Louis Armstrong

Louis Daniel Armstrong, nicknamed "Satchmo", "Satch", "Pops", was an American trumpeter, composer and actor, among the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, different eras in the history of jazz. In 2017, he was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Armstrong was raised in New Orleans. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an inventive trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. Around 1922, he followed Joe "King" Oliver, to Chicago to play in the Creole Jazz Band. In Chicago, he spent time with other popular jazz musicians, reconnecting with his friend Bix Beiderbecke and spending time with Hoagy Carmichael and Lil Hardin, he earned a reputation at "cutting contests", relocated to New York in order to join Fletcher Henderson's band. With his recognizable rich, gravelly voice, Armstrong was an influential singer and skillful improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song.

He was skilled at scat singing. Armstrong is renowned for voice as well as his trumpet playing. By the end of Armstrong's career in the 1960s, his influence had spread to popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", meaning his music transcended his skin color in a racially divided America, he publicly politicized his race, to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. He was able to access the upper echelons of American society at a time when this was difficult for black men. Armstrong stated that he was born on July 4, 1900. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date, August 4, 1901, was discovered by Tad Jones by researching baptismal records. At least three other biographies treat the July 4th birth date as a myth. Armstrong was born in New Orleans to William Armstrong. Albert was from Boutte and gave birth at home when she was about sixteen.

William Armstrong abandoned the family shortly after. About two years he had a daughter, Beatrice "Mama Lucy" Armstrong, raised by Albert. Louis Armstrong was raised by his grandmother until the age of five when he was returned to his mother, he spent his youth in poverty in a rough neighborhood known as The Battlefield. At six he attended the Fisk School for Boys, a school that accepted black children in the racially segregated system of New Orleans, he did odd jobs for a family of Lithuanian Jews. While selling coal in Storyville, he heard spasm bands, groups that played music out of household objects, he heard the early sounds of jazz from bands that played in brothels and dance halls such as Pete Lala's, where King Oliver performed. The Karnoffskys treated him like family. Knowing he lived without a father, they nurtured him. In his memoir Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La. the Year of 1907, he described his discovery that this family was subject to discrimination by "other white folks" who felt that they were better than Jews: "I was only seven years old but I could see the ungodly treatment that the white folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."

He wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination." His first musical performance may have been at the side of the Karnoffsky's junk wagon. To distinguish them from other hawkers, he tried playing a tin horn to attract customers. Morris Karnoffsky gave Armstrong an advance toward the purchase of a cornet from a pawn shop; when Armstrong was eleven, he dropped out of school. His mother moved into a one-room house on Perdido Street with him and her common-law husband, Tom Lee, next door to her brother Ike and his two sons. Armstrong joined a quartet of boys, he got into trouble. Cornetist Bunk Johnson said, he said about his youth, "Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for." Borrowing his stepfather's gun without permission, he fired a blank into the air and was arrested on December 31, 1912. He spent the night at New Orleans Juvenile Court was sentenced the next day to detention at the Colored Waif's Home.

Life at the home was spartan. Mattresses were absent. Meals were little more than bread and molasses. Captain Joseph Jones used corporal punishment. Armstrong developed his cornet skills by playing in the band. Peter Davis, who appeared at the home at the request of Captain Jones, became Armstrong's first teacher and chose him as bandleader. With this band, the thirteen year-old. On June 14, 1914, Armstrong was released into the custody of his father and his new stepmother, Gertrude, he lived in this household with two stepbrothers for several months. After Gertrude gave birth to a daughter, Armstrong's father never welcomed him, so he returned to his mother, Mary Albert. In her small home, he had to share a bed with his sister, his mother still lived in The Battlefield, leaving him open to old temptations, but he sought work as a musician. He found a job at a dance hall owned by Henry Ponce, he met the six-foot tall drummer Black Benny, who bodyguard. Arms

Colin Lauder

Colin Lauder was a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh FRCSE, a burgess of Edinburgh. His portrait was painted by Sir Henry Raeburn; the son of Dr George Lauder, a surgeon and fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, by his spouse Rosina Preston, Colin Lauder was the great-great-grandson of Sir John Lauder, 1st Baronet, of Fountainhall and the grandson of Surgeon John Lauder deacon of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Lauder trained at Glasgow University alongside Handyside Edgar becoming a lifelong friend of his brother Alexander Edgar through this link, he served as a surgeon in the 17th Regiment of Foot from 14 October 1770 until 1772. He was made a burgess of Edinburgh on 23 September 1772 in right of his father. Dr Colin Lauder was the surgeon to the Scottish philosopher David Hume, his Edinburgh home stood on Carrubbers Close off the Royal Mile. A Sasine registered on 12 August 1785 records that George, Rosina and Lucinda Johnstone Lauder, children of Colin Lauder, Edinburgh, were seised in part of a tenement of land in George Street, Edinburgh, on Disposition by Andrew Neil, Edinburgh.

Another Sasine, registered 8 July 1793, mentions "Colin Lauder late surgeon in Edinburgh, now at Fala House, Midlothian." He was married four times: on 1 June 1772 at St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh, to Margaret Milne, daughter of John Milne and burgess of Edinburgh by spouse Elizabeth née Edgar, by whom he had issue – 10 children Janet Law. Little known about her. Agnes Donaldson on 12 December 1810 Margaret Ross on 21 May 1822 Of his children: Dr William Preston Lauder FRSE (died 1 April 1852, London, Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh FRCE, Fellow of Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh FRCPE, without issue. Francis Lauder, a solicitor, married 25 March 1784 McLeish Rutherford, daughter of Lewis Rutherford in Dunbar, with issue. George Lauder, captain in the Madras Army John Lauder, Naval Physician, of Penicuik, who owned a farm at Easter Teary, Elginshire. Rosina Preston Lauder married, with issue. Elizabeth Edgar Lauder, married, in 1805, George Guild, farmer of Demple Mains, with issue, one of whom, married Nathaniel Spens of Craigsanquhar, Writer to the Signet.

Another, married Rear-Admiral John Macpherson Ferguson, Royal Navy. Indexes to the Inventories of the Personal Estate of Defuncts, Edinburgh, 1827–1845, ref: C587; the Post Office Annual Directory for 1826–27, Edinburgh, 1826, p102, has Dr Colin Lauder at 8 Windmill Street, Edinburgh. Genealogical Collections concerning the Scottish House of Edgar, by The Grampian Club London, 1873, p. 9. Biographical Index of former RSE Fellows 1783–2002 Part 2. The Scottish Register Or General View of History, Politics &... - Page 3 Deaths Apr 1794

2 Mai

2 Mai or Două Mai is a village in the Limanu commune, Constanța County, Romania. It is found on the shoreline at a distance of 6 km north of Vama Veche and 5 km south from Mangalia. Doi Mai is a summer vacation destiantion, its name was chosen to celebrate the 2nd of May 1864, when Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza dissolved the Legislative Assembly of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia to promote his reforms. Nine years earlier Northern Dobruja was given to Romania through the treaty of Berlin after it had been taken from the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Russian voluntary eunuchs of the Old Believers sect, being persecuted in their homeland of the Russian Empire, found refuge here in the 19th century, amongst the Greek fishermen, Romanian shepherds and Tatar horse breeders, which had huts and rudimentary houses in the area