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Lothal was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited c. 3700 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India, the official Indian government agency for the preservation of ancient monuments. According to the ASI, Lothal had the world's earliest known dock, which connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. However, this interpretation has been challenged by other archaeologists, who argue that Lothal was a comparatively small town, that the "dock" was an irrigation tank; the controversy was settled when scientists from The National Institute of Oceonography, Goa discovered foraminifera and salt, gypsum crystals in the rectangular structure indicating that sea water once filled the structure.

Lothal was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. The techniques and tools they pioneered for bead-making and in metallurgy have stood the test of time for over 4000 years. Lothal is situated near the village of Saragwala in the Dholka Taluka of Ahmedabad district, it is six kilometres south-east of the Lothal-Bhurkhi railway station on the Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar railway line. It is connected by all-weather roads to the cities of Ahmedabad, Bhavnagar and Dholka; the nearest cities are Bagodara. Resuming excavation in 1961, archaeologists unearthed trenches sunk on the northern and western flanks of the mound, bringing to light the inlet channels and nullah connecting the dock with the river; the findings consist of a mound, a township, a marketplace, the dock. Adjacent to the excavated areas stands the Archaeological Museum, where some of the most prominent collections of Indus-era antiquities in India are displayed.

The Lothal site has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its application is pending on the tentative list of UNESCO. When British India was partitioned in 1947, most Indus sites, including Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, became part of Pakistan; the Archaeological Survey of India undertook a new program of exploration, excavation. Many sites were discovered across northwestern India. Between 1954 and 1958, more than 50 sites were excavated in the Kutch, Saurashtra peninsulas, extending the limits of Harappan civilisation by 500 kilometres to the river Kim, where the Bhagatrav site accesses the valley of the rivers Narmada and Tapti. Lothal stands 670 kilometers from Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh; the meaning of Lothal in Gujarati to be "the mound of the dead" is not unusual, as the name of the city of Mohenjo-daro in Sindhi means the same. People in villages neighbouring to Lothal had known of the presence of an ancient town and human remains; as as 1850, boats could sail up to the mound. In 1942, timber was shipped from Broach to Saragwala via the mound.

A silted creek connecting modern Bholad with Lothal and Saragwala represents the ancient flow channel of a river or creek. Speculation suggests that owing to the comparatively small dimensions of the main city, Lothal was not a large settlement at all, its "dock" was an irrigation tank. However, the ASI and other contemporary archaeologists assert that the city was a part of a major river system on the trade route of the ancient peoples from Sindh to Saurashtra in Gujarat. Lothal provides with the largest collection of antiquities in the archaeology of modern India, it is a single culture site—the Harappan culture in all its variances is evidenced. An indigenous micaceous Red Ware culture existed, believed to be autochthonous and pre-Harappan. Two sub-periods of Harappan culture are distinguished: the same period is identical to the exuberant culture of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. After the core of the Indus civilisation had decayed in Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, Lothal seems not only to have survived but to have thrived for many years.

Its constant threats - tropical storms and floods - caused immense destruction, which destabilised the culture and caused its end. Topographical analysis shows signs that at about the time of its demise, the region suffered from aridity or weakened monsoon rainfall, thus the cause for the abandonment of the city may have been changes in the climate as well as natural disasters, as suggested by environmental magnetic records. Lothal is based upon a mound, a salt marsh inundated by tide. Remote sensing and topographical studies published by Indian scientists in the Journal of the Indian Geophysicists Union in 2004 revealed an ancient, meandering river adjacent to Lothal, 30 kilometres in length according to satellite imagery— an ancient extension of the northern river channel bed of a tributary of the Bhogavo river. Small channel widths when compared to the lower reaches suggest the presence of a strong tidal influence upon the city—tidal waters ingressed up to and beyond the city. Upstream elements of this river provided a suitable source of freshwater for the inhabitants.

A flood destroyed village settlements. Harappans based around Lothal and from Sindh took this opportunity to expand their settlement and create a planned township on the lines of greater cities in the Indus valley. Lothal planners engaged themselve

Jaan Kiivit Jr.

Jaan Kiivit Jr. was the Archbishop of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church from 1994 until 2005. Jaan Kiivit was born on 19 February 1940 in Rakvere in Estonia in the family of the priest and the archbishop Jaan Kiivit Sr. In 1959 he graduated from the secondary school and began his studies at the Theological Institute of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church. In 1964 he was appointed a curate at the church of the Holy Ghost and as the parish priest the following year. Jaan Kiivit was ordained in 1966 and he worked as a pastor of the Holy Ghost Church until 1994. In 1980 he became deputy member of the Consistory and in 1986 he became an assessor. In 1990 he was a member of the Consistory Board. Jaan Kiivit Jr was elected archbishop of Tallinn and of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church the Estonian Evangelical Church archbishop in 1994. Between 1978-1994 Jaan Kiivit was a lecturer of practical theology at the Theological Institute in Tallinn, 1989-1991 he worked as an Institute curator, 1991-1992 as the rector.

In 1990 and 1991 Jaan Kiivit was the representative of the EELC in the working group for reopening the Faculty of Theology at the University of Tartu. 1989-1994 he co-ordinates the cooperation between the Estonian Lutheran Church and the North Elbian Church. Since 1992 he was chairman of the Foreign Relations Council of the EELC, he has represented the EELC in many international conferences. He took part in the Eighth Assembly of the Lutheran World Federation in Curitiba as an official visitor, he was the EELC delegate of the Ninth Assembly of the Lutheran World Federation in Hong Kong. Archbishop Jaan Kiivit was the first Estonian to be elected as member of the LWF Council. In 1994 he became a member of the Presidium of the Leuenberg Concordia Executive Committee. Archbishop Kiivit was a co-chairman of the joint commission of Estonian Government and EELC since it was established in 1995, he was a curator of the University of Tartu. In 1997 Jaan Kiivit received an honorary degree in 1998 Dr.h.c.

From the Suomi College in USA. In 2001 he received the 2nd class order of the White Star from the President of the Estonian Republic. Kiivit has translated theological and religious books and articles from Greek and Finnish, he has published a collection of sermons. Kiivit was married for 43 years to Sirje Kiivit, they had three daughters. Archbishop Kiivit died on 31 August 2005 in St Petersburg, Russia

Alex Riley (comedian)

Alexander John "Alex" Riley is an English TV and radio presenter. Born and brought up in Sheffield, Riley started performing with the city's Crucible Youth Theatre, during which time he originated, appeared in, sketches and devised pieces, as well as appearing in a number of plays and farces at the Library Theatre. Riley had a succession of jobs, including spells managing a shopping centre and selling aerial photographs, before answering an on-air appeal for researchers on BBC TV's Top Gear programme. A lifelong car enthusiast, Riley was in his element writing scripts for racing driver turned presenter Vicki Butler-Henderson and making many cameo appearances before being given the chance to present his own items. Amongst these were a 9-hour road trip from London to Brighton on the world's oldest vehicle, a challenge to build a car in 16 hours from junk bought at Europe's largest auto jumble sale and appearing as Elvis at the UK's premier American lifestyle festival, he went on to write and perform sketches for BBC One specials on the Chelsea Flower Show and Britain in Bloom, appear as a bed-hopping bigamist in a prime time BBC One documentary Bigamy and write and present Short Circuits, an innovative 10-part series for Discovery Home and Leisure which combined Scalextric with tips on making realistic scenery out of chicken wire.

Moving sideways to radio, he was chosen as the voice of The Comedy Club, a nightly 2-hour comedy strand which played a significant part in BBC7 achieving the Sony Gold Award for Station Sound. Returning to TV, Riley has presented two series of Boys Toys, a series for ITV1 West Country, the Caravan Show for Discovery Real Time, a tongue-in-cheek active sports series You Know You Want To and, after buying a Triumph TR7, Classic Car Club, for Discovery Real Time, he has been a "traveller" for Globe Trekker. For BBC Three's Mischief series Riley has presented documentaries which made use of dramatic stunts to confront those responsible for problems on the UK's public transport network and for the fact that thousands of homes across the country lie empty at a time when housing is in short supply. For a 2008 Mischief documentary on food, Riley attempted to create his own meat pie using the minimum requirements set by the Food Standards Agency; when shown on BBC One, it got 2.6 million viewers, prompting the creation of a series of 3 documentaries titled Britain's Really Disgusting Food, aired in January 2009.

His new show aired in 2010 called Britain's Really Disgusting Drink. From 2015, Riley has appeared 6 times on the CBBC panel show. Riley hosts All Over the Workplace for CBBC. Alex Riley on IMDb

Emerald (disambiguation)

Emerald is a green gemstone. Because of its color, the word emerald is used to describe a shade of green. Emerald may refer to: The Detroit Emeralds, an American R&B vocal group most active in the 1970s Emerald, 2009 Emerald, 2015 Emerald, the first movement of George Balanchine's Jewels performed by itself Emeralds, an ambient music trio from Cleveland, Ohio "Emerald" Pokémon Emerald, one of the Pokémon video games Emerald, a main character in Pokémon Adventures Chaos Emeralds, a set of gems with mythical powers in Sonic the Hedgehog video games The Emerald City of Oz, a 1910 book by L. Frank Baum Several species of hummingbird called emeralds in the genera Chlorostilbon Elvira Amazilia Emerald damselflies, members of the family Lestidae Emerald dragonflies, members of the family Corduliidae Large emerald, a moth of the family Geometridae Emerald dove, a pigeon Emerald toucanet, Aulacorhynchus prasinus, a near-passerine bird Emerald Group Publishing, a UK publisher of management and business journals Emerald Moon Records, a record label Emerald Music, a record label Emerald Records, a record label Emerald Records, a record label Emerald snack nuts, a product line manufactured by Diamond Foods Emerald, a theme manager for Compiz Emerald, a distributed Object-Oriented programming language Emerald City, a fictional city in the Land of Oz in the book Emerald Empress, a DC Comics supervillain Emerald, the name given to Green Esmeraude in the English-language version of the anime Sailor Moon Emerald Goldenbraid, a character of the show Mysticons Emerald, a character from the series Steven Universe Emerald Sustrai, a character from the series RWBY Caro Emerald, Dutch jazz singer Emerald Zellers, beauty queen from Scottsdale, Arizona Emerald Ignacio, aka "DriftGirl", is an actor and model Marti Emerald, elected member of the San Diego City Council Emerald, Queensland, a town in the Central Highlands Region Emerald, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne Emerald, New South Wales, a small township north of Coffs Harbour Emerald, Prince Edward Island Emerald, Ontario Emerald No.

277, Saskatchewan, a rural municipality in Saskatchewan Emerald Park, Saskatchewan Emerald Lake Hills, California Emerald Triangle, California Emerald Coast, Florida Emerald Township, Minnesota Emerald Beach, Missouri Emerald, Nebraska Emerald Isle, North Carolina Emerald, Pennsylvania Emerald, Texas, a ghost town in Crockett County, Texas Emerald, Washington Emerald, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community Emerald, Wisconsin, a town Emerald Grove, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community Emerald Isle, a nickname for Ireland Emerald Island, a nickname for the island of Lesbos Emerald-class cruiser, light cruiser class of two ships in service with the British Royal Navy from 1926 to 1946–1948 HMS Emerald, name of numerous British Royal Navy ships USS Emerald, name of more than one United States Navy ship SS The Emerald, 1958 Greek-owned passenger cruise ship chartered by Thomson Holidays Emerald Princess, 2006 cruise ship The Emerald, a high-rise residential building in Seattle, United States Emerald Beach Club, South Andros, Bahamas.

Reports of Streptococcus mitis on the Moon

As part of the Apollo 12 mission, the camera from the Surveyor 3 probe was brought back from the Moon to Earth. On analyzing the camera it was found that the common bacterium Streptococcus mitis was alive on the camera; this was attributed by NASA to the camera not being sterilized on Earth prior to its launch two and a half years previously.. However study showed that the scientists analysing the camera on return to Earth used procedures that were inadequate to prevent recontamination after return to Earth, for instance with their arms exposed, not covering their entire bodies as modern scientists would do. There may have been possibilities for contamination during the return mission as the camera was returned in a porous bag rather than the airtight containers used for lunar sample return; as a result, the result remains controversial. Since the Apollo Program, there has been at least one independent investigation into the validity of the NASA claim. Leonard D. Jaffe, a Surveyor program scientist and custodian of the Surveyor 3 parts brought back from the Moon, stated in a letter to the Planetary Society that a member of his staff reported that a "breach of sterile procedure" took place at just the right time to produce a false positive result.

One of the implements being used to scrape samples off the Surveyor parts was laid down on a non-sterile laboratory bench, was used to collect surface samples for culturing. Jaffe wrote, "It is, quite possible that the microorganisms were transferred to the camera after its return to Earth, that they had never been to the Moon." In 2007, NASA funded an archival study that sought the film of the camera-body microbial sampling, to confirm the report of a breach in sterile technique. The bacterial test is now non-repeatable because the parts were subsequently taken out of quarantine and re-exposed to terrestrial conditions; the Surveyor 3 camera was returned from the Moon in a nylon duffel bag, was not in the type of sealed airtight metal container used to return lunar samples in the early Apollo missions. It is therefore possible that it was contaminated by the astronauts and the environment in the Apollo 12 capsule itself. In March 2011, three researchers co-authored a paper, entitled "A Microbe on the Moon?

Surveyor III and Lessons Learned for Future Sample Return Missions" that assessed the validity of claims that the S. mitis samples found on the camera had indeed survived for nearly three years on the Moon. The paper concluded that the presence of microbes could more be attributed to poor clean room conditions rather than the survival of bacteria for three years in the harsh moon environment; the paper discussed the implication this incident would have for contamination control in future space missions. Countervailing evidence against the secondary contamination hypothesis is the fact that, according to Lieutenant Colonel Fred Mitchell, lead author of the original 1971 paper there was a significant delay before the sampled culture began growing: this is consistent with the sampled bacteria consisting of dormant cells, but not if the sampled culture was the result of fresh contamination. In addition, according to Mitchell, the microbes clung to the foam during culturing, which would not have happened had there been contamination.

Furthermore, if fresh contamination had occurred, millions of individual bacteria and "a representation of the entire microbial population would be expected". This subject was covered in the 2008 Discovery Channel documentary series, When We Left Earth and on episode of the Science Channel series Nasa's Unexplained Files entitled Return of the Moon Bugs. "Ocean Rendezvous". Archived from the original on 2006-09-29. "Apollo 12 Mission". "Moon Microbe Mystery Finally Solved". Archived from the original on 2011-05-09; this article incorporates public domain material from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration document "LSDA - Experiment: Surveyor 3 Streptococcus Mitis"

Conus retifer

Conus retifer, common name the netted cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are venomous, they are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled or not at all. The size of the shell varies between 69 mm; the shell is pear-shaped, with revolving striae. Its color is reticulated orange-brown with large and small triangular white patches, zigzag longitudinal chocolate markings interrupted so as to form one or two bands; the interior of the aperture is light violaceous. This marine species has a wide distribution in the tropical Indo-West Pacific: Mozambique, the Mascarene Islands, Indo-China, Indo-Malaysia, Oceania. T. 1829. Verzeichniss der ansehnlischen Conchylien-Sammlung der Freiherrn von der Malsburg. Pyrmonti: Publisher not known pp. i-vi, 1-123. Sowerby, G. B. 1834. Conus. Pls 54-57 in Sowerby, G. B.. The Conchological Illustrations or coloured figures of all the hitherto unfigured recent shells.

London: G. B. Sowerby. Sowerby, G. B. 1841. The Conchological Illustrations or coloured figures of all the hitherto unfigured recent shells. London: G. B. Sowerby 200 pls. Salvat, B. & Rives, C. 1975. Coquillages de Polynésie. Tahiti: Papéete Les editions du pacifique, pp. 1–391. Cernohorsky, W. O. 1978. Tropical Pacific Marine Shells. Sydney: Pacific Publications 352 pp. 68 pls. Kay, E. A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 4: Mollusca. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication Vol. 64 653 pp. Drivas, J.. Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'Île Maurice. Collection Les Beautés de la Nature. Delachaux et Niestlé: Neuchâtel. ISBN 2-603-00654-1. 159 pp. Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, WA: Odyssey Publishing Vol. 2 370 pp. Röckel, D. Korn, W. & Kohn, A. J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae. Volume 1: Indo-Pacific Region. Wiesbaden: Hemmen 517 pp. Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P.. One, four or 100 genera?

A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea Photos of Conus retifer on Sealife Collection