Base isolation known as seismic base isolation or base isolation system, is one of the most popular means of protecting a structure against earthquake forces. It is a collection of structural elements which should decouple a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking ground thus protecting a building or non-building structure's integrity. Base isolation is one of the most powerful tools of earthquake engineering pertaining to the passive structural vibration control technologies, it is meant to enable a building or non-building structure to survive a devastating seismic impact through a proper initial design or subsequent modifications. In some cases, application of base isolation can raise both a structure's seismic performance and its seismic sustainability considerably. Contrary to popular belief base isolation does not make a building earthquake proof. Base isolation system consists of isolation units with or without isolation components, where: Isolation units are the basic elements of a base isolation system which are intended to provide the aforementioned decoupling effect to a building or non-building structure.
Isolation components are the connections between isolation units and their parts having no decoupling effect of their own. Isolation units could consist of sliding units; this technology can be used for seismic retrofit. In process of seismic retrofit, some of the most prominent U. S. monuments, e.g. Pasadena City Hall, San Francisco City Hall, Salt Lake City and County Building or LA City Hall were mounted on base isolation systems, it required creating rigidity diaphragms and moats around the buildings, as well as making provisions against overturning and P-Delta Effect. Base isolation is used on a smaller scale—sometimes down to a single room in a building. Isolated raised-floor systems are used to safeguard essential equipment against earthquakes; the technique has been incorporated to protect statues and other works of art—see, for instance, Rodin's Gates of Hell at the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo's Ueno Park. Through the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, researchers are studying the performance of base isolation systems.
The project, a collaboration among researchers at University of Nevada, Reno. NEES resources have been used for experimental and numerical simulation, data mining and collaboration to understand the complex interrelationship among the factors controlling the overall performance of an isolated structural system; this project involves earthquake shaking table and hybrid tests at the NEES experimental facilities at the University of California and the University at Buffalo, aimed at understanding ultimate performance limits to examine the propagation of local isolation failures to the system level response. These tests will include a full-scale, three-dimensional test of an isolated 5-story steel building on the E-Defense shake table in Miki, Japan. An adaptive base isolation system includes a tunable isolator that can adjust its properties based on the input to minimize the transferred vibration. Magnetorheological fluid dampers and isolators with Magnetorheological elastomer have been suggested as adaptive base isolators.
Earthquake-resistant structures Geotechnical engineering Seismic retrofit Shock absorber Shock mount Vibration isolation
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Civic Center, Los Angeles
The Civic Center neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, is the administrative core of the City of Los Angeles, County of Los Angeles, a complex of city, county and federal government offices and courthouses. The Civic Center is located in the northern part of Downtown Los Angeles, bordering Bunker Hill, Little Tokyo and the Historic Core of the old Downtown. Depending on various district definitions, either the Civic Center or Bunker Hill contains the Music Center and adjacent Walt Disney Concert Hall; the Civic Center has the distinction of containing the largest concentration of government employees in the United States outside of Washington, D. C; the reason for the high concentration is simple: Los Angeles is the most populous county in the United States and its second largest city, houses several state and federal functions for the region. The Civic Center is served by numerous Metro buses, most of which run to adjacent Union Station, the 101 and 110 freeways, the Metro Red Line and Purple Line's Civic Center/Grand Park Station are in the vicinity.
OCTA, Foothill Transit, DASH shuttles, Commuter Express and other municipal bus lines serve the area. The Regional Connector under construction, will serve this area with two stations at Second/Flower and Second/Broadway station; the Civic Center area is part of the ongoing Grand Avenue Project, which aims to develop existing parking lots in the area for residential and commercial use as well as create a Grand Park between the Los Angeles Music Center and City Hall. In March 2017, the Los Angeles City Council approved a new Civic Center Master Plan, it details a full build out around city hall by the year 2032 the east facing front. The CCMP schedules for a full tear down of Parker Center, L. A. City Hall's "south" building, the Los Angeles Mall; the CCMP is to connect City Hall with Little Tokyo. The CCMP calls for active ground-floor uses, to stimulate the pedestrian traffic that the Civic Center lacks. Four new government and office towers are described in the plan as well as the planned Park 101 recreational area.
A design approach idea to cover U. S. Highway 101 as a trench with green space above. Connecting with Union Station and Olvera Street. Los Angeles City Hall Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Grand Park Houdon Statue of George Washington Los Angeles Music Center Triforium Union Station Walt Disney Concert Hall Los Angeles City Hall Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration Stanley Mosk L. A. Courthouse Hall of Records Law Library Federal Court House Parker Center Caltrans District 7 Headquarters Alameda St. Detention Facility John Ferraro Building, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Clara Shortridge Foltz Criminal Justice Center The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles, serving the Civic Center
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments are sites in Los Angeles, which have been designated by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission as worthy of preservation based on architectural and cultural criteria. The Historic-Cultural Monument process has its origin in the Historic Buildings Committee formed in 1958 by the Los Angeles chapter of the American Institute of Architects; as growth and development in Los Angeles threatened the city's historic landmarks, the committee sought to implement a formal preservation program in cooperation with local civic and business organizations and municipal leaders. On April 30, 1962, a historic preservation ordinance proposed by the AIA committee was passed; the original Cultural Heritage Board was formed in the summer of 1962, consisting of William Woollett, FAIA, Bonnie H. Riedel, Carl S. Dentzel, Senaida Sullivan and Edith Gibbs Vaughan; the board met for the first time in August 1962, at a time when the owner of the historic Leonis Adobe was attempting to demolish the structure and replace it with a supermarket.
In its first day of official business, the board designated the Leonis Adobe and four other sites as Historic-Cultural Monuments. The designation of a property as a Historic-Cultural Monument does not prevent demolition or alteration. However, the designation requires permits for demolition or substantial alteration to be presented to the commission; the commission has the power to delay the demolition of a designated property for up to one year. In the commission's first decade of operation, it designated 101 properties as Historic-Cultural Monuments. By March 2010, there were 979 designated properties. Leonis Adobe Bolton Hall 1913 Eastern Columbia Building Griffith Park CBS Columbia Square Studios Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the East and Northeast Sides Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Harbor area Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley Historic-Cultural Monuments in Silver Lake, Angelino Heights, Echo Park Historic-Cultural Monuments in South Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the Westside Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Wilshire and Westlake areas City of Los Angeles' Historic Preservation Overlay Zones National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles List of California Historical Landmarks Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources: Designated L.
A. Historic-Cultural Monuments website — with'ever-updated' LAHCM List via PDF link. Official Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources website — Homepage Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission website Designated LAHCM Landmarks by Neighborhood — L. A. Department of City Planning website Big Orange Landmarks: "Exploring the Landmarks of Los Angeles, One Monument at a Time" — online photos and in-depth history of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments — Website curator: Floyd B. Bariscale. Big Orange Landmarks: Floyd B. Bariscale's Flickr Photostream — Big Orange Flickr Gallery of L. A. H. C. Monuments
Adam-12 is a television police procedural drama that follows Los Angeles Police Department officers Pete Malloy and Jim Reed as they ride the streets of Los Angeles in their patrol unit, 1-Adam-12. The series was created by Robert A. Cinader and Jack Webb, the latter of whom created Dragnet, it starred Martin Milner and Kent McCord and purported to realistically capture a typical day in the life of police officers. The show ran from September 21, 1968 through May 20, 1975 and helped to introduce police procedures and jargon to the general public in the United States. Adam-12 featured the year-old LAPD Rampart Division station at 2710 West Temple Street as the setting for the series. However, according to the radio call sign of the unit "1-Adam-12", the patrol area was within the Central Division, which serves Downtown Los Angeles, rather than Rampart. Many of the filming locations were in the San Fernando Valley, the garage used tow trucks from the North Hollywood Division, close to Universal Studios, which co-produced the show with Mark VII Limited.
The Temple Street building was closed in 2008, as a newer and larger station now houses the Rampart Division. The designation "1-Adam-12" is a combination of three elements; the first element indicates the unit's LAPD division. The second element indicates the type of unit; the third element identifies the patrol car's number. The one in 1-Adam-12 means the patrol car operates in Division 1. LAPD assigns two-person units the letter "A". In the LAPD phonetic alphabet, the letter "A" is spoken as "Adam"; the third element is the last two numbers of the patrol car's full unit number. In the program, 1-Adam-12 operated in the Rampart Division, Division 2, not the Central Division, Division 1, meaning the unit's call sign should have technically been 2-Adam-12. There was never an actual patrol car with the call sign of 1-Adam-12. Adam-12 was a realistic police drama which followed two officers of the Los Angeles Police Department: veteran Police Officer II Pete Malloy, Badge 744, his rookie partner, probationary Police Officer I Jim Reed, Badge 2430.
Each episode of the series was based on actual cases, with names changed to protect the innocent, covered a variety of incidents that the officers encountered during a shift, from the tragic to the trivial. The series' first episode was filmed in September 1967, a year, it was directed by Jack Webb. In episode 1, Reed is less than a week out of the prestigious Los Angeles Police Academy and is eager to begin his career. Three weeks earlier, Malloy's patrol partner and friend had been killed apprehending an armed robbery suspect. Watch commander Lieutenant Moore was Malloy's first training officer seven years earlier, he assigns Malloy to take Reed the rookie out for his first patrol on Malloy's final shift. Reed shows tremendous potential on his first night on the job, but Malloy realizes that his new partner has plenty to learn, the veteran officer decides to stay on the job and guide Reed during his nine-month probationary period. Reed's probationary period is played out during the first and second seasons, after which he is promoted to a full officer.
Reed and Malloy remain partners. In seasons and Reed began patrolling other beats of Los Angeles, including the Los Angeles International Airport, the Los Angeles Harbor, the Foothill District, the West Valley area, Van Nuys, Hollywood and North Hollywood. Several episodes featured the officers working with other rookie officers, with guest actors playing these one-time characters; some episodes had Reed serving as the training officer, whereas Malloy had been promoted to the rank of a Senior Lead Officer who coordinates patrols in many neighborhoods and works as the acting shift supervisor. Malloy displays a "Distinguished Expert" shooting medal, Reed displays a "Sharpshooter" medal. Malloy and Reed reported to Shift Supervisor William "Mac" MacDonald, who took a black-and-white command cruiser with the call sign 1-L-20 into the field. Reed once questioned why Malloy had not taken the sergeant's exam, as he would have rated higher than Mac did. Malloy related. Malloy showed he could supervise when Mac was ill, Malloy filled in.
Several of their fellow officers were recurring characters. Shaaron Claridge was a dispatcher for the LAPD in real life; the personal lives of Malloy and Reed were always tied in to their duties. Malloy is a bachelor who has at least two girlfriends during the course of the series, while Reed is married to a woman named Jean; the police vehicles were central characters in that "mobile patrol units associated with the black and white units made famous in such television shows as Adam-12". It was one of the shows that portrayed "the professionalism of the officers and police departments". Ronald Wayne Rodman pointed out that the theme of Adam-12 referred to a "military style topic whil
International Savings & Exchange Bank Building
The International Savings & Exchange Bank Building, was built in the Spring Street Financial District of Los Angeles in 1907. Standing ten floors, it was designed in the Renaissance Revival and Italianate styles by architect H. Alban Reaves, who had designed several structures in New York, including what is now the south building of the historic Schuyler Arms, it stood at 226 North Spring Street, the intersection of Temple and Spring across from the Main Post Office, was featured in several postcards from the 1920s. Occupying the ground floor was the International Savings & Exchange Bank, “an institution much in favor among foreign born and descended residents,”, incorporated four years earlier in 1903. In 1928, the building was dwarfed by the new 30-story Los Angeles City Hall, soon after calls for its demolition increased, resulting in its razing sometime after 1954; the portion of Spring Street that its front entrance faced no longer exists. This building is one of three, featured in the 1923 Harold Lloyd film, Safety Last!.
The ten-floor International Savings Building is presented in the film as “the 12-story Bolton Building” and is the setting for the story’s “DeVore Department Store.” The interior store scenes at ground level were not filmed at the International Savings Bank Building but at Ville de Paris, a department store at 712 South Olive at 7th Street. For several years it has been incorrectly reported that the building shown in both the film and photo stills was the 12-story Beaux Arts-styled Brockman building, designed by St. Louis architects Barnett, Haynes & Barnett in 1911 and still standing today at 530 West Seventh Street at Grand Avenue. Only the roof of the Brockman Building was used for Safety Last!, but the Brockman itself is not seen in the movie. Although the two buildings look nothing alike, this erroneous understanding has appeared in numerous sources, including The Los Angeles Times, Daily Variety, Los Angeles Business Journal, countless real estate websites; the International Savings Building was used for all of the long shots showing Lloyd’s character scaling its exterior.
Medium and close shots were executed using a full-scale replica of two floors of the International Savings Building’s façade, placed on a platform on the rooftop of the L. L. Burns Western Costume Co. building at 908 S. Broadway – making it appear that Lloyd’s character was hanging up to 12 stories over the sidewalk; the International Savings Building is seen in a large photograph on page 140 of the book, Hollywood – The Pioneers by Kevin Brownlow. Continental Building, Los Angeles' first high-rise building, built in 1903 and using the same architectural styles Los Angeles City Hall