Louis the Pious called the Fair, the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-emperor with his father, from 813. He was King of Aquitaine from 781; as the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed. During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the empire's southwestern frontier, he conquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 812. As emperor he included his adult sons, Lothair and Louis, in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm among them; the first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragedies and embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephew Bernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act of self-debasement. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans.
Though his reign ended on a high note, with order restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis is compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort. Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus, he was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard. Louis was crowned King of Aquitaine as a three year old child in 781. In the following year he was sent to Aquitaine accompanied by a court. Charlemagne constituted this sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his realm after the destructive war against the Aquitanians and Basques under Waifer and Hunald II, which culminated in the disastrous Battle of Roncesvalles. Charlemagne wanted his son Louis to grow up in the area. However, in 785, wary of the customs his son may have been taking in Aquitaine, who after Hildegard's death in 783, had remarried, sent for Louis in 785.
Louis presented himself in Saxony at the royal Council of Paderborn dressed in Basque costumes along with other youths in the same garment, which may have made a good impression in Toulouse, since the Basques of Vasconia were a mainstay of the Aquitanian army. In 794, Charlemagne gave four former Gallo-Roman villas to Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou, Ebreuil in Allier, Angeac-Charente, the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs, thus were the children sent to their respective realms at a young age. The marches - peripheral principalities - played a vital role as bullwarks against exterior threats to the empire. Louis reigned over the Spanish March. In 797, the largest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, handed it to them.
The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony, Provençals under Leibulf, Goths under Bera, over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. King Louis was formally invested with his armour in 791 at the age of fourteen. However, the princes were not given independence from central authority as Charlemagne wished to implant in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on remote military expeditions. Louis joined his brother Pippin at the Mezzogiorno campaign in Italy against the Duke Grimoald of Benevento at least once. Louis was one of Charlemagne's three legitimate sons to survive infancy, his twin brother, Lothair died during infancy. According to the Frankish custom of partible inheritance, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger, King of Neustria, Pepin, King of Italy. In the Divisio Regnorum of 806, Charlemagne had slated Charles the Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling over the Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia, while giving Pepin the Iron Crown of Lombardy, which Charlemagne possessed by conquest.
To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania and part of Burgundy. However, Charlemagne's other legitimate sons died – Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 – and Louis was crowned co-emperor with an ailing Charlemagne in Aachen in 813. On his father's death in 814, he inherited the entire Carolingian Empire and all its possessions. While at his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine, Louis received news of his father's death, he rushed to Aachen and crowned himself emperor to shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus by the attending nobles. Upon arriving at the imperial court in Aachen in an atmosphere of suspicion and anxiety on both sides, Louis's first act was to purge the palace of what he considered undesirable, he destroyed the old Germanic pagan tokens and texts, collected by Charlemagne. He further exiled members of the court he deemed morally "dissolute", including some of his own relatives, he sent all of his many unmarried sisters and nieces to nunneries in order to avoid any possible entanglements from ove
Rain is a 2005 Bollywood erotic-thriller film directed by Amol Shetge and produced by Vinod Bachchan under the banner of V. R. Entertainers, it features actors Meghna Himanshu Malik in the lead roles. Satish–Ajay scored the music for the film. Sandhya Bhatnagar, a blind writer with a mysterious past, lives alone and has and a serious rain phobia. One day she is visited by a reporter named Prakash, a fan of her novels, he pretends to be her psychiatrist and persuades her to reveal her past – she had an unhappy childhood and was raped as a teenager. Sandhya ends up falling in love with the reporter, however, it turns out that Prakash is the rapist who caused her misery in the first place. Himanshu Malik as Prakash/Avinash Meghna Naidu as Sandhya Bhatnagar Panne Chatterjee as Avinash's wife Rajdev Jamdade Vijay Shukla All lyrics are written by Praveen Bhardwaj. Rain: The Terror Within... on IMDb
Luigi Rocchi was an Italian Roman Catholic, disabled for most of his life and was sometimes referred to as a "saint in a wheelchair". Rocchi exhibited signs of weakness in his limbs since his childhood but was not diagnosed until he was eight with a disease that led to a progressive muscular decline, he struggled with his condition at first but a religious experience in his adolescence seemed to restore him from his struggles and a commitment to preach the Gospel message to all while using his own suffering to demonstrate the need for people to love more. Rocchi made pilgrimages to Lourdes and to Loreto where he came to know and correspond with its prelate Loris Francesco Capovilla, he was close with several other priests and figures such as the journalist Ettore Masina and his diocesan bishop Ersilio Tonini. The process for his beatification commenced in the 1990s in smaller steps that were undertaken in his diocese since 1991 to launch a formal cause; this formal activation came in 1992 and he became titled as a Servant of God.
The cause took a decisive step forward on 3 April 2014 after Pope Francis signed a decree that named him as Venerable upon confirming that Rocchi had lived a life practicing heroic virtue. Luigi Rocchi was born on 19 February 1932 in the San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital in Rome as the firs of three children to Francesco Rocchi and Maria Pascucci, his first home was in Via Assisi 29 in the Ognissanti parish where he received his baptism on 17 April 1932 from the parish priest Father Angelo Michaele Cominola in the names of "Luigi Pacifico Carlo". His grandmother relocated to Rome from Tolentino, his paternal grandparents were Lorenzo Rocchi and Maria Pascolini and his maternal grandparents were Nazareno Pascucci and Augusta Pelliccioni. His father was born in Caldarola in the Macerata province and was married to Rocchi's mother on 30 November 1929, his siblings were Alba. The Rocchi's – when he was two in 1934 – relocated to the industrial Tolentino area in the Macerata province where it was hoped that his father could find new work since his previous work at La Marchigiana failed resulting in workers out of a job.
His father found work in Tolentino in the paper mill that Vincenzo Porcelli managed and worked there for over five decades before retiring. The Rocchi's lived first in a suburban area in an apartment and in the central district close to the cathedral. In his small house in the Tolentino neighborhood he could see the church of Santa Maria Nuova out of one of the small windows, his mother was responsible for his religious upbringing and he valued this in life as he would write about. His maternal grandmother helped to raise him in his childhood. Rocchi first demonstrated signs of muscular decline in 1936 and this became pronounced at his First Communion when his mother had to help him to the balustrade. In 1940 he was diagnosed with having a disease that would lead to progressive muscular decline that impeded motor and muscular functions, he had been sent first to the children's hospital in Ancona before being sent to Bologna where the diagnosis was made. He had to use a cane in order to move and at fifteen he was using one when he fell from a flight of stairs.
He was unharmed though attributed his fortune to "the intervention of the Madonna" as he told his mother who helped him. Rocchi entered into a state school in Tolentino in the Piazza Sant'Agnese and at that time the Fascist regime under Benito Mussolini mandated that all public school students be enrolled in the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio; this included Rocchi around 1942 though he had no particular liking for Fascism. He was an Introverted student and marginalized due to his being unable to do sports or things that the other students could do, he was known to joke with others on occasion. He attended catechism classes and his parish priest Primo Minnoni considered him among the best of his students with a particular flair for communication, he made his first confession in the week leading to the reception of his First Communion and attended a retreat in order to prepare for the latter event. He made his First Communion on 8 September 1941, he completed school in June 1944 before making an effort to seek so tried tailoring.
His health prevented him from holding an iron or using a sewing needle so he was forced to abandon this. He enrolled in middle school in 1947 in Tolentino and during this time was exempted from sports due to his condition and studied French as a foreign language class. Rocchi fell at school so much so that the dean had written a letter to his mother in 1951 asking that he be kept at home in order to prevent further accidents in what ended Rocchi's schooling, he was rejected on the account of his condition. His passion for reading books of all sorts enabled him to home-school himself and he read books on the natural sciences as well as genetics among other subjects, he suffered a setback in 1944 during a fire caused in an aerial bombardment towards the end of World War II that saw him too close to the blast zone which left him bald for the remainder of his life. He had been visiting the Rizzoli Hospital in Bologna at the time. In his adolescence he came into contact with members of the Catholic Action movement and was registered to it alongside some few friends in the Oratorio di