Los Angeles International Airport

Los Angeles International Airport referred to as LAX, is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles and its surrounding metropolitan area. LAX is located in the Westchester neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, 18 miles southwest of Downtown Los Angeles, with the commercial and residential areas of Westchester to the north, the city of El Segundo to the south and the city of Inglewood to the east. Owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports, an agency of the government of Los Angeles known as the Department of Airports, the airport covers 3,500 acres of land. LAX has four parallel runways. In 2018, LAX handled 87,534,384 passengers, making it the world's fourth busiest and the United States' second busiest airport following Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport; as the largest and busiest international airport on the U. S. West Coast, LAX is a major international gateway to the United States, serves a connection point for passengers traveling internationally; the airport holds the record for the world's busiest origin and destination airport, since relative to other airports, many more travelers begin or end their trips in Los Angeles than use it as a connection.

It is the only airport to rank among the top five U. S. airports for both passenger and cargo traffic. LAX serves as a hub or focus city for more passenger airlines than any other airport in the United States, it is the only airport that four U. S. legacy carriers have designated as a hub and is a focus city for Air New Zealand, Allegiant Air, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Southwest Airlines, Volaris. While LAX is the busiest airport in the Greater Los Angeles Area, several other airports, including Hollywood Burbank Airport, John Wayne Airport, Long Beach Airport, as well as Ontario International Airport serve the area. In 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected 640 acres in the southern part of Westchester for a new airport; the fields of wheat and lima beans were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings. It was named Mines Field for the real estate agent who arranged the deal; the first structure, Hangar No. 1, is in the National Register of Historic Places. Mines Field opened as the airport of Los Angeles in 1930 and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937.

The name became Los Angeles Airport in 1941 and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949. In the 1930s the main airline airports were Burbank Airport in Burbank and the Grand Central Airport in Glendale. Mines Field did not extend west of Sepulveda Boulevard. A tunnel was completed in 1953 allowing Sepulveda Boulevard to revert to straight and pass beneath the two runways. For the next few years the two runways were 8,500 feet long. Before the 1930s, existing airports used a two-letter abbreviation based on the weather stations at the airports. At that time, "LA" served as the designation for Los Angeles Airport, but with the rapid growth in the aviation industry the designations expanded to three letters in 1947, "LA" became "LAX." "LAX" is used for the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro and by Amtrak for Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The distinctive white Googie Theme Building, designed by Pereira & Luckman architect Paul Williams and constructed in 1961 by Robert E. McKee Construction Co. resembles a flying saucer that has landed on its four legs.

A restaurant with a sweeping view of the airport is suspended beneath two arches. The Los Angeles City Council designated the building a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1992. A $4 million renovation, with retro-futuristic interior and electric lighting designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, was completed before the Encounter Restaurant opened there in 1997 but is no longer in business. Visitors are able to take the elevator up to the Observation Deck of the "Theme Building", which closed after the September 11, 2001 attacks for security reasons. A memorial to the victims of the 9/11 attacks is located on the grounds, as three of the four hijacked planes were destined for LAX; the Bob Hope USO expanded and relocated to the first floor of the Theme Building in 2018. 24R/06L and 24L/06R are north of the airport terminals, 25R/07L and 25L/07R are south of the airport terminals. Since 1972, Los Angeles World Airports has adopted the "Preferential Runway Use Policy" to minimize noise. During daylight hours, the normal air traffic pattern is the "Westerly Operations" plan, named for the prevailing west winds.

Under "Westerly Operations", departing aircraft take off to the west, arriving aircraft approach from the east. To reduce noise from arriving aircraft during night hours, the air traffic pattern becomes "Over-Ocean Operations". Under "Over-Ocean", departing aircraft continue to take off to the west, but arriving aircraft approach from the west unless otherwise required to approach from the east due to reduced visibility or easterly winds; as the name implies, "Easterly Operations" is used when prevailing winds have shifted to originate from the e


Saint Cunibert, Cunipert, or Kunibert was the ninth bishop of Cologne, from 627 to his death. Contemporary sources mention him between 627 and 643. Cunibert was born somewhere along the Moselle to a family of the local Ripuarian Frankish aristocracy, educated in Metz at the court of Chlothar II, he became archdeacon of Trier. He was made bishop of Cologne in 623; as bishop, Cunibert served as an advisor to King Dagobert I. In 633 or 634 Dagobert's son and heir Sigebert III was invested as king of Austrasia. Following this, Dagobert made Cunibert and Adalgisel, the mayor of the palace, co-regents of the kingdom. Following the death of Adalgisel's successor, Pepin of Landen, Cunibert served as the chief public official of the king, in which capacity he revised the Lex Ribuaria. Throughout his episcopacy, monasticism flourished and churches were restored, he is regarded today as a saint by the Roman Catholic church and his feast day is the day of his death: November 12. He is buried in a church bearing his name in the city where he lived and died.


Ulmus minor 'Umbraculifera'

The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor'Umbraculifera' was cultivated in Iran, where it was planted as an ornamental and grew to a great size, being known there as'Nalband' Persian: نعلبند‎. Litvinov considered it a cultivar of a wild elm with a dense crown that he called U. densa, from the mountains of Turkestan and Aksu. Non-rounded forms of'Umbraculifera' are found in Isfahan Province, Iran. Zielińksi in Flora Iranica considered it an U. minor cultivar.'Umbraculifera' was introduced to Europe in 1878 by the Späth nursery of Berlin, by one account from a German gardener in the employ of the Shah of Persia, by another from M. Scharrer, inspector of Tiflis Imperial Gardens, Georgia, it was subsequently planted along streets in Berlin. Späth, along with Hesse of Weener, marketed the tree till the 1930s.'Umbraculifera' was introduced to the United States in 1912 as "Karagatch" at the USDA's Chico Plant Introduction Station in California by Frank Meyer, who collected it from the Russian imperial estate at Murgrab, Turkestan.

Green mistook Späth's U. turkestanica Regel for a synonym of'Umbraculifera'. Späth listed U. turkestanica Regel and U. campestris umbraculifera separately in his catalogues, where'Umbraculifera' appears as "Ball elm. Transcaucasia, Persia. Needs no pruning. Valuable as a single tree, free-standing in park or street"; the tree is distinguished by its dense, sometimes flat-topped habit. Henry's statement that "it differs from ordinary U. nitens only in its peculiar habit" suggests that, in one form of the tree at least, the leaf is not distinctive. A leaf-specimen labelled U. umbraculifera held in the herbarium of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle appears to confirm this suggestion. However, a leaf-specimen labelled U. umbraculifera Späth held in the herbarium of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden shows that the clone marketed by the Späth nursery had a distinctive rhomboidal leaf. The tree is reputedly always grafted on to U. minor standards. An early 20th-century photograph in Schedae ad Herbarium florae URSS, shows that'Umbraculifera' is not dissimilar in appearance to its putative hybrid Ulmus'Androssowii'.

The tree is as vulnerable to Dutch elm disease as the species. The tree was introduced to the Caucasus and Turkestan, it remains in cultivation in central and south-west Asia. Bean remarked that the tree succeeded well on the continent and in eastern North America, but was planted in the UK. Henry mentions an example at Kew Gardens, obtained in 1904 from Simon-Louis of Metz, France. A specimen stood in Norfolk, in the early 20th century. Introduced to Australia, the tree was marketed in the early 20th century by the Gembrook Nursery near Melbourne, by Searl's Garden Emporium, but it is not known whether the tree survives in that country. Despite its susceptibility to Dutch elm disease, it remains in commercial cultivation in Belgium and the Netherlands. A field elm cultivar in the People's Park, Budapest, in the early 20th century grafted at ground level and trained to a neat cone, illustrated in Möller's Deutsche Gärtner-Zeitung as Ulmus campestris als Pyramidenbaum, may have been trimmed'Umbraculifera'.

The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor'Umbraculifera Gracilis' was obtained as a sport of'Umbraculifera' by Späth c.1897-8. Regel's Gartenflora contains an illustration, mentioned by Elwes and Henry in their account of'Umbraculifera', of a great old tree near Eriwan. An avenue of dense globose trees, considered'Umbraculifera' by Meyer at a time when the hybrid'Androssowii' determination was unknown, once grew at the Russian imperial estate of Murgrab at Bairam-ali near Merv Russian Turkestan. Karagatch applied to Central Asian field elms and to the hybrid cultivar Ulmus'Karagatch' Narwan: The common name for'elm' in Persian, nār-van, confusingly similar to the local name for the pomegranate, anār-van. In Tehran, Umbraculifera is called nārvan-e čatrī. Ulmus densa var. nalband Talibov Ulmus densa var. bubyriana: Litv. Schedae ad Herbarium Florae Rossicae 6: 163, no. 1991, t.1, 2, 1908 and Schedae ad Herbarium Florae Rossicae 8: 23, no. 2444, t. 2, 1922 resp. In the latter, Litvinov described it from a cultivated tree in Samarkand.

Ulmus × androssowii Hortus Botanicus Nationalis, Latvia. Acc. no. 18147 Washington Park Arboretum, Washington, US. Acc. no. 602-39 Boomwekerijen'De Batterijen', Netherlands.. Kwekerij Johan Van Herreweghe, Belgium. Jacobs Plantencentrum, Netherlands. Kwekerij De Reebock, Belgium. Tuincentrum Semperflorens, Netherlands. Tuincentrum Vechtweelde, Netherlands. "Herbarium specimen - E00824878". Herbarium Catalogue. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Sheet described as U. campestris umbraculifera "Herbarium specimen - L.1590678". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Sheet described as U. campestris L. f. umbraculifera Späth "Herbarium specimen - L.1586959". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Sheet described as U. carpinifolia Gled. cv.'Umbraculifera' "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1852996". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1853008". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1853009". Bota