Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho
Charles Doherty Gonthier, was a Puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Canada from February 1, 1989 to August 1, 2003. He was replaced by Morris Fish. Gonthier was born in Montreal, Quebec to Georges Gonthier, an accountant, Auditor General of Canada from 1924 to 1939, Kathleen Doherty. Charles was the only child the two had together, although Georges Gonthier, widowed, had other children from his first marriage. Kathleen's father, Charles Doherty, was a lawyer and politician who became federal Minister of Justice. Although Charles Doherty died when Gonthier was only 3, the stories his mother recounted about his grandfather were influential upon his interest in a law career, he was educated at École Garneau, Ottawa at Collège Stanislas in Montreal, a Roman Catholic private school and the most elite institution of its kind in Quebec where he obtained a French Baccalaureate. He earned his B. C. L. at McGill University in 1951. Hon. LL. D. McGill University, 1990. D. H. C. Université de Montréal, 2002. Married in 1961 to Mariette Morin, M.
D. M. Sc. F. R. C. S. F. A. C. O. G. Called to the Bar of Quebec, 1952, he practised law in Montréal with Hackett, Mulvena & Laverty, 1952–57 and with Hugessen, Chisholm, Smith & Davis known as Laing, Courtois, Parsons, Gonthier & Tétrault, 1957-74. He was appointed to the Quebec Superior Court on October 17, 1974, he was appointed to the Quebec Court of Appeal on May 24, 1988 and to the Supreme Court of Canada on February 1, 1989. Gonthier retired on August 1, 2003. In recent years, Gonthier had a special interest in Environmental and Sustainable Development Law and participated in a number of international conferences, he was the recipient of several honorary degrees and titles. Gonthier was counsel at McCarthy Tétrault in Montréal, he was Chair of the Board of Governors of the Centre for International Sustainable Development Law. He was a Wainwright Senior Fellow at the Law Faculty of McGill University, he was the longest serving member of the Board of Advisors for the McGill Law Journal, from 1992 until his death in 2009, a board member of The McGill International Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy as well.
Effective August 1, 2006, Gonthier was appointed Commissioner of the Communications Security Establishment, Canada's national cryptologic agency. Appointed Queen's Counsel, 1971. Member of the Board of the Montréal Legal Aid Bureau, 1959-69. President of Junior Bar of Montréal, 1960-61. President of Junior Bar Section of the Canadian Bar Association, 1961-62. Member of the Board of Montréal Bar, 1961-62. Secretary of the Quebec Division of the Canadian Bar Association, 1963-64. Member of the Committee on Building Contracts of the Quebec Civil Code Revision Office, 1969-72. Member of the Committee on Discipline of the Bar of Quebec, 1973-74. President of the Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice, 1986-87. President of the Canadian Judges Conference, 1988-89. Chairman of the Commission for National Judges of the First World Conference on the Independence of Justice in Montréal, 1983. President of l'Association des anciens du Collège Stanislas, 1954-55. Secretary of the Montréal Branch of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1957-58.
Chairman of the Board of Collège Stanislas, 1984-90. Honorary Secretary of the Montréal Museum of Fine Arts, 1961-76. Member of the Board of Directors of the McCord Museum of Canadian History, 1976-89. Knight of l'Ordre des palmes académiques - France, 1988. Fellow, American College of Trial Lawyers, 1996. Fellow, Canadian Bar Association, 2003. Lifetime member, Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice. Bar of Montreal Medal, 2003. Companion of the Order of Canada, 2007. Opinions of the Supreme Court of Canada by Justice Gonthier Official Supreme Court of Canada biography Justice Gonthier Legacy Website
Court of Quebec
The Court of Québec is a court of first instance that has jurisdiction over civil matters and penal matters as well as over youth matters in the Province of Québec, Canada. The Court sits in administrative matters as well, in appeal, on cases provided for by the law; the Court of Québec owes its origins to the Québec Act of 1774, which re-established French law in civil matters and confirmed English law in criminal matters for the Province of Québec. At that time, the judicial system consisted of the Court of Common Pleas, circuit courts, a Court of Appeal and the Court of King's Bench, for criminal cases. Over the centuries, the Québec courts underwent many changes to their organizational structure as well as to the scope of their jurisdiction; the Magistrate's Court, created in 1869, was renamed the Provincial Court in 1962. The Court of Sessions of the Peace was established in 1908; the first court for children in Québec was created in 1910. It became the Juvenile Court in 1932 and the Social Welfare Court in 1950.
It was replaced by the Youth Court in 1977. In 1969, the Labour Court was created, with judges from the Provincial Court. In 1973, the Expropriation Tribunal was formed and some of its members were judges of the Provincial Court; the Professions Tribunal was established in 1973. The Court of Québec was established in 1988, upon the unification of the Provincial Court – whose jurisdiction was civil, the Court of Sessions of the Peace – responsible for criminal cases. In 1988, the Court consisted of the other in Québec City; each one had a Criminal and Penal Division as well as a Youth Division. At that time, the Court had an Expropriation Division. At the outset, the Court was managed by a Chief Judge, assisted in each of the regional sections by a Senior Associate Chief Judge, who in turn benefited from the assistance of Associate Chief Judges. Nineteen Coordinating Judges, residing in the towns designated as administrative centers of the main judicial districts of Québec, completed this management team.
In 1995, at the request of the Court, the legislature simplified its organization. The regional sections were abolished and the responsibilities of the Senior Associate Chief Judge and the Associate Chief Judges were redefined. To coordinate the Court's activities throughout its territory, ten Coordinating Judges were appointed. In some regions, the Coordinating Judge was assisted by one or more Associate Coordinating Judges responsible for the coordination of one of the divisions. In 1998, upon the creation of the Administrative Tribunal of Québec, the Expropriation Division of the Court of Québec was abolished. In 2002, the Labour Court was replaced by the Québec Labour Relations Board. From on, only penal matters of original jurisdiction, arising from offences under the Labour Code, came under the jurisdiction of the Court of Québec's Criminal and Penal Division, only the judges appointed by the Chief Judge had authority to rule upon these matters. In 2005, as a result of decisions made by higher courts about the status of a "judge with limited jurisdiction," the Courts of Justice Act was amended to allow the appointment of Justices of the Peace.
In addition to the six Justices of the Peace in office since June 30, 2004, 27 new Justices were appointed in 2005. In 2012, the Courts of Justice Act was amended to increase the number of judges at the Court of Québec from 270 to 290, to add four Associate Coordinating Judge positions, to create a new position of Justice responsible for Presiding Justices of the Peace. In 2012 and 2015, six presiding justices of the peace positions were added, bringing their number to 39. In 2013, the Court of Québec celebrated its 25th anniversary; this event was highlighted in numerous magazines and newspapers including the Journal du Barreau of July and September 2013 and Le Monde juridique. A commemorative brochure was prepared by the Office of the Chief Judge for the occasion. A motion to mark this event was adopted unanimously by the National Assembly of Quebec on September 25, 2013. In 2016, the Courts of Justice Act was amended to increase the number of judges at the Court of Québec from 290 to 306. Under section 81 of the Courts of Justice Act, the Court has jurisdiction, within the limits prescribed by law, over civil actions taken under the Code of Civil Procedure or any other statute.
More the judges have authority to hear claims where the monetary value or interest of the matter in dispute is under $70,000. The Act to establish the new Code of Civil Procedure makes provision for an increase in this monetary value to at least $85,000 and includes a clause for the annual adjustment of the indexed limit amount; as well, the judges of the Court of Québec have jurisdiction to decide actions for payment of municipal or school taxes and to annul or reverse municipal or school board assessment rolls. Their jurisdiction extends to recourses contesting a person taking public office in a municipality or school board. Moreover, the judges hear motions to have a person undergo a psychiatric examination or to be confined to a medical institution. In the Small Claims Division, judges decide cases involving claims, since January 1, 2015, of $15,000 or less payable by an individual or legal entity, company, or association with five or fewer employees during the twelve-month period preceding the claim.
Legal representation is no
Louise Arbour, is a Canadian lawyer and jurist. She is the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for International Migration. Arbour was the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, a former justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and the Court of Appeal for Ontario and a former Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. From 2009 until 2014, she served as CEO of the International Crisis Group, she made history with the indictment of a sitting head of state, Yugoslavian president Slobodan Milošević, as well as the first prosecution of sexual assault as the articles of crimes against humanity. Arbour was born in Quebec to Bernard and Rose Arbour, the owners of a hotel chain, she attended convent school. As editor of the school magazine, she earned a reputation for irreverence. In 1967, she graduated from Collège Regina Assumpta, proceeded to the Université de Montréal where she completed an LL. B. with distinction in 1970.
She became the Law Clerk for Justice Louis-Philippe Pigeon of the Supreme Court of Canada in 1971–72 while completing graduate studies at the Faculty of Law of the University of Ottawa. This is where she met her long time common-law partner Larry Taman, with whom she lived for 27 years. In a 2014 interview, Arbour named the move from Quebec to Ontario as the "biggest hurdle had to overcome to succeed in career," as her entire education had been in French, she was called to the Bar of Quebec in 1971 and to the Law Society of Upper Canada in 1977. She has three adult children: Emilie and Catherine, her daughter Emilie Taman was an NDP candidate in the 2015 Canadian election in the electoral district of Ottawa—Vanier. She has three grandchildren, her long time common law partner, Larry Taman, once Deputy Attorney General of Ontario, working with Attorney General Ian Scott. From 1972–73, Arbour was research officer for the Law Reform Commission of Canada, she taught at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, first as a Lecturer as Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, as Associate Professor and Associate Dean.
She was Vice-President of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association until her appointment to the Supreme Court of Ontario in 1987 and to the Court of Appeal for Ontario in 1990. In 1995, Arbour was appointed as President of a Commission of Inquiry, under the Inquiries Act, for the purpose of investigating and reporting on events at the Prison for Women in Kingston, following allegations by prisoners of abuse. In 1996, at Richard Goldstone's recommendation, Arbour was appointed as his replacement as Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, she indicted then-Serbian President Slobodan Milošević for war crimes, the first time a serving head of State was called to account before an international court. Other indictees were Milan Milutinović, President of the Republic of Serbia, Nikola Šainović, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Dragoljub Ojdanić, Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Vlajko Stojiljković, Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Serbia.
In 1999, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien appointed Arbour to the Supreme Court of Canada the 26th of May, just one day before the publication of the indictment of Milosevic by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. She has been published in the area of criminal procedure and criminal law, in both French and English. At various times, she has served as an editor for the Criminal Reports, the Canadian Rights Reporter, the Osgoode Hall Law Journal. Arbour has been awarded honorary doctorates by twenty-seven universities. In 2005, Arbour was awarded the Thomas J. Dodd Prize in International Justice and Human Rights, along with Justice Richard Goldstone, in recognition of her work on the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, she was the subject of a 2005 fact-based Canadian-German made-for-television movie, Hunt For Justice which follows her quest to indict Bosnian Serb war criminals. Arbour was played by Canadian actress Wendy Crewson, she was made a Companion to the Order of Canada in 2007 "for her contributions to the Canadian justice system and for her dedication to the advancement of human rights throughout the world".
She was made a Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec in 2009. She was made a Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour in 2011, she has been awarded numerous honorary degrees, including Doctor of Civil Laws from the University of Western Ontario in June 2000, Doctor of Humane Letters from Mount Saint Vincent University in May 2001, Doctor of Laws degrees from the University of British Columbia in November 2001, the University of Waterloo in October 2006, in June 2009 from the University of Alberta and University of Guelph, from Simon Fraser University in October 2009. On January 24, 2008, Arbour welcomed the entry into force of the 2004 version of the Arab Charter on Human Rights, criticized for containing the following:Article 2 All forms of racism and foreign occupation and domination constitute an impediment to human dignity and a major barrier to the exercise of the fundamental rights of peoples. Following criticisms about this statement, Arbour distanced herself from some aspects of the charter.
The Arab Charter remains listed in
University of Ottawa
The University of Ottawa is a bilingual public research university in Ottawa, Canada. The main campus is located on 42.5 hectares in the residential neighbourhood of Sandy Hill, adjacent to Ottawa's Rideau Canal. The university offers a wide variety of academic programs, administered by ten faculties, it is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. The University of Ottawa is the largest English-French bilingual university in the world; the University of Ottawa was first established as the College of Bytown in 1848 by the first bishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Ottawa, Joseph-Bruno Guigues. Placed under the direction of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, it was renamed the College of Ottawa in 1861 and received university status five years through a royal charter. On 5 February 1889, the university was granted a pontifical charter by Pope Leo XIII, elevating the institution to a pontifical university; the University was reorganized on July 1, 1965, as a corporation, independent from any outside body or religious organization.
As a result, the civil and pontifical charters were kept by the newly created Saint Paul University, federated with the university. The remaining civil faculties were retained by the reorganized university; the school is co-educational and enrolls over 35,000 undergraduate and over 6,000 post-graduate students. The university has more than 195,000 alumni; the university's athletic teams are members of U Sports. The university was established on 26 September 1848 as the College of Bytown by the first Roman Catholic bishop of Ottawa, Joseph-Bruno Guigues, he entrusted administration to the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The college was located in Lower Town, housed in a wooden building next to the Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica. However, space became an issue for administrators, triggering two moves in 1852 and a final move to Sandy Hill in 1856; the Sandy Hill property was donated by Louis-Theodore Besserer, where he offered a substantial parcel from his estate for the college. The college was renamed College of Ottawa in 1861, following the city's name change from Bytown to Ottawa.
In 1866, the college received its first charter, as well as university status, making it the final institution in Canada to receive a Royal Charter from London before the British North America Act, 1867 made education a provincial responsibility. By 1872 the university had begun to confer undergraduate degrees, with master's degrees coming in 1875 and doctoral degrees in 1888. On 5 February 1889, the university was granted a pontifical charter from Pope Leo XIII, elevating the university to a pontifical university; the university faced a crisis when fire destroyed the main building on 2 December 1903. After the fire, the university hired New York architect A. O. Von Herbulis to design its replacement, Tabaret Hall, it was among the first Canadian structures to be fireproof, built of reinforced concrete. Women first enrolled in 1919. In the fall of 1939, a Canadian Officer Training Corp was established at the university, with training beginning in January 1940; the Canadian Officers' Training Corps, University of Ottawa Contingent, which comprised a company and three platoons in 1939, was authorized to become a battalion in 1940.
By 1941, the unit swelled to 550 men. An air force Officers' Training Corp was created in 1942 and a naval Officers' training corp in 1943. Participation in one of the three corps became mandatory for all students over 18, although they were not obliged to participate in the actual war at the end of their studies. During this time, the Royal Canadian Air Force used parts of the university's grounds for training and the university constructed barracks to house members of the Canadian Women's Army Corps. In total 1,158 students and alumni of the university enrolled the Canadian Forces during the Second World War, of which 50 died overseas; the unit was disbanded during the unification of the Armed Forces in 1968. The Ottawa architecture firm of Burgess, McLean & MacPhadyen designed the Eastern Ontario Institute of Technology, opened its new Rideau Campus on a 12-acre city owned Lees Avenue site in 1964. After being unused for a number of years, the midcentury academic complex was sold to the University of Ottawa in January 2007.
The university was reorganized on 1 July 1965 as a corporation independent from any outside body or religious organization, becoming publicly funded. As a result, the civil and pontifical charters were transferred to the newly created Saint Paul University, federated with the corporation, while the remaining civil faculties were retained by the reorganized university. In 1970, 100 Laurier East became property of the University of Ottawa, acquired at a cost of $1,120,900. Named Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur, the property became the university's oldest building after it was acquired. At a cost of $28,000, it was built by Joseph Bourque, a Hull contractor and church builder, completed in 1894; the Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur provided classical education for young men who wished to pursue a religious life and join the Order of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The building was expanded in 1937, an expansion, indistinguishable from the original structure; the huge cross that used to dominate the top of the building was removed after its purchase, leaving only small references to the building's religious history as the Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur.
The property now houses the university's department of Visual Arts. It is located at the corner near the Rideau Canal. In 1974, a new policy mandated by the Government of O
Quebec City Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country; the Algonquian people had named the area Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows", because the Saint Lawrence River narrows proximate to the promontory of Quebec and its Cape Diamant. Explorer Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement here in 1608, adopted the Algonquin name. Quebec City is one of the oldest European cities in North America; the ramparts surrounding Old Quebec are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico. This area was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the "Historic District of Old Québec"; the city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac hotel that dominates the skyline and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence.
The National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. According to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French. In English, the city and the province are distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, the accent is omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are distinguished by the presence or absence of a definite article in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist.
While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer Jacques Cartier with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter; the fort was in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life; the name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's Francophone population; the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.
The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led during the Anglo-French War. Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had ended, worked to have the lands returned to France; as part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu. Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763.
It was the site of three battles during Seven Years' War: a French victory. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763. At the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants; the town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture and affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city m
Supreme Court of Canada
The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system. The court grants permission to between 40 and 75 litigants each year to appeal decisions rendered by provincial and federal appellate courts, its decisions are the ultimate expression and application of Canadian law and binding upon all lower courts of Canada, except to the extent that they are overridden or otherwise made ineffective by an Act of Parliament or the Act of a provincial legislative assembly pursuant to section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The creation of the Supreme Court of Canada was provided for by the British North America Act, 1867, renamed in 1982 the Constitution Act, 1867; the first bills for the creation of a federal supreme court, introduced in the Parliament of Canada in 1869 and in 1870, were withdrawn. It was not until 8 April 1875 that a bill was passed providing for the creation of a Supreme Court of Canada. However, prior to 1949, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort: litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
As well, some cases could bypass the court and go directly to the Judicial Committee from the provincial courts of appeal. The Supreme Court formally became the court of last resort for criminal appeals in 1933 and for all other appeals in 1949; the last decisions of the Judicial Committee on cases from Canada were made in the mid-1950s, as a result of their being heard in a court of first instance prior to 1949. The increase in the importance of the Court was mirrored by the numbers of its members; the Court was established first with six judges, these were augmented by an additional member in 1927. In 1949, the bench reached its current composition of nine justices. Prior to 1949, most of the appointees to the Court owed their position to political patronage; each judge had strong ties to the party in power at the time of their appointment. In 1973, the appointment of a constitutional law professor Bora Laskin as chief justice represented a major turning point for the Court. In this period, appointees either came from academic backgrounds or were well-respected practitioners with several years experience in appellate courts.
Laskin's federalist and liberal views were shared by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who recommended Laskin's appointment to the Court. The Constitution Act, 1982 expanded the role of the Court in Canadian society by the addition of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which broadened the scope of judicial review; the evolution from the Dickson court through to the Lamer court witnessed a continuing vigour in the protection of civil liberties. Lamer's criminal law background proved an influence on the number of criminal cases heard by the Court during his time as chief justice. Nonetheless, the Lamer court was more conservative with Charter rights, with only about a 1% success rate for Charter claimants. Lamer was succeeded as chief justice by Beverly McLachlin in January 2000, she is the first woman to hold that position. McLachlin's appointment resulted in a more centrist and unified Court. Dissenting and concurring opinions were fewer than during the Lamer Courts. With the 2005 appointments of Justices Louise Charron and Rosalie Abella, the court became the world's most gender-balanced national high court, four of its nine members being female.
Justice Marie Deschamps' retirement on 7 August 2012 caused the number to fall to three, however the appointment of Suzanne Côté on 1 December 2014 restored the number to four. After serving on the Court for 28 years, 259 days, McLachlin retired in December 2017, her successor as chief justice is Richard Wagner. The structure of the Canadian court system is pyramidal, a broad base being formed by the various provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial or territorial governments. At the next level are the provinces' and territories' superior courts, where judges are appointed by the federal government. Judgments from the superior courts may be appealed to a still higher level, the provincial or territorial courts of appeal. Several federal courts exist: the Tax Court of Canada, the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. Unlike the provincial superior courts, which exercise inherent or general jurisdiction, the federal courts' jurisdiction is limited by statute.
In all, there are over 1,000 federally appointed judges at various levels across Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada rests at the apex of the judicial pyramid; this institution hears appeals from the provincial courts of last resort the provincial or territorial courts of appeal, the Federal Court of Appeal, although in some matters appeals come straight from the trial courts, as in the case of publication bans and other orders that are otherwise not appealable. In most cases, permission to appeal must first be obtained from the court. Motions for leave to appeal to the Court are heard by a panel of three judges of the Court and a simple majority is determinative. By convention, this panel never explains why it grants or refuses leave in any particular case, but the Court hears cases of national importance or where the case allows the Court to settle an important issue of law. Leave is granted, meaning that for most litigants, provincial courts of appeal are courts of last resort, but leave to appeal is not required for some cases criminal cases and appeals from provincial references.
A final source of cases is the referral power of the federa