Louis Dembitz Brandeis was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Jewish immigrant parents from Bohemia, who raised him in a secular home, he attended Harvard Law School, graduating at the age of 20 with what is rumored to be the highest grade average in the law school's history. Brandeis settled in Boston, where he founded a law firm and became a recognized lawyer through his work on progressive social causes. Starting in 1890, he helped develop the "right to privacy" concept by writing a Harvard Law Review article of that title, was thereby credited by legal scholar Roscoe Pound as having accomplished "nothing less than adding a chapter to our law", he published a book entitled Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It, suggesting ways of curbing the power of large banks and money trusts. He fought against powerful corporations, public corruption, mass consumerism, all of which he felt were detrimental to American values and culture.
He became active in the Zionist movement, seeing it as a solution to antisemitism in Europe and Russia, while at the same time being a way to "revive the Jewish spirit." When his family's finances became secure, he began devoting most of his time to public causes and was dubbed the "People's Lawyer". He insisted on serving on cases without pay so that he would be free to address the wider issues involved; the Economist magazine calls him "A Robin Hood of the law." Among his notable early cases were actions fighting railroad monopolies, defending workplace and labor laws, helping create the Federal Reserve System, presenting ideas for the new Federal Trade Commission. He achieved recognition by submitting a case brief called the "Brandeis Brief", which relied on expert testimony from people in other professions to support his case, thereby setting a new precedent in evidence presentation. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson nominated Brandeis to become a member of the Supreme Court, his nomination was bitterly contested because, as Justice William O. Douglas wrote, "Brandeis was a militant crusader for social justice whoever his opponent might be.
He was dangerous not only because of his arithmetic, his courage. He was dangerous because he was incorruptible... the fears of the Establishment were greater because Brandeis was the first Jew to be named to the Court." On June 1, 1916, he was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 47 to 22, to become one of the most famous and influential figures to serve on the high court. His opinions were, according to legal scholars, some of the "greatest defenses" of freedom of speech and the right to privacy written by a member of the Supreme Court. Louis David Brandeis was born on November 13, 1856, in Louisville, the youngest of four children, his parents, Adolph Brandeis and Frederika Dembitz, both of whom were Ashkenazi Jews, immigrated to the United States from their childhood homes in Prague, Bohemia. They emigrated as part of their extended families for both political reasons; the Revolutions of 1848 had produced a series of political upheavals and the families, though politically liberal and sympathetic to the rebels, were shocked by the antisemitic riots that erupted in Prague while the rebels controlled it.
In addition, the Habsburg Empire had imposed business taxes on Jews. Family elders sent Adolph Brandeis to America to observe and prepare for his family's possible emigration, he spent a few months in the Midwest and was impressed by the nation's institutions and by the tolerance among the people he met. He wrote home to his wife, "America's progress is the triumph of the rights of man."The Brandeis family chose to settle in Louisville because it was a prosperous river port. His earliest childhood was shaped by the American Civil War, which forced the family to seek safety temporarily in Indiana; the Brandeis family held abolitionist beliefs. Louis's father developed a grain-merchandising business. Worries about the U. S. economy took the family to Europe in 1872, but they returned in 1875. The Brandeises were considered a "cultured family", trying not to discuss business or money during dinner, preferring subjects related to history and culture, or their daily experiences. Having been raised on German culture, Louis read and appreciated the writings of Goethe and Schiller, his favorite composers were Beethoven and Schumann.
In their religious beliefs, although his family was Jewish, only his extended family practiced a more conservative form of Judaism, while his parents practiced a more relaxed form called frankism. They celebrated the main Christian holidays along with most of their community, treating Christmas as a secular holiday, his parents raised their children to be "high-minded idealists" rather than depending on religion for their purpose and inspiration. In years, his mother, wrote of this period: I believe that only goodness and truth and conduct, humane and self-sacrificing toward those who need us can bring God nearer to us... I wanted to give my children the highest ideals as to morals and love. God has blessed my endeavors. According to biographer Melvin Urofsky, Brandeis was influenced by his uncle Lewis Naphtali Dembitz. Unlike other members of the extended Brandeis family, Dembitz practiced Judaism and was involved in Zionist activities. Brandeis changed his middle name from David to Dembitz in honor of his uncle
Alfred Whitford Lerdahl is the Fritz Reiner Professor of Musical Composition at Columbia University, a composer and music theorist best known for his work on musical grammar and cognition, rhythmic theory, pitch space, cognitive constraints on compositional systems. He has written many orchestral and chamber works, three of which were finalists for the Pulitzer Prize for Music: Time after Time in 2001, String Quartet No. 3 in 2010, Arches in 2011. Lerdahl studied with James Ming at Lawrence University, where he earned his BMus in 1965, with Milton Babbitt, Edward T. Cone, Earl Kim at Princeton University, where he earned his MFA in 1967. At Tanglewood he studied with Arthur Berger in 1964 and Roger Sessions in 1966, he studied with Wolfgang Fortner at the Hochschule für Musik in Freiburg/Breisgau in 1968-69, on a Fulbright Scholarship. Lerdahl was awarded an honorary doctorate from Lawrence University in 1999, taught at the University of Michigan, Harvard University, the University of California at Berkeley.
He is a member of the American Academy of Letters. Lerdahl's maternal uncle was the noted astronomer Albert Whitford. Lerdahl has written two books: A Generative Theory of Tonal Pitch Space, he has written numerous articles on music theory, music cognition, computer-assisted composition, other topics. Notable students of Fred Lerdahl include composers Christopher Buchenholz, Zosha Di Castri, R. Luke DuBois, Huck Hodge, Arthur Kampela, Alex Mincek, Paul Moravec, Kate Soper, Tyshawn Sorey, Wang Lu, Nina Young. Lerdahl's influences include the German classics, Schoenberg, Bartók, Carter and Ligeti. Lerdahl has said he “always sought musical forms of own invention,” and to discover the appropriate form for the intended expression. Writing in Fanfare, Robert Carl noted: "Lerdahl is a profoundly musical composer, engaged in all his work in a rigorous and respectful dialogue with tradition, eager to imbue his pieces with the maximum of both information and clarity." Of Lerdahl's composition Waves, Phillip Scott wrote, "Waves is an orchestral scherzo.
It conjures up the motion and the sense of waves, not of the oceanic variety but those found on graphs: sound waves, so on. It begins with a surge of activity and never lets up in rapid figuration. Unlike Debussy's La mer, whose deep-sea swells it recalls only fleetingly, it has no moments of repose." Chords, large orchestra, 1974–83 Cross-Currents, large orchestra, 1987 Waves, small orchestra, 1988 Without Fanfare, small orchestra, 1994 Quiet Music, large orchestra, 1994 Spirals, orchestra, 2006 Arches, small orchestra, 2011 Time and Again, small orchestra, 2014 String Trio, viola, cello, 1966 Imitations, harp, viola, 1977, revised 2001 String Quartet No. 1, 1978, revised 2008 Waltzes, viola, double bass, 1981 Episodes and Refrains, oboe, French horn, bassoon, 1982 Fantasy Etudes, clarinet, cello, percussion, 1985 Marches, violin, piano, 1992 Time after Time, clarinet, cello, percussion, 2000 Imbrications, clarinet, cello, percussion, 2001 Oboe Quartet, violin, cello, 2002 Duo, piano, 2005 String Quartet No.
2, 1982–2010 String Quartet No. 3, 2008 Arches, ensemble, 2010 There and Back Again, cello, 2010 Times 3, cello, piano, 2012 Give and Take, cello, 2014 Chaconne, string quartet, 2016 Cornstalks, 16 mixed voices, 2012 Wake, harp, viola, cello, 3 percussion, 1967–68 Aftermath, alto, baritone, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, harp, 2 violins, cello, double bass), 1973 Eros, mezzo-soprano, alto flute, electric guitar, bass guitar, piano, 2 percussion, 1975 Beyond the Realm of Bird, orchestra, 1984 The First Voices, mezzo-soprano, alto, 8 percussion, 2007 Fire and Ice, high soprano, double bass, 2015 Piano Fantasy, 1964 Quiet Music, 2 pianos, 2001 Three Diatonic Studies, 2004–09 String Quartet No. 1. Juilliard String Quartet Waltzes. Bethany Beardslee, soprano.
The 20th Ryder Cup Matches were held at Muirfield in Gullane, East Lothian, Scotland. The United States team won the competition by a score of 19 to 13 points. For the first time, what had been the "Great Britain" team was called "Great Britain and Ireland", although golfers from the Republic of Ireland had played since 1953, from Northern Ireland since 1947. Muirfield had hosted the Open Championship the previous year, won by American Lee Trevino; the Ryder Cup is a match play event, with each match worth one point. The competition format was adjusted in 1973 from the format used from 1963 through 1971: Day 1 — 4 foursomes matches in a morning session and 4 four-ball matches in an afternoon session Day 2 — 4 foursome matches in a morning session and 4 four-ball matches in an afternoon session Day 3 — 16 singles matches, 8 each in morning and afternoon sessionsWith a total of 32 points, 16½ points were required to win the Cup. All matches. Source: Due to the rules of the PGA of America in place at the time, players with less than five years as a professional were not eligible for the U.
S. team, which included reigning U. S. Open champion Lanny Wadkins. Miller made his Ryder Cup debut in 1975 and Wadkins in 1977; each entry refers to the Win–Loss–Half record of the player. Source: John Garner did not play in any matches. PGA of America: 1973 Ryder Cup About.com: 1973 Ryder Cup