Louis Isadore Kahn was an American architect, based in Philadelphia. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957. From 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. Kahn created a style, monumental and monolithic. Famous for his meticulously built works, his provocative proposals that remained unbuilt, his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century, he was awarded the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as "America's foremost living architect." Louis Kahn, whose original name was Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky, was born into a poor Jewish family in Pärnu in Russian Empire, but now in Estonia. He spent his early childhood in Kuressaare on the island of Saaremaa part of the Russian Empire's Livonian Governorate.
At the age of three, he was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the coal in his apron, which burned his face, he carried these scars for the rest of his life. In 1906, his family emigrated to the United States, as they feared that his father would be recalled into the military during the Russo-Japanese War, his birth year may have been inaccurately recorded in the process of immigration. According to his son's 2003 documentary film, the family could not afford pencils, they made their own charcoal sticks from burnt twigs so that Louis could earn a little money from drawings. He earned money by playing piano to accompany silent movies in theaters, he became a naturalized citizen on May 15, 1914. His father changed their name to Kahn in 1915. Kahn excelled in art from a young age winning the annual award for the best watercolor by a Philadelphia high school student, he was an unenthusiastic and undistinguished student at Philadelphia Central High School until he took a course in architecture in his senior year, which convinced him to become an architect.
He turned down an offer to go to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts to study art under a full scholarship, instead working at a variety of jobs to pay his own tuition for a degree in architecture at the University of Pennsylvania School of Fine Arts. There, he studied under Paul Philippe Cret in a version of the Beaux-Arts tradition, one that discouraged excessive ornamentation. After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as senior draftsman in the office of the city architect, John Molitor, he worked on the designs for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition. In 1928, Kahn made a European tour, he was interested in the medieval walled city of Carcassonne and the castles of Scotland, rather than any of the strongholds of classicism or modernism. After returning to the United States in 1929, Kahn worked in the offices of Paul Philippe Cret, his former studio critic at the University of Pennsylvania, with Zantzinger and Medary in Philadelphia. In 1932, Kahn and Dominique Berninger founded the Architectural Research Group, whose members were interested in the populist social agenda and new aesthetics of the European avant-gardes.
Among the projects Kahn worked on during this collaboration are schemes for public housing that he had presented to the Public Works Administration, which supported some similar projects during the Great Depression. They remained unbuilt. Among the more important of Kahn's early collaborations was one with George Howe. Kahn worked with Howe in the late 1930s on projects for the Philadelphia Housing Authority and again in 1940, along with German-born architect Oscar Stonorov, for the design of housing developments in other parts of Pennsylvania. A formal architectural office partnership between Kahn and Oscar Stonorov began in February 1942 and ended in March 1947, which produced fifty-four documented projects and buildings. Kahn did not arrive at his distinctive architectural style. Working in a orthodox version of the International Style, he was influenced vitally by a stay as Architect in Residence at the American Academy in Rome during 1950, which marked a turning point in his career. After visiting the ruins of ancient buildings in Italy and Egypt, he adopted a back-to-the-basics approach.
He developed his own style as influenced by earlier modern movements, but not limited by their sometimes-dogmatic ideologies. In the 1950s and 1960s as a consultant architect for the Philadelphia City Planning Commission Kahn developed several plans for the center of Philadelphia that were never executed. In 1961 he received a grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts to study traffic movement in Philadelphia and to create a proposal for a viaduct system, he described this proposal at a lecture given in 1962 at the International Design Conference in Aspen, Colorado: In the center of town the streets should become buildings. This should be interplayed with a sense of movement which does not tax local streets for non-local traffic. There should be a system of viaducts which encase an area which can reclaim the local streets for their own use, it should be made so this viaduct has a ground floor of shops and usable area. A model which I did for the Graham Foundation and which I presented to Mr. Entenza, showed the scheme.
Kahn's teaching career began at Yale University in 1947. He was
The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona means "crown" in Swedish; the Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016. One krona is subdivided into 100 öre. However, all öre coins have been discontinued as of 30 September 2010. Goods can still be priced in öre, but all sums are rounded to the nearest krona when paying with cash; the word öre is derived from the Latin word for gold. The introduction of the krona, which replaced at par the riksdaler, was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which came into effect in 1876 and lasted until the beginning of World War I; the parties to the union were the Scandinavian countries, where the name was krona in Sweden and krone in Denmark and Norway, which in English means "crown". The three currencies were on the gold standard, with the krona/krone defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold.
After dissolution of the monetary union in August 1914, Sweden and Norway all decided to keep the names of their respective and now separate currencies. On 11 September 2012, the Riksbank announced a new series of coins with new sizes to replace the 1- and 5-krona coins which arrived in October 2016; the design of the coins follows the theme of singer-songwriter Ted Gärdestad's song, "Sol, vind och vatten", with the designs depicting the elements on the reverse side of the coins. This included the reintroduction of the 2-krona coin, while the current 10-krona coin remained the same; the new coins have a new portrait of the king in their design. One of the reasons for a new series of coins is to end the use of nickel, it is expected that vending machines and parking meters will to a high degree stop accepting coins and accept only bank cards or mobile phone payments. Cash is less used in Sweden, with many young people avoiding cash as much as possible. Between 1873 and 1876, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 öre and 1, 2, 10, 20 kronor were introduced.
The 1, 2 and 5 öre were in bronze, the 10-, 25-, 50-öre and 1-krona and 2-krona were in silver, the 10- and 20-krona were in gold. Gold 5-krona coins were added in 1881. In 1873 the Scandinavian Monetary Union currency was fixed so that 2,480 kronor purchased 1 kg of gold. In 2017 the price of gold is 365,289 kronor per kg. So one öre in 1873 bought as much gold as 1.47 krona in 2017. So if it is reasonable to have the smallest denomination coin 1 krona today, in 1873 a reasonable smallest denomination coin was 1 öre. A 10 kr gold coin weighed 4.4803 grams with 900 fineness so that the fine weight was 4.03327 grams or 1/248th of a kilogram. In 1902, production of gold coins ceased, was restarted in 1920 and 1925 before ceasing entirely. Due to metal shortages during World War I, iron replaced bronze between 1917 and 1919. Nickel-bronze replaced silver in the 10, 25 and 50 öre in 1920, with silver returning in 1927. Metal shortages due to World War II again led to changes in the Swedish coinage. Between 1940 and 1947, the nickel-bronze 10, 25 and 50 öre were again issued.
In 1942, iron again replaced the silver content of the other coins was reduced. In 1962, cupronickel replaced silver in the 25-öre and 50-öre coins. In 1968, the 2 kronor switched to cupronickel and the 1-krona switched to cupronickel-clad copper. Nonetheless, all previous mintages of 1- and 2-krona coins were still legal tender until 2017, since 1875 and 1876 though 2-krona coins were rarely seen in circulation as they have not been issued since 1971; the 2-krona coins contained 40% silver until 1966, which meant they had been for several years worth much more than two kronor, so most have been bought and melted down by arbitrageurs, the rest are kept by collectors. A new design of 2-krona coins will be issued in 2016. All the old krona coins are invalid since 2017, they can not be used for payments, nor can they be exchanged for legal tender in any bank, are instead instructed to be recycled as metal. In 1954, 1955 and 1971, five-krona silver coins were produced, with designs similar to contemporary 1- and 2-krona coins.
In 1972, a new, smaller 5-krona coin was struck in cupronickel-clad nickel. The current design has been produced since 1976. Five-krona coins minted since 1954 are legal tender but tend to be kept by collectors for their silver content. In 1971, the 1- and 2-öre, as well as the 2-krona coins ceased production; the size of the 5-öre coin was reduced in 1972. In 1984, production of the five- and 25-öre coins came to an end, followed by that of the 10-öre in 1991. In 1991, aluminium-brass 10-krona coins were introduced. Previous 10-krona coins are not legal tender. In 1991, bronze-coloured 50-öre coins were introduced. Jubilee and commemorative coins have been minted and those since 1897 or are legal tender; the royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on many of the coins. The 5-krona coin was designed in 1974, at a time when there were political efforts to abandon the monarchy, when there was a new young inexperienced king; the monarchy remained. Coins minted before 1974 have the same size, bu
The UK Hand Knitting Association is a not-for-profit British organisation dedicated to promoting hand knitting in the UK. Through a variety of initiatives and the assistance of a nationwide network of volunteers who pass on their skills, the UKHKA focus on ensuring a vibrant future for all aspects of yarn crafts; the UK Hand Knitting Association is dedicated to promoting the craft of hand knitting. The Association operates across the Internet, distributes information about knitting and crochet basic techniques, courses, knitting patterns and more. At major craft shows and other events volunteers provide one to one tuition to encourage newcomers to learn yarn craft skills. Information about craft shows and the basic techniques involved in hand knitting and crochet, along with local knitting groups, courses, knitting patterns and more, are poublicised on the Association's website. Financial institutions suggest that retail outlets for knitting paraphernalia should become members of the Association.
The UKHKA Board Members are major distributors of yarn and related products in the UK, while the Associate Members are event organisers and craft magazine publishers. The UKHKA was formed in 1991 when the Hand Knitting Association merged with the British Hand Knitting Association. Craft Club, co sponsored by the Crafts Council and the NFWI, is a national campaign to pass on yarn craft skills to newcomers of all ages. Craft Club encourages the setting up of after-school clubs, youth groups and extends to the wider community in public venues such as museums, art galleries and libraries. Knit 1 Hook 1 Pass It On is a national initiative that encourages volunteers to pass on their skills. All those who knit and crochet can take part in this campaign to ensure their skills are passed on to future generations; the UKHKA has a Knit 1 Hook 1 Pass. The website has details on these shows. Volunteers have said of the experience: ‘It was my pleasure to help out and I will be volunteering again at some point’ and ‘I enjoyed my helping role, although I think I learned more than I taught’.
The KTAs were introduced in 2003, to showcase the talent of students graduating in knitted textiles across the UK. This celebration of knitting highlights the best in design innovation and creativity, a full line up of each year’s finalists can be found on the website; the yearly awards are judged on originality, overall concept and the innovative use of technique, yarns and colour. The diversity of the exhibition dispels preconceptions as the finalists show that the knitted stitch has no limits; the 2011 Finalists commented ` I met a lot of interesting like-minded people. It was a huge boost to my confidence’ and ‘It’s been a fantastic opportunity that I've enjoyed’. All the finalists’ work and contact details are showcased on the UKHKA website; the UKHKA website The Craft Club website Save the Children Woolly Hat Campaign Norwich University College of the Arts Textile ~ BA Textiles Graduate earns innovation award at Knitted Textiles Awards Robert Gordon University Aberdeen ~ Gray's Graduate shortlisted for UKHKA Award UKHKA Supporting Quilts 4 London ~ a community project Culture 24 Craft Council Collaboration for Knit 1 Pass It On Shetland News ~ UKHKA Knitted Textiles Awards The National Federation of Women's Institutes ~ Stylish Stitches Competition The Guardian ~ The Power of Knitting and Craft in Education