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Lorentz force

In physics the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge q moving with a velocity v in an electric field E and a magnetic field B experiences a force of F = q E + q v × B. Variations on this basic formula describe the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire, the electromotive force in a wire loop moving through a magnetic field, the force on a charged particle which might be traveling near the speed of light. Historians suggest that the law is implicit in a paper by James Clerk Maxwell, published in 1865. Hendrik Lorentz arrived in a complete derivation in 1895, identifying the contribution of the electric force a few years after Oliver Heaviside identified the contribution of the magnetic force; the force F acting on a particle of electric charge q with instantaneous velocity v, due to an external electric field E and magnetic field B, is given by: where × is the vector cross product. In terms of cartesian components, we have: F x = q, F y = q, F z = q.

In general, the electric and magnetic fields are functions of the time. Therefore, the Lorentz force can be written as: F = q in which r is the position vector of the charged particle, t is time, the overdot is a time derivative. A positively charged particle will be accelerated in the same linear orientation as the E field, but will curve perpendicularly to both the instantaneous velocity vector v and the B field according to the right-hand rule; the term qE is called the electric force. According to some definitions, the term "Lorentz force" refers to the formula for the magnetic force, with the total electromagnetic force given some other name; this article will not follow this nomenclature: In what follows, the term "Lorentz force" will refer to the expression for the total force. The magnetic force component of the Lorentz force manifests itself as the force that acts on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. In that context, it is called the Laplace force; the Lorentz force is a force exerted by the electromagnetic field on the charged particle, that is, it is the rate at which linear momentum is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the particle.

Associated with it is the power, the rate at which energy is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the particle. That power is v ⋅ F = q v ⋅ E. Notice that the magnetic field does not contribute to the power because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the velocity of the particle. For a continuous charge distribution in motion, the Lorentz force equation becomes: d F = d q where d F is the force on a small piece of the charge distribution with charge d q. If both sides of this equation are divided by the volume of this small piece of the charge distribution d V, the result is: f = ρ where f is the force density (forc

Henrietta Stockdale

Sister Henrietta, CSM and AA was a British nursing pioneer and Anglican religious sister. Through her influence and pressure the first state registration of nurses and midwives in the world was brought about when the Cape of Good Hope Medical and Pharmacy Act of 1891 passed into law, she was a member of the Anglican Community of St Michael and All Angels. Sister Henrietta was born on 9 July 1847 at Gringley on the Hill, the eldest of five children of the Revd Henry Stockdale, the vicar of Misterton and of Bole, she was confirmed by bishop of Lincoln on 22 March 1863, at Walkeringham. A few weeks the Edward Twells, newly consecrated bishop of the Orange River Mission, visited the Walkeringham Vicarage, where Mr. Stockdale, Henrietta and a cousin of hers met with him; the young Henrietta's missionary enthusiasm was fired by this meeting, she and her cousin were both made Associates of the Bloemfontein Mission."From that time, when she was only fifteen, until her death nearly fifty years afterwards, she gave her prayers, her thoughts, her time, herself to the Bloemfontein Mission, died in its cause."

In 1870 Bishop Allan Becher Webb was made Bishop of Bloemfontein, before he went out he visited Bole to see Henrietta. A year the Revd Mr Bevan from the Orange River Mission visited the family and was instrumental in having Herietta's brother go out to the mission at Modderpoort, she followed in due course, responding to a call by Webb for nurses. Miss Stockdale received some months’ training as a nurse at the Clewer Hospital and at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, she sailed for South Africa, with other volunteers and in the company of Archdeacon and Mrs Croghan, on 6 March 1874, the same day on which she had, eleven years before, been made an Associate of the Orange River Mission. Landing at Port Elizabeth, the party travelled up to Bloemfontein, where they founded the Community of St Michael and All Angels; when Miss Stockdale was admitted to full membership of the order, about 1875, she took her vows and was henceforth known as Sister Henrietta. Sister Henrietta first went across to Kimberley in the winter of 1876, working as district nurse in the mining camps, at Kimberley's new Carnarvon Hospital.

She returned to England to recover from typhoid contracted at this time, taking the opportunity to train further at London's University College Hospital. It was on her going back to Kimberley that she established Southern Africa's first training school for nurses at the Carnarvon Hospital. "Inspired and guided by her", wrote Dr Charlotte Searle, "Kimberley nurses moved out to wherever they were needed, establishing hospitals, starting nurses' training schools, providing nursing care."Sister Henrietta spent a year as Matron at the St George's Hospital in Bloemfontein, but returned to Kimberley. In 1880-1881, during the First Boer War, she took charge of the military hospital at Newcastle, Colony of Natal. Sister Henrietta registered with the British Trained Nurses’ Association in 1890, maintained contact with its founder, Mrs Bedford Fenwick, an early advocate of State registration of nurses. In South Africa Sister Henrietta persuaded influential figures, notably Dr William Guybon Atherstone of Grahamstown, to back legislation providing for registration of nurses and midwives.

This was achieved through the Cape Colony's Medical and Pharmacy Act of 1891. The Carnarvon and Diggers' Hospitals combined to become the Kimberley Hospital in 1892. Subsidised by the Cape Government, it was enlarged and attracted doctors such as Leander Starr Jameson and John Mackenzie, who took part in the training of nurses; the Community of St Michael and All Angels withdrew from Kimberley Hospital in 1895, whereafter Sister Henrietta established a maternity nursing home and nursing co-operative at St Michael's Home. Sister Henrietta died in Kimberley on 6 October 1911, aged 64, was buried at the Dutoitspan Cemetery. A stained glass window at St Cyprian's Cathedral, installed in the nave soon after her death, was given in memory of Sr Henrietta. In 1970 a statue by Jack Penn, reputedly one of the only statues of a nun, was erected in the cathedral grounds and unveiled by Bishop Philip Wheeldon. A bust, based on the same statue, is situated in the north transept of the Anglican Cathedral in Bloemfontein, where the Community of St Michael and All Angels was founded.

In 1984 the remains of Sister Henrietta, of two fellow workers originally buried at Dutoitspan Cemetery, were reinterred at St Cyprian's Cathedral. The graves are alongside the statue. Over a number of years, Sister Henriettta has come to be remembered annually in Kimberley; the St Cyprian's Guild at the cathedral, in association with the Historical Society of Kimberley and the Northern Cape, organised services led by cathedral clergy and choir at the Sister Henrietta Stockdale Chapel, on 6 October each year. The anniversary of her death is fixed in the calendar of saints of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, which provides a collect for Sister Henrietta CSM & AA; the centenary of her death in 2011 was marked with a Health and Wellness Day on the lawns at St Cyprian's Cathedral and a Thanksgiving Mass in the cathedral at which Bishop Oswald Swartz presided and preached. In the spirit of Sister Henrietta's vision, with links thus rekindled with health and medical services in the city, the cathedral promotes and co-ordinates this new pattern of commemoration through health screening and career guidance, combined with a symbolic element of thanksgiving and wreath-

Health eResearch Centre

The Health eResearch Centre is a digital-health network directed by Prof. John Ainsworth that provides education across Northern England and beyond. Based at The University of Manchester and incorporating data-intensive health research from the universities of Bradford, Lancaster and York, the Health eResearch Centre has one principal aim: to improve public health and healthcare services through informatics research and digital health innovation; the centre delivers over 40 eHealth projects that aim to advance science's understanding of specific diseases alongside providing the methodological blueprints on how to conduct health data research. Projects are grouped broadly into the following six themes: Endotype Discovery. By combining clinical and genetic data researchers are able to understand more about the root cause of individual diseases leading to more specific and effective treatments; this work enables a shift towards more personalised models of care. Efficient Trials. Efficient trials is a multi-disciplinary theme, developing solutions to help streamline the way that research is designed and conducted, evidence generated and findings translated.

This work is helping to speed up the pace of progress in the NHS. Actionable Healthcare Analytics. Through the development of virtual health'bots' with the ability to scan patients' medical records and identify potential opportunities to improve their care investigators at the Health eResearch Centre are making important inroads in improving early disease detection and improving care standards. Health eRecord Discovery Science. By linking data from different services with information from other sources allows HeRC researchers to build a more comprehensive picture of specific disease and how different disease areas - like cancer and type 2 diabetes develop and interact with each other. Co-produced Health; the digital revolution is allowing patients to take more control of their health by generating quantifiable data through mobile devices. By using disruptive technology and theory to create real-time feedback loops between patient and professional to improve self-managed care. EInfrastructure. Health data science requires considerable computing power and a huge upgrade in the North of England's digital infrastructure.

The Health eResearch Centre is one of four publicly funded eResearch centres of excellence that together make up The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research. The network is building capacity in health informatics research; the Farr Institute provides the physical and electronic infrastructure to facilitate collaboration across the four bodies, led from the universities of Dundee, Swansea and UCL, supports the safe use of research and patients' data for medical research

Citrus Hill

Citrus Hill was a brand of orange juice introduced by Procter & Gamble in the United States market in 1982 used for other fruit juices and beverages. The launch of Citrus Hill occurred when P&G acquired Florida-based Ben Hill Griffin Inc. and created a brand to sell its juice products under, with national distribution. This thrust P&G into the competitive orange juice market, dominated by Minute Maid and Tropicana Products. Procter & Gamble hoped to differentiate themselves from the other major brands by marketing Citrus Hill as a premium product, which proved unsuccessful in a segment with technology limiting the 1980s orange juice market to made-from-concentrate products of equal quality differentiated by price and perceived value. Citrus Hill had the distinction of introducing the first calcium-enriched orange juice in 1986, met with indifference from consumers. Citrus Hill would trudge along in a distant third place throughout its life, a desperate attempt at rebranding would spell the demise for the brand.

In 1990, Citrus Hill changed the name of its orange juice to Citrus Hill Fresh Select, with the word "Fresh" emphasized boldly and a small disclaimer stating that it was "Fresh from Concentrate." In June 1990, Commissioner David Aaron Kessler of the Food & Drug Administration declared that the use of "fresh" was a misnomer and a violation of 1963 rules governing processed orange juice, which P&G denied. The FDA would exchange correspondence with Procter & Gamble from that point forward while Citrus Hill continued with the same marketing, but negotiations broke down on April 24, 1991; the same day, the FDA seized 12,000 gallons of Fresh Select orange juice from a warehouse in Minneapolis stating that it was improperly labeled and that their claims of "fresh" were false advertising. P&G agreed to stop using the term "fresh" to describe its juice, but at that point, the seizure had become headline news nationwide. Footage of Citrus Hill juice being seized during television news broadcasts and in newspaper pictures decimated consumer confidence in the brand and affected sales heavily.

The brand was wound down, efforts to find a buyer proved unsuccessful. In 1994, PepsiCo would license the Citrus Hill brand for a line of fruit-flavoured fountain beverages, which ended when Pepsi acquired Tropicana in 1998 and rebranded the drink line to the Tropicana brand; the former Citrus Hill processing facility in Florida is now owned by Cargill

Matthew Stover

Matthew Woodring Stover is an American fantasy and science fiction novelist. He may be known best for his four Star Wars novels, including the novelization of Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, he has written several fantasy novels, including Iron Dawn and Jericho Moon. He has written four science-fiction/fantasy hybrid stories featuring a hero named Caine: Heroes Die, Blade of Tyshalle, Caine Black Knife, with the most recent, Caine's Law, released April 4, 2012. Stover attended Danville High School in Danville and graduated in 1979, he graduated in 1983 from Drake University, settled in Chicago for many years, before relocating to St. Petersburg, Florida, he is an avid martial artist and a student of the Degerberg Blend, a Jeet Kune Do concept that mixes twenty-five different fighting arts from around the world. This combat style influences the way Stover writes his fight scenes, for which he has won considerable acclaim, he is the founder and self-described "international grandmaster" of a parodic self-defense system he calls Huàn Dao, which he has described as "self-defense for people too lazy to train and too smart to fight."

He says the system was inspired by a passage from the ancient Greek soldier-poet Archilochus: "The fox is swift and clever and knows many tricks, yet still he is taken by the hounds. The hedgehog is slow and dull, knows only one trick -- but it is a good trick." He sometimes refers to Huan Dao as "Fatmattjitsu." His non-Star Wars novels have garnered a smaller but loyal audience for the Acts of Caine cycle. As for future Star Wars novels, Stover has said that he would be interested in writing the final adventure of the heroic trio of Luke Skywalker, Han Solo and Princess Leia. Iron Dawn ISBN 0-451-45590-8, ISBN 0-451-45589-4 Jericho Moon ISBN 0-451-45678-5, ISBN 0-451-45758-7 Heart of Bronze ISBN 1-56865-741-2In January 2011, fsand.com released e-book versions of both novels. The e-books were revised by Stover to restore some material cut by the original publisher. Heroes Die Blade of Tyshalle Caine Black Knife Caine's Law Traitor Shatterpoint Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Star Wars on Trial: Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers Debate the Most Popular Science Fiction Films of All Time Luke Skywalker and the Shadows of Mindor Star Wars on Trial: The Force Awakens Edition: Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers Debate the Most Popular Science Fiction Films of All Time God of War and Robert E. Vardeman – continued by Vardeman alone, 2011 Test of Metal: A Planeswalker Novel The Real Flash Gordon "Precursor" from Legends: Tales from the Eternal Archive ISBN 0-88677-823-9 "Br'er Robert" "Equipment" from the Star Wars Short Story Collection "In the Sorrows" "The Persian, the Coon, Bullets" from the anthology Catopolis ISBN 978-0-7564-0514-4 "South Side Whipsaw: A Brock Steele Adventure" from Conquering Science Fiction "The Tenebrous Way" from Star Wars Insider #130 Suvudu Cage Match 2012 "Round 1: Caine versus Paksenarrion" "Round 2: Caine versus Zaphod Beeblebrox" "So, Conan and Elric Walk Into a Bar" "A Friend in Thark" from A Princess of Mars and New Tales of the Red Planet ISBN 978-0-9854257-0-8 Terminal Kill Her Demise Knights of the Revenant Matthew Stover at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Matthew Stover's OverWorld: Chronicles of Ankhana "Matthew Stover's OverWorld" at Kickstarter Matthew Woodring Stover at Library of Congress Authorities, with 15 catalog records Interview with Matthew Stover by Gabe Chouinard, October 15, 2001 Interview with Matthew Stover December 9, 2008 Interview with Matthew Stover by EU Cantina, January 4, 2009 Video Interview with Matthew Stover on YouTube for Expanded Books, October 26, 2008

Land development bank

A land development bank, abbreviated LDB, is a special kind of bank in India, is of quasi-commercial type that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, offering basic investment products. The main objective of the LDB is to promote the development of land and increase the agricultural production; the LDB provides long-term finance to members directly through its branches. The first Land Development Bank was started at Jhang in Punjab in 1920. Though the first LDB was started in Punjab, the real progress began when the land development bank was established in Chennai in 1929. Without it, land banks, land mortgage banks, agriculture banks, agriculture development banks are now called land development banks in modern world. There are different kinds of functions of land development banks in world, they differ from one another in their bye-laws or constitutions. Some are organized on a state basis, some on a co-operative basis and some on a private basis, incorporating joint stock principles.

The sources of funds of land development banks are: Share capital Deposits from members or non-members Issue of debentures Accepting deposits Reimbursements of subsidies from the government Other funds. Land development bank provides long-term funds for various agriculture related projects besides development of land and business; the borrowing capacity of a member is determined according to the number of shares he holds in the bank. The loans granted by land development bank is repayable within 20 to 30 years. Loans are granted up to 50% of the value of the land or up to 30 times the revenue. Loans are granted only after a thorough verification of security title-deeds as well as the necessity for the loan; the rates of interest for LT loans are low and within the paying capacity of farmers. They are around 11 to 12%. Gujarat State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Bank.