Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke of Austria in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, In 1708 He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713; the Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval, they exacted harsh terms: Britain demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Venice, States of the Church, Russia, Savoy-Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction.
France, Saxony-Poland and Prussia reneged. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years. Archduke Charles, the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 1 October 1685, his tutor was Anton Prince of Liechtenstein. Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg; the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1705, stayed there for six years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was discontented at the loss of Spain, as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him, their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
She gave him two daughters that survived to Maria Theresa and Maria Anna. When Charles succeeded his brother in 1711, he was the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line. Since Habsburg possessions were subject to Salic law, barring women from inheriting in their own right, his own lack of a male heir meant they would be divided on his death; the Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713 abolished male-only succession in all Habsburg realms and declared their lands indivisible, although Hungary only approved it in 1723. Charles had Maria Theresa, Maria Anna and Maria Amalia but no surviving sons; when Maria Theresa was born, he disinherited his nieces and the daughters of his elder brother Joseph, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia. It was this act that undermined the chances of a smooth succession and obliged Charles to spend the rest of his reign seeking to ensure enforcement of the Sanction from other European powers, they exacted harsh terms. However, by 1735 he had secured approvals from key states, most the Imperial Diet, which in theory bound all its members including Prussia and Bavaria.
Other signatories included Britain, the Dutch Republic, Russia and Savoy-Sardinia but subsequent events underlined Eugene of Savoy's comment that the best guarantee was a powerful army and full Treasury. His nieces were married to the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria, both of whom refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet and despite publicly agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735, France signed a secret treaty with Bavaria in 1738 promising to back the'just claims' of Charles Albert of Bavaria. In the first part of his reign, Austrian continued to expand; this extended Austrian rule to the lower Danube. The War of the Quadruple Alliance followed, it too ended in an A
Château de Meudon
The Château de Meudon called the royal castle of Meudon or imperial palace of Meudon, was a French château in Meudon in the Hauts-de-Seine. On the edge of a wooded plateau, the castle offers views of Paris and the Seine, as well as of the valley of Chalais. Ideally located between Paris and Versailles, in the heart of an abundant hunting reserve, with an ideal topography for large gardens, it has been grandly arranged by its successive owners from the Renaissance until the fall of the Second French Empire, it should not be confused with the Château de Bellevue in Meudon. Notable past residents include the Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly Duchess of Étampes, the Cardinal of Lorraine, Abel Servien, François Michel Le Tellier Marquis de Louvois, Louis, Grand Dauphin, known as Monseigneur, who attached the castle of Chaville to the Château de Meudon; the Château-Vieux burned down in 1795 and was rebuilt as the Château-Neuf, which in turn burned down in 1871. Demolition was considered, but most of the château was conserved and from 1878 became an observatory with an Astronomical telescope was attached to the Observatory of Paris in 1927.
The entire domain of Meudon has been classified as a historical monument since 12 April 1972. Hangar Y in the Chalais-Meudon park has been classified as a historical monument since 4 June 2000. "There are few architects and enlightened foreigners who have not desired as we did, that the expenses which have been incurred at Versailles would have been made at Meudon as the most beautiful place in the world and situation. " - J. F. Blondel, Cours d'Architecture... 1773, Tome 4, p. 132. There is little information regarding the origin of the castle, the floor plan itself being unknown. However, many records exist of 12th-century lords whose patronymic name was "Meudon". Marie-Thérèse Herlédan published an account of this period in her book Meudon, Before the King. There were various positions at court, such as that of Robert de Meudon, the lord of King Philip the Fair, his title was mentioned in a deed of 1305. The castle was sold on July 17, 1413 by Jean de Montrevel, owner of one of the Castle's fiefs and the Lord of the King, to the wealthy Augustin Isbarre.
In 1422 Isbarre, whose family served as the financial personnel of the royal family, was appointed cupbearer of the king. He was buried at the Convent of the Grands Augustins; the fief of Meudon was bought in 1426 by Guillaume Sanguin, valet de chambre of Charles VII and treasurer of the Duke of Burgundy. He was associated with the former owner Augustin Isbarre, a provost of the merchants of Paris from 1429 to 1431, it seems. He died in Paris on 14 February 1441. Jean Sanguin, known as the "Bastard of Sanguin", inherited the seigniory of his father, he had several children, including Antoine Sanguin, who inherited the fief and became lord of Meudon. Antoine married Marie Simon and died on 18 October 1500; the manor was demolished by Antoine Sanguin, according to the son of the previous owner Cardinal de Meudon, had built a square house of brick and stone on the first floor with an attic and skylights. It was adorned with Italian pilasters and stone framing; the plan of the castle had influenced that of the Castle of the Great Garden, in Joinville, a property of the Guise.
Antoine Sanguin donated the castle to his niece Anne of Pisseleu, known as Mlle d', on 5 September 1527. She became the mistress of François I, became the "Queen of France". In order to better accommodate his mistress, François I financed the addition of "sumptuous edifices"; this included two square pavilions on either side of the initial body and two wings that ended with identical pavilions. These extensions mirrored the style of the main building. Influenced by the Ecouen, corbelled corner towers were added to the pavilions; the structure was similar to the works undertaken at the Marchais Castle owned by Nicolas de Longueval, Count of Bossut and Superintendent of Finance under Francois I, who belonged to the inner circle of the Duchess of Etampes. The same unknown architect headed the expansion of properties in Meudon and Marchais, as well as those of the neighboring castle of Sissonne, of the same style. A triumphal arch was built into the center of the fence wall, serving as a majestic entrance to the courtyard.
François made a lengthy stay in Meudon, from July 11, 1537 to August 5. He stayed there until his death in 1547. On the death of Francis I, Anne de Pisseleu in disgrace, had to sell the estate of Meudon in 1552 to Charles de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine; this cession put an end to the presence of the Sanguin family in Meudon, which had lasted more than a century. The former favorite retired to the Chateau de Heilly, where she died in September 1580; the cardinal transformed his residence, drawing inspiration from the Italian models he discovered during trips to Rome. A letter of December 28, 1552, addressed to his sister-in-law, Anne d'Este, says: "I have been at Meudon while I am in Paris, I beg you to assure you that the house is finished as it is May be added to it by adding to it certain small invitations, which I have dressed, our tests of marbles, which are in Paris, it is not to recognize the wonders of other beautiful houses of this kingdom, nor any healthier prince, Before Quaresme takes hold of you and you and your husband and you will see if I am good profiles and if there is fault, reproach me...
" The cardinal has the wings on the side of a gallery surmounted by a terrace, on drawings of the Primatice. The interiors are decorated with scenes from t
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire.
Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade; the government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism.
By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy.
His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.
Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive; the marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versaill
Basilica of Saint-Denis
The Basilica of Saint-Denis is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of singular importance and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, shows the first use of all of the elements of Gothic architecture; the site originated as a Gallo-Roman cemetery in late Roman times. The archeological remains still lie beneath the cathedral. Around 475 St. Genevieve built Saint-Denys de la Chapelle. In 636 on the orders of Dagobert I the relics of Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, were reinterred in the basilica; the relics of St-Denis, transferred to the parish church of the town in 1795, were brought back again to the abbey in 1819. The basilica became a place of pilgrimage and the burial place of the French Kings with nearly every king from the 10th to the 18th centuries being buried there, as well as many from previous centuries. "Saint-Denis" soon became the abbey church of a growing monastic complex. In the 12th century the Abbot Suger rebuilt portions of the abbey church using innovative structural and decorative features.
In doing so, he is said to have created the first Gothic building. The basilica's 13th-century nave is the prototype for the Rayonnant Gothic style, provided an architectural model for many medieval cathedrals and abbeys of northern France, England and a great many other countries; the abbey church became a cathedral in 1966 and is the seat of the Bishop of Saint-Denis, Pascal Michel Ghislain Delannoy. Although known as the "Basilica of St Denis", the cathedral has not been granted the title of Minor Basilica by the Vatican. Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, became the first bishop of Paris, he was decapitated on the hill of Montmartre in the mid-third century with two of his followers, is said to have subsequently carried his head to the site of the current church, indicating where he wanted to be buried. A martyrium was erected on the site of his grave, which became a famous place of pilgrimage during the fifth and sixth centuries. Dagobert, the king of the Franks, refounded the church as the Abbey of Saint Denis, a Benedictine monastery.
Dagobert commissioned a new shrine to house the saint's remains, created by his chief councillor, Eligius, a goldsmith by training. An early vita of Saint Eligius describes the shrine: Above all, Eligius fabricated a mausoleum for the holy martyr Denis in the city of Paris with a wonderful marble ciborium over it marvelously decorated with gold and gems, he composed a crest and a magnificent frontal and surrounded the throne of the altar with golden axes in a circle. He placed golden apples there and jeweled, he made a roof for the throne of the altar on silver axes. He made a covering in the place before the tomb and fabricated an outside altar at the feet of the holy martyr. So much industry did he lavish there, at the king's request, poured out so much that scarcely a single ornament was left in Gaul and it is the greatest wonder of all to this day. None of this work survives; the Basilica of St Denis ranks as an architectural landmark—as the first major structure of which a substantial part was designed and built in the Gothic style.
Both stylistically and structurally, it heralded the change from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture. Before the term "Gothic" came into common use, it was known as the "French Style"; as it now stands, the church is a large cruciform building of "basilica" form. It has an additional aisle on the northern side formed of a row of chapels; the west front has three portals, a rose one tower, on the southern side. The eastern end, built over a crypt, is apsidal, surrounded by an ambulatory and a chevet of nine radiating chapels; the basilica retains stained glass of many periods, including exceptional modern glass, a set of twelve misericords. The basilica measures 108 meters long, its width is 39 meters. Little is known about the earliest buildings on the site; the first church mentioned in the chronicles was begun in 754 under Pepin the Short and completed under Charlemagne, present at its consecration in 775. By 832 the Abbey had been granted a remunerative whaling concession on the Cotentin Peninsula.
Most of what is now known about the Carolingian church at St Denis resulted from a lengthy series of excavations begun under the American art historian Sumner McKnight Crosby in 1937. The building was about 60m long, with a monumental westwork, single transepts, a crossing tower and a lengthy eastern apse over a large crypt. According to one of the Abbey's many foundation myths a leper, sleeping in the nearly completed church the night before its planned consecration, witnessed a blaze of light from which Christ, accompanied by St Denis and a host of angels, emerged to conduct the consecration ceremony himself. Before leaving, Christ healed the leper, tearing off his diseased skin to reveal a perfect complexion underneath. A misshapen patch on a marble column was said to be the leper's former skin, which stuck there when Christ discarded it. Having been consecrated by Christ, the fabric of the bui
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Croatia, Transylvania, Milan and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress, she started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it, he neglected the advice of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who averred that a strong military and a rich treasury were more important than mere signatures. He left behind a weakened and impoverished state due to the War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War. Moreover, upon his death, Prussia and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Frederick II of Prussia promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. Over the course of the war, despite the loss of Silesia and a few minor territories in Italy, Maria Theresa defended her rule over most of the Habsburg empire. Maria Theresa unsuccessfully tried to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had eleven daughters, including the Queen of France, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Duchess of Parma, five sons, including two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Of the sixteen children, ten survived to adulthood. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled with the counsel of her advisers. Maria Theresa promulgated institutional and educational reforms, with the assistance of Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten.
She promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. However, she despised the Jews and the Protestants, on certain occasions she ordered their expulsion to remote parts of the realm, she advocated for the state church and refused to allow religious pluralism. Her regime was criticized as intolerant by some contemporaries; the second and eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on 13 May 1717 in Vienna, a year after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold, was baptised on that same evening. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, were her godmothers. Most descriptions of her baptism stress that the infant was carried ahead of her cousins, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the daughters of Charles VI's elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, before the eyes of their mother, Wilhelmine Amalia.
It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, had his sons sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, which gave precedence to the daughters of the elder brother. Her father was the only surviving male member of the House of Habsburg and hoped for a son who would prevent the extinction of his dynasty and succeed him. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna. Maria Theresa replaced Maria Josepha as heir presumptive to the Habsburg realms the moment she was born. Charles sought the other European powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces, they exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna, Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. In total, Great Britain, Saxony, United Provinces, Prussia, Denmark, Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Saxony and Prussia reneged. Little more than a year after her birth, Maria Theresa was joined by a sister, Maria Anna, another one, named Maria Amalia, was born in 1724.
The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. The Prussian ambassador noted that she had large blue eyes, fair hair with a slight tinge of red, a wide mouth and a notably strong body. Unlike many other members of the House of Habsburg, neither Maria Theresa's parents nor her grandparents were related to each other. Maria Theresa was a reserved child who enjoyed singing and archery, she was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. The imperial family staged opera productions conducted by Charles VI, in which she relished participating, her education was overseen by Jesuits. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well, her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which had characterised her Habsburg predecessors. Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard
Fils de France
Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France; the children of the dauphin were accorded the same style and status as if they were the king's children instead of his grandchildren or great-grandchildren. The king, queen dowager, enfants de France and petits-enfants de France constituted the famille du roi. More remote legitimate, male-line descendants of France's kings held the designation and rank of princes du sang or, if recognised despite a bar sinister on the escutcheon, they were customarily deemed princes légitimés; the dauphin, the heir to the French throne, was the most senior of the fils de France and was addressed as Monsieur le dauphin. The king's next younger brother a fils de France, was known as Monsieur, his wife as Madame. Daughters were referred to by their given name prefaced with the honorific Madame, while sons were referred to by their main peerage title, with the exception of the dauphin.
The king's eldest daughter was known as Madame Royale until she married, whereupon the next eldest fille de France succeeded to that style. Although the children of monarchs are referred to in English as prince or princess, those terms were used as general descriptions for royalty in France but not as titular prefixes or direct forms of address for individuals prior to the July Monarchy. Collectively, the legitimate children of the kings and dauphins were known as enfants de France, while examples abound in reputable works of fils de France and fille de France being converted into other languages as "Prince/Princess of France", untranslated; the illegitimate children of French kings and princes du sang were not entitled to any rights or styles per se, but they were legitimised by their fathers. However, they were never elevated to the rank of fils de France, although they were sometimes accorded the lower rank and/or privileges associated with the princes du sang. All enfants de France were entitled to the style of Royal Highness from the reign of Louis XIII.
However, in practice that formal honorific was less used than the more traditionally French styles of Monsieur, Madame or Mademoiselle. The styles of the royal family varied as follows: Under the Valois monarchs, the titles borne by the sons of kings became regularized. Philip VI made his eldest son his second son Duke of Orléans. Normandy would have become the regular title of the heirs apparent of kings, but the acquisition of Dauphiné and the request of its last count ensured that the heirs apparent would be called Dauphin instead. John II made his eldest son Duke of Normandy, his younger sons dukes of Anjou and Burgundy. Anjou and Burgundy established long-lived dynasties. Orléans was reused for the younger son of Charles V, while Berry was reused for the younger son of Charles VII. By the accession of Francis I, all of the cadet branches descended from Valois kings had either succeeded to the throne or become extinct, thus the king had a wide selection of traditional titles to choose from.
Orléans was the most preferred, followed by Anjou. The Bourbon kings followed the traditional titling, with Berry used for the third son; as lifespans extended, Burgundy was used for the eldest son of the Dauphin, Brittany for the eldest son of the eldest son of the Dauphin. But as fortune would have it, only the title of Orléans would be transmitted hereditarily until the Revolution; this was a form of address for the dauphin. The dauphin de France, was the title used for the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and from 1824 to 1830. Louis de France, the only surviving legitimately born son of Louis XIV, was not addressed by this style as he was referred to at court as either Monseigneur or, informally, as le Grand Dauphin. Louis de France, son of the preceding, who became the dauphin in 1711, was informally known as le Petit Dauphin; this was another way of addressing Le Grand Dauphin, the only legitimate son of Louis XIV. After the death of le Grand Dauphin, the heir apparent to the throne of France for half a century, the style of Monseigneur was not used again to describe the dauphin himself.
Rather, it became the style used by his sons as prefix to their peerages. During the lifetime of the Grand Dauphin, his three sons were addressed as: Monseigneur le Duc de Bourgogne Monseigneur le Duc d'Anjou Monseigneur le Duc de Berry This was the style of the dynastic wife of the dauphin; some holders of the honorific were: Duchess Maria Anna Christine Victoria of Bavaria called Dauphine Victoire, first wife of le Grand Dauphin, the grandmother of Louis XV Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy, wife of the Dauphin Louis and mother of Louis XV. Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain, first wife of Louis, the only son of Louis XV, held the style till her death at age twenty-one. Duchess Maria Josefa of Saxony, second wife of the Dauphin Louis, mother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X (1757
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere