SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Los Angeles Aqueduct

The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The Owens Valley aqueduct was designed and built by the city's water department, at the time named The Bureau of Los Angeles Aqueduct, under the supervision of the department's Chief Engineer William Mulholland; the system delivers water from the Owens River in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains to Los Angeles, California. Known as the California water wars, its construction was controversial from the start, as water diversions to Los Angeles eliminated the Owens Valley as a viable farming community; the continued operation has led to public debate and court battles over the environmental impacts of the aqueduct on Mono Lake and other ecosystems. The aqueduct project began in 1905 when the voters of Los Angeles approved a US$1.5 million bond for the'purchase of lands and water and the inauguration of work on the aqueduct'.

On June 12, 1907 a second bond was passed with a budget of US$24.5 million to fund construction. Construction was divided into eleven divisions and a cement plant; the number of men who were on the payroll the first year was 2,629 and this number peaked at 6,060 in May 1909. In 1910, employment dropped to 1,150 due to financial reasons but rebounded in the year. Between 1911 and 1912 employment ranged from 2,800 to 3,800 workers; the number of laborers working on the aqueduct at its peak was 3,900. In 1913 the City of Los Angeles completed construction of the first Los Angeles Aqueduct; the aqueduct as constructed consisted of six storage reservoirs and 215 mi of conduit. Beginning three and one half miles north of Black Rock Springs, the aqueduct diverts the Owens River into an unlined canal to begin its 233 mi journey south to the Lower San Fernando Reservoir; this reservoir was renamed the Lower Van Norman Reservoir. The original project consisted of 24 mi of open unlined canal, 37 mi of lined open canal, 97 mi of covered concrete conduit, 43 mi of concrete tunnels, 12.00 mi steel siphons, 120 mi of railroad track, two hydroelectric plants, three cement plants, 170 mi of power lines, 240 mi of telephone line, 500 mi of roads and was expanded with the construction of the Mono Extension and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct.

The aqueduct uses gravity alone to move the water and uses the water to generate electricity, which makes it cost-efficient to operate. The aqueduct system is still in operation; the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct eliminated the Owens Valley as a viable farming community and devastated the Owens Lake ecosystem. A group labeled the "San Fernando Syndicate" – including Fred Eaton, Harrison Otis, Henry Huntington, other wealthy individuals – were a group of investors who bought land in the San Fernando Valley based on inside knowledge that the Los Angeles aqueduct would soon irrigate it and encourage development. Although there is disagreement over the actions of the "syndicate" as to whether they were a "diabolical" cabal or only a group that united the Los Angeles business community behind supporting the aqueduct, Eaton and others connected with the project have long been accused of using deceptive tactics and underhanded methods to obtain water rights and block the Bureau of Reclamation from building water infrastructure for the residents in Owens Valley.

By the 1920s, the aggressive pursuits of the water rights and the diversion of the Owens River precipitated the outbreak of violence. Farmers in Owens Valley attacked infrastructure, dynamiting the aqueduct numerous times and opening sluice gates to divert the flow of water. In an effort to find more water, the city of Los Angeles reached farther north. In 1930, Los Angeles voters passed a third US$38.8 million bond to buy land in the Mono Basin and fund the Mono Basin extension. The 105 mile extension diverted flows from the Rush Creek, Lee Vining Creek and Parker Creeks that would have flowed into Mono Lake; the construction of the Mono extension consisted of an intake at Lee Vining Creek, the Lee Vining conduit to the Grant Reservoir on Rush Creek, which would have a capacity of 48,000 acre⋅ft, the 12.7 mile Mono Craters Tunnel to the Owens River and a second reservoir named Crowley Lake with a capacity of 183,465 acre⋅ft in Long Valley at the head of the Owens River Gorge. Completed in 1940, diversions began in 1941.

The Mono Extension has a design capacity of 400 cu ft/s of flow to the aqueduct however the flow was limited to 123 cu ft/s due to the limited downstream capacity of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Full appropriation of the water could not be met until the second aqueduct was completed in 1970. Between 1940 and 1970, water exports through the Mono Extension averaged 57,067 acre-feet per year and peaked at 135,000 af in 1974. Export licenses granted by the State Water Resources Control Board in 1974 increased exports to 167,000 afy; these export levels impacted the region's fish habitat, lake level and air quality, which led to a series of lawsuits. The results of the litigation culminated with a SWRCB Decision to restore fishery protection flows to specified minimums, raise Mono Lake to 6,391 feet above sea level; the agreement limited further exports from the Mono Basin to 10,000 afy. In 1956 the State Department of Water Resources reported that Los Angeles was only

David Brown (1734–1804)

David Brown was a Scottish-Danish merchant and shipowner. His trading house, established in a partnership with his brother, was active in overseas trade, he served as Lord Governor of Tranquebar in Danish India from February 1774 to January 1779. Brown was born on 24 June 1734 in Dalkeith, the son of William Brown and Margeret Brown David and John Brown founded John & David Brown in 1759, it owned its own fleet of merchant ships which traded on the Danish West Indies and the Mediterranean. The name of the firm was changed to John & William Brown & Co. in 1782. He ownede Benzonseje at Roskilde from 1788 to 1789. David Brown served as Lord Governor of Tranquebar from 14 February 1775 to 17 January 1779. David Brown purchased the manor of Benzonseje from his brother but sold it again to merchant and shipowner Lars Larsen in 1789. Brown married Anna Fenwick, she was a daughter of Nicolas Fenwick, merchant in Helsingør, his wife Elisabeth Fenwick née Watson. She died in Tranquebar in 1776, he married, for a second time, Mary Forbes.

His first wife bore him the following children: William Brown, Margrethe Elisabeth Brown, Nicolas Brown, Amelie Louise Brown, John Lewis Brown, Melior Anna Brown and David Brown. His second wife bore him Mary Brown, who died as a child. Brown died on 13 May 1804 at Maglegård in Gentofte, he was buried at Sankt Mariæ Kirke in Vor Frue Kloster in Helsingør

Orhan Gülle

Orhan Gülle is a Turkish professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Yomraspor. Gülle is a youth international for Turkey, having been capped at various levels. Gülle was born in a town in Trabzon Province to a tradesman and a housewife. Along with his parents and three siblings – two brothers and one sister – Gülle moved to Istanbul at the age of one. Coming from a football-eccentric family, Gülle started playing the sport at an early age, he signed up for a football school at the age of 11, signed with local club Esenler in 2002. Although Gülle went on to become a professional, he didn't take football seriously as a youngster, saying "I didn't have any goals then... becoming a footballer was a dream for me". Beşiktaş scouts spotted the talented midfielder at an Istanbul amateur football tournament, signed him on 18 September 2006. Gülle spent four years with the Black Eagles, amassing 47 appearances and five goals in the A2 league, he was called up to train with the senior squad during the 2009–10 season, but did not make his professional debut with the club.

Gaziantepspor confirmed on 2 July 2010 that they had transferred the young midfielder, signing him to a four-year contract. He made his professional debut on 14 August 2010 against Kasımpaşa, entering the fray in the 70th minute. Gülle made an appearance in the second match of the season, coming in with a half-hour left in the match. Gülle has been capped at U-15, U-16, U-17, U-18, U-19, U-20, U-21 levels for Turkey, he represented his country at the 2009 UEFA European Under-17 Championship, 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup and 2011 UEFA European Under-19 Championship. He was an unused sub in Turkey's 17 November 2010 match against the Netherlands. Orhan Gülle – UEFA competition record Orhan Gülle – FIFA competition record Orhan Gülle at Soccerway