Mark Foster Gage
Mark Foster Gage is an American architect. He is an assistant dean and tenured associate professor at Yale University School of Architecture where he has been on the faculty since 2001. Gage holds a B. Arch. From the University of Notre Dame and a M. Arch. From Yale University. In 2015, Gage's proposal for 41 West 57th Street, a 102-story skyscraper requested by the developer, drew wide attention, although the plan was not chosen by the developer. Gage proposed and designed the original Times Square Valentine's Day heart in 2009. Designing Social Equality: Architecture and the Perception of Democracy. Routledge, 2018 Aesthetic Theory: Essential Texts for Architecture and Design. W. W. Norton & Company, 2011 Composites and Software: High Performance Architecture, with Greg Lynn. Yale School of Architecture, 2010
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil
Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal published since 1952 by the Yale School of Architecture and distributed by the MIT Press. Graduate students are competitively chosen to edit each issue, it is the oldest architectural journal of its kind in the United States and is rated as an A* journal on the Excellence in Research for Australia journal list. Contributors include some of the most important figures in contemporary architecture worldwide. Robert A. M. Stern, Peggy Deamer, Alan Plattus, Re-Reading Perspecta: The First Fifty Years of the Yale Architectural Journal, 2005 ISBN 0-262-19506-2 Official website Perspecta series on the MIT Press website
Charles Gwathmey was an American architect. He was a principal at Gwathmey Siegel & Associates Architects, as well as one of the five architects identified as The New York Five in 1969. One of Gwathmey's most famous designs is the 1992 renovation of Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Born in Charlotte, North Carolina, he was the son of the American painter Robert Gwathmey and photographer Rosalie Gwathmey, he attended the High School of Music and Art in New York City, graduating in 1956. Charles Gwathmey attended the University of Pennsylvania and received his Master of Architecture degree in 1962 from Yale School of Architecture, where he won both the William Wirt Winchester Fellowship as the outstanding graduate and a Fulbright Grant. While at Yale, he studied under Paul Rudolph. Gwathmey served as President of the Board of Trustees for The Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies and was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1981. In 1965, while not yet a licensed architect, he designed a house and studio for his parents in Amagansett, NY, that became famous and revolutionized beach house design.
When he did take the professional licensing exam, he was surprised to see a multiple-choice question on the test that asked "Which of these is the organic house?" The choices included the house. He wanted to answer that the organic house was his, but in order to pass the exam he chose Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater House, he knew, the answer they wanted. He passed. By 1977, Gwathmey had designed 21 houses and renovations while still under 40 years old and ten years of practice. From 1965 through 1991, Gwathmey taught at Pratt Institute, Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, Princeton University, Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Texas, the University of California at Los Angeles, he was Davenport Professor and Bishop Professor at Yale, the Eliot Noyes Visiting Professor at Harvard University. Gwathmey was the Spring 2005 William A. Bernoudy Resident in Architecture at the American Academy in Rome Gwathmey's firm designed the Museum Of Contemporary Art of North Miami, Florida in 1995, the Astor Place Tower, a 21-story condominium project in Manhattan's East Village, in 2005.
In 2011 the Ron Brown Building would serve as the new home of the United States Mission to the United Nations for which he was the lead architect. The building was dedicated to him. In her remarks, Ambassador Susan Rice thanked Gwathmey posthumously, his first marriage to Emily Margolin, a writer, ended in divorce. He has one child from Annie Gwathmey. In 1974 Gwathmey married Bette-Ann Damson, he became step-father to Damson's three children from her previous marriage, they were Robert Steel, who died of cancer in 1984 at the age of 22, Courtney Steel, killed by a hit and run driver in 1986 at the age of 17, Eric Steel, born in 1964, is a writer and producer. Gwathmey died of esophageal cancer on August 3, 2009, he was 71. His wife donated his archives to Yale University in 2010 Gwathmey was the recipient of the Brunner Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1970, in 1976 he was elected to the Academy. In 1983, he won the Medal of Honor from the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and in 1985, he received the first Yale Alumni Arts Award from the Yale School of Architecture.
In 1988 the Guild Hall Academy of Arts awarded Gwathmey its Lifetime Achievement Medal in Visual Arts, followed in 1990 by a Lifetime Achievement Award from the New York State Society of Architects. Gwathmey was the only architect named in the Leadership in America issue of Time Magazine. Notes Ambassador Rice's remarks
Charles Moore (architect)
Charles Willard Moore was an American architect, writer, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. Moore graduated from the University of Michigan in 1947 and earned both a Master's and a Ph. D at Princeton University in 1957, where he studied under Professor Jean Labatut, he remained for an additional year as a post-doctoral fellow, serving as a teaching assistant for Louis Kahn, the Philadelphia architect who taught a design studio. It was at Princeton that Moore developed relationships with his fellow students Donlyn Lyndon, William Turnbull, Jr. Richard Peters, Hugh Hardy, remained lifelong friends and collaborators. During the Princeton years, Moore designed and built a house for his mother in Pebble Beach and worked during the summers for architect Wallace Holm of neighboring Monterey. Moore's Master's Thesis explored ways to preserve and integrate Monterey's historic adobe dwellings into the fabric of the city, his Doctoral dissertation, "Water and Architecture", was a study of the importance of water in shaping the experience of place.
The dissertation is significant for being the first work of architectural scholarship to draw from the work of Gaston Bachelard, an early source for the architectural phenomenology movement. Many decades the dissertation became the basis of a book with the same title. In 1959, Moore began teaching at the University of California, Berkeley. Moore went on to become Dean of the Yale School of Architecture from 1965 through 1970, directly after the tenure of Paul Rudolph. In 1975, he moved to the University of Los Angeles where he continued teaching. In 1985, he became the O'Neil Ford Centennial Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin. Moore's outgoing and engaging personality and his dedication to innovation, collaboration and direct experience was sharp contrast to Rudolph's authoritarian approach. With Kent Bloomer, Moore founded the Yale Building Project in 1967 as a way both to demonstrate social responsibility and demystify the construction process for first-year students.
The project remains active at Yale. Moore opened a practice in New Haven, Connecticut and in the following years practiced under a confusing variety of professional configurations and names, including Moore, Turnbull, Whitaker, MLTW, Centerbrook Architects, Moore Ruble Yudell, Urban Innovations Group, Charles W. Moore Incorporated, Moore/Andersson; the constant changes resulted, in part, from Moore's extensive worldwide travel and his moves to California and to Austin, Texas. Moore preferred conspicuous design features, including loud color combinations, stylistic collisions, the re-use of esoteric historical-design solutions, the use of non-traditional materials such as plastic, PET film, platinum tiles, neon signs, As a result, his work provokes arousal, demands attention, sometimes tips over into kitsch, his mid-1960s New Haven residence, published in Playboy, featured an open, freestanding shower in the middle of the room, its water nozzled through a giant sunflower. Such design features made Moore one of the chief innovators of postmodern architecture, along with Robert Venturi and Michael Graves, among others.
Moore's Piazza d'Italia, an urban public plaza in New Orleans, made prolific use of his exuberant design vocabulary and is cited as the archetypal postmodern project. In addition to his influential work as an architect and university educator, Moore was a prolific author, publishing a dozen books. Many other books and articles document his designs; the Place of Houses Dimensions Body and Architecture The Poetics of Gardens The City Observed: Los Angeles Water and Architecture Chambers for a Memory Palace You Have To Pay For the Public Life: Selected Essays"Body and Architecture," written with Kent Bloomer during the Yale years, is a plea for architects to design structures for three-dimensional user experience instead of two-dimensional visual appearance. "The City Observed: Los Angeles" remains an excellent guide to Los Angeles' significant architecture. The Charles W. Moore Foundation was established in 1997 in Austin, Texas to preserve Moore's last home and studio, its non-profit programs include residencies, conferences and publication of PLACENOTES, a travel guide.
The influential Sea Ranch planned community in Sonoma County, California The Faculty Club at University of California, Santa Barbara, with William Turnbull Kresge College at University of California, Santa Cruz Leland Burns House, Pacific Palisades, The exuberant, postmodern archetype Piazza d'Italia, an urban public plaza in New Orleans, Louisiana University Extension at the University of California, Irvine The Beverly Hills Civic Center in Beverly Hills, California National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan Gethsemane Episcopal Cathedral, North Dakota The California Center for the Arts, Escondido in Escondido, California The Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley Lurie Tower at the University of Michigan The Preview Center in Celebration, Florida The Williams College Museum of Art addition in Williamstown, Massachusetts. His last work, the Washington State History Museum in Tacoma, Washington N
Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White was an American historian and educator, the cofounder of Cornell University and served as its first president for nearly two decades. He was known for expanding the scope of college curricula. A politician, he had served as state senator in New York, he was appointed as a US diplomat to Germany and Russia, among other responsibilities. He was born on November 7, 1832, in Homer, New York, to Clara and Horace White. Clara was the daughter of Andrew Dickson, a New York State Assemblyman in 1832 and his wife, their once-successful farm was ruined by a fire when Horace was 13. Despite little formal education and struggles with poverty after his family lost its farm, Horace White became a businessman and wealthy merchant. In 1839 he opened what became a successful bank in Syracuse. Horace and Clara White had two children: Andrew Dickson and his brother. Andrew was baptized in 1835 at the Calvary Episcopal Church on the town green in Homer, he married twice. His first marriage, on September 27, 1857, was to Mary Amanda Outwater, daughter of Peter Outwater and Lucia M. Phillips of Syracuse.
Mary's maternal grandmother Amanda Danforth, daughter of Asa Danforth, Jr. and wife of Elijah Phillips, Jr. was the first white child born in what would become Onondaga County, New York. Her great-grandfathers included General Asa Danforth, an early pioneer of upstate New York and leader of the State Militia, as well as Elijah Philips, Sr. who had responded to the alarm to Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1775 and served as the High Sheriff of Onondaga County. Andrew and Mary had three children together: Frederick Davies White, who committed suicide in his forties in 1901 after a prolonged series of illnesses. After his wife died in 1887, White went on a lecture tour and traveled in Europe with his close friend, Daniel Willard Fiske, librarian at Cornell. After three years as a widower, in 1890, White married Helen Magill, the daughter of Edward Magill, Swarthmore College's second president, she was the first woman in the United States to earn a Ph. D. Like her husband, Helen was a social scientist and educator.
Together and Andrew had one daughter, Karin White. One of Andrew's cousins was Edwin White, who became an artist of the Luminism/Hudson River schools, his nephew was Horace White, governor of New York. Beginning in the fall of 1849, White enrolled as an undergraduate at Geneva College at the insistence of his father, he was inducted as a member of Sigma Phi. In his autobiography, he recalled that he had felt that his time at Geneva was "wasted" by being at the small Episcopalian school, instead of at "one of the larger New England universities". Rather than continue "wasting" his time, White dropped out in 1850. After a period of estrangement, White persuaded his father to let him transfer to Yale College. At Yale, White was a classmate of Daniel Coit Gilman, who would serve as the first president of Johns Hopkins University; the two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society and would remain close friends. They traveled together in Europe after graduation and served together on the Venezuela Boundary Commission.
His roommate was Thomas Frederick Davies, Sr. who became the third bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan, 1889–1905. Other members of White's graduating year included Edmund Clarence Stedman, the poet and essayist. S. Ambassador to Italy. According to White, he was influenced in his academic career and life by Professor Noah Porter, who instructed him in rhetoric and remained a close personal friend until Porter's death. Alpha Sigma Phi inducted White as a member in 1850 and he served as editor of the fraternity's publication, The Tomahawk. White remained active in the fraternity for the rest of his life, founding the Cornell chapter and serving as the national president from 1913 to 1915, he served as an editor of The Lit. known today as the Yale Literary Magazine. He belonged to Linonia, a literary and debating society; as a junior, White won the Yale literary prize for the best essay, writing on the topic "The Greater Distinctions in Statesmanship. As a junior, White joined the junior society Psi Upsilon.
In his senior year, White won the Clark Prize for English disputation and the De Forest prize for public oratory, speaking on the topic "The Diplomatic History of Modern Times". Valued at $100, the De Forest prize was the largest prize of its kind at any educational institution, American or otherwise. In addition to academic pursuits, White was on the Yale crew team, competed in the first Harvard–Yale Regatta in 1852. After graduation, White traveled and studied in Europe with his classmate Daniel Coit Gilman. Between 1853 and 1854, he studied at the Sorbonne, the Collège de France, the University of Berlin, he served as the translator for Thomas H. Seymour, the U. S. Ambassador to Russia, following Gilman's term as translator, although he had not studied French prior to his studies in Europe. After he returned the United States, White enrolled at Yale to earn an M. A. in History and be inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1856. In October 1858, White accepted a position as a Professor of History and