounts for 8% of the gross domestic product. The foundation for successful rehabilitation would be the National Forest Plans established and implemented on 10-year routine. After undergoing four-fold National Forest Plans, the Fifth Plan launched in 2008 which aims to achieve “healthy forest, rich mountains, happy people” and realize “sustainable green welfare nation”. Thus, the Korea Forest Service is making efforts to develop multiple benefits of forest resources and renewable forest industry, provide better quality of life through forestry, strengthen international cooperation. Korea's new national vision for the forthcoming 60 years is "Low Carbon Green Growth"; the Korean government has elaborately designed a new paradigm of a green society, aiming to transfer the current energy system emitting a large amount of greenhouse gases into a low carbon society with high power-efficiency.
This forward-looking vision for national development is to help address environmental issues including global warming and facilitate sustainable development In realizing Green Growth, forest is the key resource. Notably enough, forest is recognized as a sole carbon sink under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Korean forests sequestered 41 million tons of carbon dioxide as of 2007, which accounted for 66% of the total carbon emissions in Korea. Forest has great potentials in developing green technologies regarding a wide use of forest bioenergy, industrialization of forest bio-resources. To maximize this forest value as a key resource, Korea has been working on pursuing Green Growth in various fields such as bioenergy technology development, the biotechnology industry, other energy businesses; the KFS has been implementing forest policies with the view of providing the public with an improved quality of life by offering recreation forests, healing forests and mountaineering services and expanding urban green spaces.
As part of the forest policies, it contributed to revitalizing Korea's economic depression, locally referred to as the IMF, by creating green jobs under forest tending projects. As the country whose successful rehabilitation projects were internationally recognized, Korea continues to take part in global activities addressing climate change and to build a
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant; the embryo is developed from the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates; the term "seed" has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Many structures referred to as "seeds" are dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate. Sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to and surrounding the actual seed. Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms. Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth; some fruits have layers of both fleshy material. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, which begin their development "naked" on the bracts of cones. However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales.
Seed production in natural plant populations varies from year to year in response to weather variables and diseases, internal cycles within the plants themselves. Over a 20-year period, for example, forests composed of loblolly pine and shortleaf pine produced from 0 to nearly 5 million sound pine seeds per hectare. Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, nine good seed crops, when evaluated for production of adequate seedlings for natural forest reproduction. Angiosperm seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: the embryo formed from the zygote, the endosperm, triploid, the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization, which involves the fusion of two male gametes with the egg cell and the central cell to form the primary endosperm and the zygote. Right after fertilization, the zygote is inactive, but the primary endosperm divides to form the endosperm tissue.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination. After fertilization the ovules develop into the seeds; the ovule consists of a number of components: The funicle or seed stalk which attaches the ovule to the placenta and hence ovary or fruit wall, at the pericarp. The nucellus, the remnant of the megasporangium and main region of the ovule where the megagametophyte develops; the micropyle, a small pore or opening in the apex of the integument of the ovule where the pollen tube enters during the process of fertilization. The chalaza, the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, where integument and nucellus are joined together; the shape of the ovules as they develop affects the final shape of the seeds. Plants produce ovules of four shapes: the most common shape is called anatropous, with a curved shape. Orthotropous ovules are straight with all the parts of the ovule lined up in a long row producing an uncurved seed. Campylotropous ovules have a curved megagametophyte giving the seed a tight "C" shape.
The last ovule shape is called amphitropous, where the ovule is inverted and turned back 90 degrees on its stalk. In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, this establishes the polarity of the embryo; the upper or chalazal pole becomes the main area of growth of the embryo, while the lower or micropylar pole produces the stalk-like suspensor that attaches to the micropyle. The suspensor absorbs and manufactures nutrients from the endosperm that are used during the embryo's growth; the main components of the embryo are: The cotyledons, the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis. There may be two; the cotyledons are the source of nutrients in the non-endospermic dicotyledons, in which case they replace the endosperm, are thick and leathery. In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are papery. Dicotyledons have the point of attachment opposite one another on the axis; the epicotyl, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.
The plumule, the tip of the epicotyl, has a feathery appearance due to the presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, will become the shoot upon germination. The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root transition zone; the radicle, the basal tip of the hy
In the APG IV system for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade. Common examples include the forget-me-nots, the common sunflower, morning glory and sweet potato, lavender, olive, honeysuckle, ash tree, snapdragon, psyllium, garden sage, table herbs such as mint and rosemary, rainforest trees such as Brazil nut. Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems; the name asterids resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the ICBN. The phylogenetic tree presented hereafter has been proposed by the APG IV project. Genetic analysis carried out after APG II maintains that the sister to all other asterids are the Cornales. A second order that split from the base of the asterids are the Ericales; the remaining orders cluster into two clades, the lamiids and the campanulids. The structure of both of these clades has changed in APG III.
In APG III system, the following clades were renamed: euasterids I → lamiids euasterids II → campanulids Asterids in Stevens, P. F.. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006
The Dipsacales are an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid group of dicotyledons. In the APG III system of 2009, the order includes only two families, Adoxaceae and a broadly defined Caprifoliaceae; some well-known members of the Dipsacales order are honeysuckle, elder and valerian. Under the Cronquist system, the order included Adoxaceae, Caprifoliaceae sensu stricto and Valerianaceae. Under the 2003 APG II system, the circumscription of the order was much the same but the system allowed either a broadly circumscribed Caprifoliaceae including the families Diervillaceae, Linnaeaceae and Valerianaceae, or these families being kept separate; the APG III system only uses the broadly circumscribed Caprifoliceae. The Dipsacales appear to be most related to the Paracryphiales. Bell, C. D. E. J. Edwards, S. T. Kim, & M. J. Donoghue. 2001. Dipsacales phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA sequences. Harvard Papers in Botany 6:481-499. Donoghue, M. J. C. D. Bell, & R. C. Winkworth. 2003. The evolution of reproductive characters in Dipsacales.
International Journal of Plant Sciences 164:S453-S464 Dipsacales at Tree of Life Phylogeny of the Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Dipsacales