A shipyard is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction; the terms are used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has caused them to change or merge roles. Countries with large shipbuilding industries include Australia, China, Denmark, France, India, Italy, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Romania, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam; the shipbuilding industry is more fragmented in Europe than in Asia where countries tend to have fewer, larger companies. Many naval vessels are built or maintained in shipyards owned or operated by the national government or navy. Shipyards are constructed near tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships; the United Kingdom, for example, has shipyards on many of its rivers.
The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities and large areas for fabrication of the ships. After a ship's useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard on a beach in South Asia. Shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages and environmental regulations have resulted in movement of the industry to developing regions. Welding, sandblasting and other maintenance work contribute pollution. Ship hulls have many layers of anti-fouling and anti-corrosion paint. Shipyards around the world paint ships by airtight spraying or by thermal spraying. Studies have shown that painting generates half of the dangerous waste at a shipyard due to using high-pressure equipment to wash or remove any unwanted material, on it like rust; this material will make its way to the water as water pollution. In a study in 2011 samples of sediments were collected from two sites in coastal marine area of Yongho Bay, one from the shipyard and the other 500m away.
Both samples contained metals that included Al, Fe, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Pb. In addition, it had been confirmed that the concentration was higher in the first sample, by the shipyard the sample taking 500m away and was due to paint fragments applied to the steel ship hulls. After a ship has been used it is scrapped at a shipyard, but the process can release excessive amounts of pollution. Paints used for hulls are anti-fouling paints. Over time weathering from ships will sink to the bottom of the seabed and the most common component, toxic in paint used in shipyards is triphenyl tetrazolium and can be treated by using dolomitic sorbents. In 2005, a study showed the high level of toxicity of TBT compounds to organisms in the ocean and what can be done to reduce the pollution by using dolomitic sorbents. In the study, a sample of shipyard water was used in the experiment in a period over 14 days. At the end the experiment it was concluded that dolomitic and dolomite were successful in reducing the contaminants from the shipyard wastewater.
Welding is the most important factor in ship building and should be performed by qualified welders in order to protect the ship structure. It is achieved by heating the surfaces to the point of melting using oxy-acetylene, electric arc, or other means, uniting them by pressing, etc, but in shipyards, there are times when the welder weld. Welding can produce toxic fumes such as Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Fluoride, Carbon Dioxide can result in serious damage to human health or death if ventilation is not present. A case study was performed to see where would be most effective place to exhaust the hull cells on the bulkhead in between two spaces using an air horn versus air with an electric blower, they asked them to weld in a specific space. One that had shipyard dilution ventilation and the other had local exhaust ventilation recorded to see which typed of ventilation worked the best. In the results, they found that local exhaust ventilation reduced particulate concentrations but the efficiency of either method depended on equipment maintenance and their own work practices because everyone has a different way of getting things done.
The world's earliest known dockyards were built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India. Lothal's dockyards connected to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert was a part of the Arabian Sea. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade; the dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well; the name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means "shipyard". Naupactus' reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus. In the Spanish city of Barcelona, the Drassanes shipyards were active from at least the mid-13th century until the 18th century, although i
German Chileans are Chilean citizens who derive their German ancestry from one or both parents. They are chiefly descendants of about 30,000 immigrants who arrived between 1846–1914, most following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. In the 1907 census, Germans were the fifth-largest immigrant group in Chile, after Bolivians, Peruvians and Italians. From the middle of the 19th century to the present, they have played a significant role in the economic and cultural development of the Chilean nation; the 19th-century immigrants settled chiefly in Chile’s Araucanía, Los Ríos and Los Lagos regions in the so-called Zona Sur of Chile, including the Chilean lake district. The first German to feature in the history of what is now Chile is Bartolomé Blumenthal during the 16th century who accompanied Pedro de Valdivia; the latter conquistador founded the city of Santiago. Valdivia arrested and took hostage the Cacique to weaken the society of the local Mapuche people. Blumenthal took part in the defence of the Spanish settlement of Santiago when the Mapuche launched a counter-offensive on 11 September 1541 in attempt to free their caciques held hostage by the conquistadores.
Blumenthal took part in the consolidation of the Spanish settlement that would become the Talagante Province. Blumenthal’s son-in-law, Pedro Lisperguer, was appointed as mayor of Santiago in 1572. Johann von Bohon was part of Valdivia's expedition and was ordered to establish the city of La Serena in 1544. In 1818 Chile began to engage in trading with more nations; the port city of Valparaíso became a major center for trade with Hamburg, with commercial travellers and merchants from Germany staying for lengthy periods of time to work in Valparaíso. Some settled there permanently. On 9 May 1838 Club Alemán de Valparaíso, the first German cultural organization was established in the city. German residents and visitors held cultural functions here; the club began to organize literary and theatre productions, contributing to the cultural life of the city. Aquinas Ried, a physician, became known in the city for composing operas, for writing poetry and plays; the club had its own orchestras and academic choir which would perform works composed by local musicians.
During World War I, the German Club of Valparaiso welcomed Admiral Maximilian von Spee's East Asia Squadron of the Imperial German Navy after they fought the Battle of Coronel off the Chilean coast. The Chilean government encouraged German immigration in a time of revolution in Germany. Before that Bernhard Eunom Philippi recruited nine working families to emigrate from Hesse to Chile; the origin of the German immigrants in Chile began with the Law of Selective Immigration of 1845. The objective of this law was to bring people of a medium social/high cultural level to colonize the southern regions of Chile; the process was administered by Vicente Pérez Rosales by mandate of the then-president Manuel Montt. The German immigrants revived the domestic economy, they changed the southern zones; the leader of the first colonists, Karl Anwandter, proclaimed their goals: We shall be honest and laborious Chileans as the best of them, we shall defend our adopted country joining in the ranks of our new countrymen, against any foreign oppression and with the decision and firmness of the man that defends his country, his family and his interests.
Never will have the country that adopts us as its children, reason to repent of such illustrated and generous proceeding... The expansion and economic development of Valdivia were limited in the early 19th century. To stimulate economic development, the Chilean government initiated a focused immigration program under Vicente Pérez Rosales as government representative. Through this program, thousands of Germans settled in the area, incorporating then-modern technology and know-how to develop agriculture and industry; some of the new immigrants stayed in Valdivia but others were given forested land, which they cleared for farms. Valdivia, situated at some distance from the coast, on the Calle-calle river, is a German town. Everywhere you meet German faces, German placards alongside the Spanish. There is a large German school, a church and various Vereine, large shoe-factories, and, of course, breweries... For ten years after the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, numerous liberal immigrants came from Germany, exiles of the revolutions.
They settled in the Llanquihue in the towns of Frutillar, Puerto Octay, Puerto Varas and Puerto Montt. Around 1900 Valdivia prospered with industries, including the Hoffmann Gristmill and the Rudloff shoe factory. By the mid-1930s, most of the farming land around the towns of Valdivia and Osorno had been claimed; some German immigrants moved further south to places such as Puyuhuapi in the Aysén region. Subsequently, a new wave of German immigrants arrived in Chile, with many settling in Temuco, Santiago. Many founded businesses. Before the Nazi takeover of Germany in 1933, a German Chilean youth organization was established with strong Nazi influence. Nazi Germany pursued a policy of Nazification of the German Chilean community; these communities and their organizations were considered a cornerstone to extend the Nazi ideology across the world by Nazi Germany. Most Ge
German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue
From 1850 to 1875 the region around Valdivia and Llanquihue in Southern Chile received some 6,000 German immigrants as part of a state-led colonization scheme. Some immigrants were leaving Europe as consequence of the aftermath of the German revolutions of 1848–49, they brought skills and assets as artisans and merchants to Chile, contributing to development. German settlement had a long-lasting influence on the society and geography of Southern Chile; the German colonization of Valdivia and Llanquihue is considered the first of three waves of German settlement in Chile, the others lasting from 1882 to 1914 and from 1918 onward. Beginning in 1842 German expatriate Bernhard Eunom Philippi sent a proposal of German colonization of Southern Chile to the Chilean government. In 1844 Philippi presented a second colonization scheme; the second scheme considered the colonization of both the shores of Llanquihue Lake and the mouth of Maullín River. The mentioned river was to be made navigable. In 1844 Philippi formed a partnership with Ferdinand Flindt, a German merchant based in Valparaíso, who represented Prussia there as consul.
With financial backing from Flindt, in 1844 Philippi purchased land in Valdivia and along the southern bank of Bueno River to be developed by future immigrants. Philippi's brother, Rodolfo Amando Philippi, contributed to the colonization plans by recruiting nine German families to emigrate to Chile; these families arrived to Chile in 1846 aboard one of Flindt's ships. By the time the first immigrants arrived, Flindt had gone bankrupt and his properties were taken over by another German merchant, Franz Kindermann, he took over Flindt's responsibilities. Land purchases of dubious legality were made by Kindermann and his father-in-law Johann Renous around Trumao with the aim re-selling these lands to German immigrants. Bankrupted Flindt had made similar purchases near Osorno; as the Chilean state nullified Kindermanns and Renous purchases the first immigrants to arrive were instead settled in Isla Teja in Valdivia, a river island called Isla Valenzuela. Worried about the potential occupation of Southern Chile by European powers, Chilean authorities approved plans for colonization of the southern territories.
The Chilean legislature entered colonist recruitment with passage of the Law of Colonization and Vacant Lots, signed by president Manuel Montt in 1845. That same year Salvador Sanfuentes was appointed intendant of Valdivia and tasked with surveying the colonization potential of the Province. To carry out the survey, Sanfuentes commissioned Philippi as "provincial engineer"; the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution in the German states persuaded the hesitant Philippi to travel to Europe to recruit settlers. The Chilean government ordered Philippi to recruit 180-200 German Catholic families. Troubled by Catholic bishops in Germany who opposed the departure of their parishioners, Philippi asked for and was granted permission to recruit non-Catholic immigrants. Philippi succeeded in having the Chilean government put fixed prices on fiscal colonization land to stimulate immigration of economically independent individuals and avoid speculation. Most of the immigrants recruited by Philippi during his 1848-1851 stay in Germany were Protestant.
The few Catholic families recruited were all poor people from Württemberg. The immigrants recruited by Philippi arrived in 1850 at Valdivia, where Vicente Pérez Rosales was declared colonization agent by the Chilean government. One of the most notable early immigrants was Carl Anwandter, who settled in Valdivia in 1850 after having participated in the Revolution of 1848 in Prussia. Most immigrants were therefore free to settle where they wished, they settled around Valdivia. The few Catholic families from Württemberg, who needed Chilean state support, could be allocated as the government wished. By 1850, this last group was too small to establish a functional German settlement at the shores of Llanquihue Lake as Philippi had envisioned, he decided to settle the Catholic families in the interior of Valdivia Province. Upon his return to Chile in 1851, Philippi was admonished by minister Antonio Varas for sending too many Protestant settlers; as punishment Philippi was appointed governor of Magallanes instead of being appointed leader of the future Llanquihue settlement as he wished.
In Magallanes, Philippi was killed by indigenous people in 1852. We shall be honest and laborious Chileans as the best of them, we shall defend our adopted country joining in the ranks of our new countrymen, against any foreign oppression and with the decision and firmness of the man that defends his country, his family and his interests. Never will have the country that adopts us as its children, reason to repent of such illustrated and generous proceeding... Pérez Rosales succeeded Philippi as government agent in Europe in 1850; the sponsored colonization of Valdivia and Osorno lasted until 1858. The shores of Llanquihue Lake were colonized between 1852 and 1875 but Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas had been founded by Chileans in 1850. Frutillar on the shores of Llanquihue Lake was founded in 1856; the Puerto Montt and the zone around the Llanquihue Lake developed rapidly. The zone had a formal police force established in 1859 to deal with c
An administrative division, entity, area or region referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories, with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control. However, the term "administrative division" can include dependent territories as well as accepted administrative divisions. For clarity and convenience the standard neutral reference for the largest administrative subdivision of a country is called the "first-level administrative division" or "first administrative level".
Next smaller is called "second-level administrative division" or "second administrative level". In many of the following terms originating from British cultural influence, areas of low mean population density might bear a title of an entity one would expect to be either larger or smaller. There is no fixed rule, for "all politics is local" as is well demonstrated by their relative lack of systemic order. In the realm of self-government, any of these can and does occur along a stretch of road—which for the most part is passing through rural unsettled countryside. Since the terms are administrative political subdivisions of the local regional government their exact relationship and definitions are subject to home rule considerations, tradition, as well as state statute law and local governmental definition and control. In British cultural legacy, some territorial entities began with expansive counties which encompass an appreciably large area, but were divided over time into a number of smaller entities.
Within those entities are the large and small cities or towns, which may or may not be the county seat. Some of the world's larger cities culturally, if not span several counties, those crossing state or provincial boundaries have much in common culturally as well, but are incorporated within the same municipal government. Many sister cities share a water boundary, which quite serves as a border of both cities and counties. For example and Boston, Massachusetts appear to the casual traveler as one large city, while locally they each are quite culturally different and occupy different counties. General terms for these incorporated places include "municipality," "settlement," "locality," and "populated place." Borough, burgh or "boro" City Shire Town Township Village Tribe Indian reservation Indian reserve Band Rancheria Due to variations in their use worldwide, consistency in the translation of terms from non-English to English is sometimes difficult to maintain. Sovereign state, a national or supra-national division.
Country, a national or sub-national division. Empire, a supra-national division. GADM, a high-resolution database of country administrative areas. ISO 3166-2 Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 2. List of administrative division name changes List of etymologies of country subdivision names List of administrative divisions by country United Nations' Second Administrative Level Boundaries dataset Statoids, an international convention with standardized two-letter-based multi-level summaries of administrative divisions worldwide
Lanco is a city and commune in southern Chile administered by the Municipality of Lanco. It is located in Valdivia Province in Los Ríos Region, about 69 km northeast of Valdivia by road, close to Cruces River. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Lanco spans an area of 532.4 km2 and has 15,107 inhabitants. Of these, 10,383 lived in urban areas and 4,724 in rural areas. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population grew by 9.8%. The highway Chile Route 5 passes by Lanco; as a commune, Lanco is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. The 2008-2012 alcalde is Luis Cuvertino Gómez. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Lanco is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Alfonso De Urresti and Roberto Delmastro as part of the 53rd electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Andrés Allamand and Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle as part of the 16th senatorial constituency.
Municipality of Lanco
Lago Ranco, Chile
Lago Ranco is a town and commune in southern Chile administered by the Municipality of Lago Ranco. It is located in Ranco Province in Los Ríos Region. Lago Ranco takes name from Ranco Lake. Ranco Lake Basin was inhabited since ancient times by indigenous people belonging to Huilliche "people of the south", characterized by a more peaceful than that of the Mapuche. Although this was not the norm, as demonstrated in the great rebellion led by toqui Pelantaru in 1599 and that meant the destruction and abandonment of cities and fountains built by the Spanish conquistadors south of the Bío-Bío, but most of the life of the Huilliche communities in the area, spent a quiet in close contact with the natural environment that gave them their livelihood: the gathering, fishing and incipient agriculture, were the activities that allowed him to maintain their sedentary lifestyle and the development of certain cultural expressions. During the colonial period this picture changed little, remaining outside the territories of the colonization process, only are noticed some attempts to integrate this area to civilized life, for example, through missionary work of the Jesuits from the fortifications of Quinchilca in the north, San José de Alcudia, on the south, on the banks of the river Well, west of the lake.
The geographical setting in which they lived Huilliches communities in our area were Maihue lacustrine basins and Ranco, both lakes located in the pre-Andean area and connected by the river Calcurrupe. In this geographical setting that had its genesis in the last glacial period, the Quaternary-lived the early inhabitants of this place, each sector was taking a name that identifies you to present: Maihue, Curriñe, Chabranco and Rupumeica, Cars in Maihue sector. TRINGL, Huapi, Llifén, Pocuro, Riñinahue, Pitreño, Quillaico, Pitriuco in the area of Lago Ranco. During the Republican era in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Chilean state must promote a process of settlement and integration of their individual territories, the national life, but its location in the pre-Andean sector the Lake Ranco was not an objective considered in this process whose attention was focused on the longitudinal valley and the coastal sector. Still, in 1846 the cartographer Bernardo Phillippi, drew up a map of the province of Valdivia, made at the time by the departments of Valdivia and Osorno.
Another nineteenth-century historical record indicates that in 1885 the Department of Valdivia was divided into sub-delegations and districts, such as sub No. 8 of Quinchilca was established, which included the districts of Quinchilca, Riñihue and Maihue. The latter is the land area basis for future community of Lago Ranco; the first colonists who settled on the banks of Lake Ranco, arrived from the late nineteenth century, which motivated his adventurous spirit took up residence in the western sector of the Lake, in the areas of Hueimen and Ignatieff, natural beauty and the immense wealth of native forests was a major reason why families continue to arrive by German colonists, who formed the vanguard of settlement in this place and encouraged the integration with the central valley. Among these early families were Konust and Rettig, whose descendants still develop the entrepreneurial spirit of their ancestors. On the other hand, you should mention other families from these places whose descendants represents the link with the ancestral past.
These families may include: Ancacura, Huenuman, Quichel, NEIP, Calfulef, Curinao, Calfumil and others, which are an example of the historical heritage of the ancestors Huilliches. The construction of a railway between Cocula and Lago Ranco began in 1928, this project was initiated by the first settlers: Konust and Rettig, with business vision prompted this action; the branch was completed in the 1930s, was at first only to Ignatieff, while difficult to solve the section called "Return of the Guitar", at the height of Quillaico. Once the railway lines in its path, began a slow settling of population engaged in preference to the work resulting from logging, the main economic activity of the time and the main objective of the railway. So in the first instance, this town received the name of Punta de Rails by expansion into the hills, was renamed Pérez Rosales TRINGL and drive in honor of German colonization in the area. In 1935 he prepared the first master plan for this fledgling town. In 1937 by Decree ordered the auction of public lands into subdivisions, which gave rise to the town.
On February 14, 1941, under the government of Pedro Aguirre Cerda, Lagoe Ranco, was formally granted the status of a commune. Decree Law No. 6826 carried and article No. 1 stated: "Believe the commune sub-delegation of Lake Ranco, Department of Rio Bueno. His head is the village of Ranco Lake, located south of Lake Ranco." The respective decree sets the limits of the new community and set the procedure for holding elections to form the new municipality. With the creation of the commune in 1941, begins to intensify the slow process of urbanization and community development. Significant activity recorded a great climax. Several steamers plied the waters of Lake Ranco, covering different areas in a large area stretching from Puerto Rettig, the same Ranco, until Riñinahue, Llifén, Isla Huapi and Puerto Nuevo. A whole era marked vapors as the Laja
A pen is an enclosure for holding animals such as livestock or pets that are unwanted inside the house. The term describes types of enclosures that may confine many animals. Construction and terminology vary depending on the region of the world, animal species to be confined, local materials used and tradition. Pen or penning as a verb refers to the act of confining animals in an enclosure. In Australia and New Zealand a pen is a small enclosure for livestock, part of a larger construction, e.g. calf pen, forcing pen in sheep or cattle yards, or a sweating pen or catching pen in a shearing shed. In Australia, a paddock may encompass a large, fenced grazing area of many acres, not to be confused with the American English use of paddock as interchangeable with corral or pen, describing smaller, confined areas. In British English, a sheep pen is called a folding, sheepfold or sheepcote. Modern shepherds more use terms such as closing or confinement pen for small sheep pens. Most structures today referred to.
In the United States, the term pen describes outdoor small enclosures for holding animals. These may be for encasing livestock or pets. Pens may be named by their purpose, such as a holding pen, used for short-term confinement. A pen for cattle may be called a corral, a term borrowed from the Spanish language. Groups of pens that are part of a larger complex may be called a stockyard, where a series of pens holds a large number of animals, or a feedlot, type of stockyard used to confine animals that are being fattened. A large pen for horses is called a corral. In some places an exhibition arena may be called a show pen. A small pen for horses is only known as a pen if it lacks any roof or shelter, otherwise it is called a stall and is part of a stable. A large fenced grazing area of many acres is, in some cases, rangeland. Primitive pens in South Africa are called kraal. For pets, specialized folding fencing referred to as an exercise pen, x-pen, or ex pen, is used to surround an area outdoors but not always, in which the animals can move around.
They are used for dogs, such as to give puppies or adult dogs more space than dog crates, but can be used for rabbits and other animals. Exercise pens are made of sturdy wire, but can be plastic or wood. Horses, during training, are exercised in a round pen, sometimes referred to as an exercise pen. Pinfold and pound are synonyms of animal pound Boô Kraal "Macquarie Dictionary, The", 2nd edition, 1991 Media related to Pens at Wikimedia Commons