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Los Angeles Fire Department

The Los Angeles Fire Department provides emergency medical services, fire cause determination, fire prevention, fire suppression, hazardous materials mitigation, rescue services to the city of Los Angeles, United States. The LAFD is responsible for 4 million people who live in the agency's 471 square miles jurisdiction; the Los Angeles Fire Department founded in 1886 is one of the largest municipal fire departments in the United States, after the New York City Fire Department and the Chicago Fire Department. The department may be unofficially referred to as the Los Angeles City Fire Department or "LA City Fire" to distinguish it from the Los Angeles County Fire Department which serves the county and whose name may directly confuse people, as the county seat is the city. Another possible reason is that the city and the unincorporated County are bordering each other and thus the two appear to be serving the same area; the department is under the command of chief Ralph Terrazas. The Los Angeles Fire Department has it origins in the year 1871.

In September of that year, George M. Fall, the County Clerk for Los Angeles County organized Engine Company No. 1. It was a volunteer firefighting force with a hose jumper; the equipment was hand-drawn to fires. In the spring of 1874, the fire company asked the Los Angeles City Council to purchase horses to pull the engine; the Council refused and the fire company disbanded. Many of the former members of Engine Company No. 1 reorganized under the name of Thirty-Eights No. 1 in May 1875, Engine Co. No. 2 was organized under the name Confidence Engine Company. Los Angeles acquired its first "ladder" truck for the Thirty-Eights, it was ill-adapted to the needs of the city. It was sold to the city of Wilmington. In 1876, another "hook and ladder" truck was purchased, serving in the city until 1881. In 1878, a third fire company was formed by the residents in the neighborhood of Sixth Street and Park, it was given the name of "Park Hose Co. No. 1". East Los Angeles formed a hose company named "East Los Angeles Hose Co.

No. 2" five years later. The final volunteer company was formed in the fall of 1883 in the Morris Vineyard area; this company was called "Morris Vineyard Hose Co. No.3."All of these companies remained in service until February 1, 1886, when the present paid fire department came into existence. In 1877, the first horses were bought for the city fire department; the department would continue to use horses for its equipment for fifty years, phasing out the last horse drawn equipment on July 19, 1921. By 1900, the Department had grown to 18 fire stations with 123 full-time paid firefighters and 80 fire horses; the city had installed 194 fire-alarm boxes allowing civilians to sound the alarm if a fire was spotted. 660 fire hydrants were placed throughout the city, giving firefighters access to a reliable water source. In 1955 Station 78 in Studio City became the first racially integrated station in the department; the department utilizes a wide array of equipment. These are most but not all of the apparatus.

The triple combination Fire Engine or “TRIPLE” is the most common type of firefighting apparatus in Los Angeles. The term “triple combination” refers to the apparatus having three components; the triple can be found as a one-piece engine company or as two engines assigned to a Task Force station. The “Triples” used by the LAFD have a direct drive, dual centrifuge main pump rated at 1500 GPM at 150 psi with a 10 foot lift through a 6 inch suction; these apparatus carry a combination of all of the following sizes of hose. The standard hose load is 750' of 4", 750' of 2 1/2" with a 325GPM nozzle, 400' of 1 3/4" with a 200 GPM nozzle, 400' of 1 1/2" with a 125 GPM nozzle and 500' of 1" with a dual gallonage 10/40 GPM nozzle; the water tank carrying capacity of all LAFD engines is 500 gallons. All frontline engines are equipped with a 30 gallon Class A foam injection system with the exception of Engine 51 at LAX that carries Class B foam in the onboard system; these apparatus are staffed by four members, including a Captain 1 as the company commander, an Engineer responsible for driving and operating the pump, two firefighters.

A number of triples in the LAFD are Paramedic assessment companies – meaning they include a Firefighter/Paramedic as part of the crew. The LAFD uses the concept of Light Forces and Task Forces which can be considered one "Resource", although comprising more than one unit or company. A Light Force is composed of a Ladder Truck. Light forces will always respond together as one unit or resource. A Task Force is a Light Force coupled with an Engine. An Engine is considered a single unit or "resource". A Task Force responds to larger incidents, such as structural fires, is made up of an Engine, a 200 Series Engine, a Truck, all operating together. While a standard Engine is always staffed with a full crew, a 200 Series Engine is only staffed by a driver; the purpose of the 200 Series Engine is to provide support and equipment to the Truck in a Light Force, either the Truck or the Engine in a Task Force. Rescue Ambulances called'rescues' for short, can be considered either advanced life support, or basic life support.

Ambulances number 1-112 are frontline ALS staffed by 2 firefighter / paramedics, while those in the 200 series are ALS reserves. Ambulances in

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia is incomplete development of the lungs, resulting in an abnormally low number or size of bronchopulmonary segments or alveoli. A congenital malformation, it most occurs secondary to other fetal abnormalities that interfere with normal development of the lungs. Primary pulmonary hypoplasia is rare and not associated with other maternal or fetal abnormalities. Incidence of pulmonary hypoplasia ranges from 9–11 per 10,000 live births and 14 per 10,000 births. Pulmonary hypoplasia is a common cause of neonatal death, it is a common finding in stillbirths, although not regarded as a cause of these. Causes of pulmonary hypoplasia include a wide variety of congenital malformations and other conditions in which pulmonary hypoplasia is a complication; these include congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, fetal hydronephrosis, caudal regression syndrome, mediastinal tumor, sacrococcygeal teratoma with a large component inside the fetus. Large masses of the neck can cause pulmonary hypoplasia by interfering with the fetus's ability to fill its lungs.

In the presence of pulmonary hypoplasia, the EXIT procedure to rescue a baby with a neck mass is not to succeed. Fetal hydrops can be a cause, or conversely a complication. Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with oligohydramnios through multiple mechanisms. Both conditions can result from blockage of the urinary bladder. Blockage prevents the bladder from emptying, the bladder becomes large and full; the large volume of the full bladder interferes with normal development of other organs, including the lungs. Pressure within the bladder becomes abnormally high, causing abnormal function in the kidneys hence abnormally high pressure in the vascular system entering the kidneys; this high pressure interferes with normal development of other organs. An experiment in rabbits showed that PH can be caused directly by oligohydramnios. Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with dextrocardia of embryonic arrest in that both conditions can result from early errors of development, resulting in Congenital cardiac disorders.

PH is a common direct cause of neonatal death resulting from pregnancy induced hypertension. Medical diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia in utero may use imaging ultrasound or MRI; the extent of hypoplasia is a important prognostic factor. One study of 147 fetuses found that a simple measurement, the ratio of chest length to trunk length, was a useful predictor of postnatal respiratory distress. In a study of 23 fetuses, subtle differences seen on MRIs of the lungs were informative. In a study of 29 fetuses with suspected pulmonary hypoplasia, the group that responded to maternal oxygenation had a more favorable outcome. Pulmonary hypoplasia is diagnosed clinically. Management has three components: interventions before delivery and place of delivery, therapy after delivery. In some cases, fetal therapy is available for the underlying condition. In exceptional cases, fetal therapy may include fetal surgery. A 1992 case report of a baby with a sacrococcygeal teratoma reported that the SCT had obstructed the outlet of the urinary bladder causing the bladder to rupture in utero and fill the baby's abdomen with urine.

The outcome was good. The baby had normal kidneys and lungs, leading the authors to conclude that obstruction occurred late in the pregnancy and to suggest that the rupture may have protected the baby from the usual complications of such an obstruction. Subsequent to this report, use of a vesicoamniotic shunting procedure has been attempted, with limited success. A baby with a high risk of pulmonary hypoplasia will have a planned delivery in a specialty hospital such as a tertiary referral hospital with a level 3 neonatal intensive-care unit; the baby may require immediate advanced therapy. Early delivery may be required in order to rescue the fetus from an underlying condition, causing pulmonary hypoplasia. However, pulmonary hypoplasia increases the risks associated with preterm birth, because once delivered the baby requires adequate lung capacity to sustain life; the decision whether to deliver early includes a careful assessment of the extent to which delaying delivery may increase or decrease the pulmonary hypoplasia.

It is a choice between active management. An example is congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation with hydrops. Severe oligohydramnios of early onset and long duration, as can occur with early preterm rupture of membranes, can cause severe PH. After delivery, most affected babies will require supplemental oxygen; some affected babies may be saved with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Not all specialty hospitals have ECMO, ECMO is considered the therapy of last resort for pulmonary insufficiency. An alternative to ECMO is high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. In 1908, Maude Abbott documented pulmonary hypoplasia occurring with certain defects of the heart. In 1915, Abbott and J. C. Meakins showed. In 1920, decades before the advent of prenatal imaging, the presence of pulmonary hypoplasia was taken as evidence that diaphragmatic hernias in babies were congenital, not acquired. Potter sequence Prune belly syndrome


Ophiacodontidae is an extinct family of early eupelycosaurs from the Carboniferous and Permian. Archaeothyris, Clepsydrops were among the earliest ophiacodontids, appearing in the Late Carboniferous. Ophiacodontids are among the most basal synapsids, an offshoot of the lineage which includes therapsids and their descendants, the mammals; the group became extinct by the Middle Permian, replaced by anomodonts and the diapsid reptiles. The lifestyle of ophiacodonts has long been controversial; some studies suggested that they were semi-aquatic, some suggested a aquatic lifestyle, but a recent study based on a quantitative inference model suggested that both Clepsydrops and Ophiacodon were terrestrial. Vertebral morphometric data support, though ambiguously, a rather terrestrial lifestyle for Ophiacodon, which could reach a length of 3.6 m. Archaeothyris may have been terrestrial, but no detailed study of its habitat has been performed so far; the earliest ophiacodontids resembled varanids in body proportions, while others were larger with elongated skulls and massive shoulder girdles to provide muscle attachment to support the weight of the large head.

Traditionally, Ophiacodon and the described Baldwinonus, Echinerpeton and Stereorhachis are included in the Ophiacodontidae. Protoclepsydrops was regarded as ophiacodontid, however there is debate as to whether or not it was a synapsid. Echinerpeton and Sterophallodon were included for the first time in a phylogenetic analysis by Benson. Echinerpeton was found to be a wildcard taxon due to its small amount of known materials, it occupies three possible positions, falling either as the most basal synapsid, as the sister taxon of Caseasauria plus more derived taxa, or as an ophiacodontid more derived than Archaeothyris. Below is a cladogram modified from the analysis of Benson, after the exclusion of Echinerpeton: Ophiacodontidae - at Palaeos

Prince Narendra of Nepal

General Prince Narendra Bikram Shah was the second son of King Surendra of Nepal. The prince was exiled to India because of his involvement in a conspiracy against the Rana dynasty, he was born in Hanuman Dhoka Palace, was a son of King Surendra and his second wife, Queen Trailokya. He was educated privately. At that time, the king had little power; the political leadership and dominance was held by the members of the family of the Kunwar family, that is, the family of Jung Bahadur Rana, the first Rana prime minister of Nepal. Prince Narendra's elder brother, Crown Prince Trailokya, was involved in conspiracies against the Rana ruler, but died under suspicious circumstances in 1878. After Trailokya's death, Narendra assumed the leadership in the conspiracy against the Rana ruler, he was involved in this conspiracy along with two of Jung Bahadur's sons. The plan was never carried out because Jung Bahadur's sons insisted that no conspiracy should be carried out in the year of mourning following their father's death.

Three years in 1881, several people were arrested for plotting against the Rana ruler. One of the arrested people revealed that Prince Narendra and two of Jung Bahadur's sons had been involved in a conspiracy against the Rana ruler. All three of them were exiled. Prince Narendra was sent to India. In April 1885, the prince was allowed to return to Kathmandu. However, the Rana prime minister, Ranodip Singh Kunwar was killed by his nephews in a coup d'état in November 1885. After the coup d'état, Prince Narendra lived in Tallo Durbar of Gorkha, known as Gorkha Museum now. Prince Narendra had several children, his descendants are present to this day. His great-great-grandson, Sri Mukhya Sahebju Deepak Bikram Shah, lit the funeral pyre of King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya in 2001, he died sometime before 1901


The Grenff Grenf, is an 21.9 km long, right-hand or southeasterly tributary of Schwalm in East Hesse Highlands in North Hesse Schwalm-Eder-Kreis and belongs to the river system and catchment area of the Weser. The Grenff rises in Ottrauer Highland, a part of the Fulda-Haune Plateau in East Hesse Highlands, in the transition area to the Knüllgebirge; the source is 1.2 km southeast of the village Görzhain in a clearing of the northern flank of the Frohnkreuzkopf, the western spur of the Rimberg, at about 395 m elevation. Flows the Grenff which runs predominantly north-west, to and through Görzhain. From there on the Bad Hersfeld–Treysa railway runs through the Grenff valley, it passes along the settlement Bahnhof Ottrau and a number of watermills and the village Kleinropperhausen. The Grenff flows through the riverside towns Nausis, after which it flows past the Bruchmühle, Neukirchen, Rückershausen, after which it passes the Sängermühle, Riebelsdorf. Thereafter, the river passes the station Klinkemühle.

At the village of Loshausen it flows into the Eder tributary Schwalm that comes from the south, after overcoming of 181 m difference in altitude. The drainage basin of Grenff includes 86.406 km². Its tributaries are (orographic allocation, river length and confluence location, Grenff river kilometer: Reinsbach above Görzhain Weissenborn, in Görzhain Leutschwasser, in Görzhain Schorbach, at the Stone mill Otter above the Lenz mill Wallebach, in Nausis Fischbach, in Nausis Damersbach, below Nausis Buchenbach above Neukirchen Urbach Neukirchen Goldbach, at Rückershausen Media related to Grenff at Wikimedia Commons

Ajit Merchant

Ajit Merchant was an Indian music composer and director. Ajit Merchant was born to lawyer of Mumbai, his family was natively belonged to Bet Dwarka. He was introduced to music by his father who used to take him to concerts of various musicians like Abdul Karim Khan, he was trained in music by Shivkumar Shukla. He was married to Nilamben. Merchant was a stage actor before venturing into music, he received the best actors award in Mumbai State Drama Festival for his role in Pragji Dosa's play Anahat Naad. He was invited by Chandravadan Mehta for his radio programme Ek Daayro in 1945, he presented some songs like ‘Ekvar Ghogha Jajo Re Gheriya’ and ‘Pandadi Shi Hodi'. He started performing on radio. After leaving All India Radio, he was involved with Navi Rangbhoomi, he composed music of more than 250 Gujarati and Marathi stage plays. He reached his popularity with his film Divadandi, he produced the film with story written by Chandravadan Mehta and screenplay by Barkat Virani'Befam'. Though the film was moderately successful, a song Taro Aankhno Afeeni was huge hit.

The music was sung by Dilip Dholakia. The song is still popular across Gujarat, he was neighbor of Hindi playback singer, Mukesh and he agreed him to sing for his compositions in some Gujarati films like Kariyavar and Lagna Mandap. He composed a gazal, Raat Khamosh Hai, sung by Jagjit Singh and included in his album, Muntazir, he died on 18 March 2011. He composed and directed music of several Hindi films like Sapera, Indra Leela, Chandi Pooja, Lady Killer, Ram Bhakta Vibhishan, Raj Kumari, he was awarded Lifetime Achievement award by Maharashtra Rajya Gujarati Sahitya Akademi in 2007. Ajit Merchant on IMDb