Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of 19.1 km from the centre of Paris. Inhabitants are called Saint-Germinois. With its elegant tree-lined streets it is one of the more affluent suburbs of Paris, combining both high-end leisure spots and exclusive residential neighborhoods. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a sub-prefecture of the department; because it includes the National Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it covers 48 km2, making it the largest commune in the Yvelines. It occupies a large loop of the Seine. Saint-Germain-en-Laye lies at one of the western termini of Line A of the RER. Saint-Germain-en-Laye was founded in 1020 when King Robert the Pious founded a convent on the site of the present Church of Saint-Germain. In 1688, James II, King of England and VII of Scotland, exiled himself to the city after being deposed from the throne in what has become known as the Glorious Revolution, he spent the remainder of his days there, died on 16 September 1701.
Prior to the French Revolution in 1789, it had been a royal town and the Château de Saint-Germain the residence of numerous French monarchs. The old château was constructed in 1348 by King Charles V on the foundations of an old castle dating from 1238 in the time of Saint Louis. Francis I was responsible for its subsequent restoration. In 1862, Napoleon III set up the Musée des Antiquités Nationales in the erstwhile royal château; this museum has exhibits ranging from Paleolithic to Celtic times. The "Dame de Brassempouy" sculpted on a mammoth's ivory tusk around 23,000 years ago is the most famous exhibit in the museum. Kings Henry IV and Louis XIII left their mark on the town. Louis XIV was born in the château, established Saint-Germain-en-Laye as his principal residence from 1661 to 1681. Louis XIV turned over the château to James VII & II of Scotland and England after his exile from Britain after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. James lived in the Château for 13 years, his daughter Louisa Maria Stuart was born in exile here in 1692.
James II is buried in the Church of Saint-Germain. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is famous for its 2.4-kilometre long stone terrace built by André Le Nôtre from 1669 to 1673. The terrace provides a view over the valley of the Seine and, in the distance, Paris. During the French Revolution, the name was changed along with many other places whose names held connotations of religion or royalty. Temporarily, Saint-Germain-en-Laye became Montagne-du-Bon-Air. During his reign, Napoleon I established his cavalry officers training school in the Château-Vieux; the Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed in 1919 and was applied on 16 July 1920. The treaty registered the breakup of the Habsburg empire, which recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes. During the occupation from 1940 to 1944, the town was the headquarters of the German Army. On 1 January 2019, the former commune Fourqueux was merged into Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Saint-Germain-en-Laye station on Paris RER line A.
It is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Saint-Germain – Bel-Air – Fourqueux and Saint-Germain – Grande Ceinture. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Achères – Grand Cormier station on Paris RER line A and on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line; this station is located in the middle of the Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, far away from the urbanized part of the commune. Saint-Germain-en-Laye has a proud footballing history. From 1904 to 1970 it was represented by Stade Saint-Germain which, following a 1970 merger with Paris FC, became Paris Saint-Germain, or Paris SG, now PSG for short, they are a top-flight football team who have won one C2 cup. PSG are the highest ranking team in France. From 1904 to 1974, "Le Camp des Loges" was the main stadium, they are now, based in Paris – but continue to train in their original stadium. In 2011, Paris Saint-Germain was bought by the Qatar Investment Authority, bringing greater financial means.
There is one main sporting facility in Saint-Germain-en-Laye: the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre. It covers over 12 hectares and contains: – 5 football pitches – 3 stands – 1 athletic track – 22 tennis courts – 1 clubhouse – 1 multibeach terrain Capcom Entertainment France, a Capcom subsidiary, has its head office in Saint-Germain-en-Laye; as of 2016 the schools in this commune had 20,581 students, with 7,300 of them living in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. There is a high ratio of overall students to town inhabitants; the municipal nursery and primary schools have 3,549 students. 1,026 students attend private schools in the commune. 522 students attend primary divisions. As of 2016 the municipality operates nine primary schools; the Lycée International de Saint Germain-en-Laye, a public school, is in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It includes a section for Japanese students, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology lists that program in its group of European hoshuko. Other public high schools: Lycée Jeanne-d'Albret Lycée technologique Léonard-de-Vinci Lycée technologique Jean-Baptiste-Poquelin lycée agricole et horticole de Saint-Germain-ChambourcyPrivate schools include: Collège et Lycée Notre-Dame École Saint-
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a royal palace in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the département of Yvelines, about 19 km west of Paris, France. Today, it houses the musée d'Archéologie nationale; the first castle, named the Grand Châtelet, was built on the site by Louis VI in around 1122. The castle was expanded by Louis IX in the 1230s. Louis IX's chapelle Saint Louis at the castle belongs to the Rayonnant phase of French Gothic architecture. A 1238 charter of Louis IX instituting a regular religious service at the chapel is the first mention of a chapel having been built at the royal castle; this was a Sainte Chapelle, to house a relic of the Crown of the True Cross. Its plan and architecture prefigure the major Sainte-Chapelle which Saint Louis built within the Palais de la Cité at Paris between 1240 and 1248. Both buildings were built by Louis's favourite architect Pierre de Montreuil, who adapted the architectural formulae invented at Saint Germain for use in Paris. A single nave ends in a chevet, with all the wall areas filled by tall thin glass windows, between which are large exterior buttresses.
The ogives of the vault rest on columns between the bays and the column bases are placed behind a low isolated arcade. The building can thus be empty of all internal supports; this large number of windows is enabled by the pierre armée technique, with metal elements built into the structure of the walls to ensure the stones' stability. The west wall is adorned by a large Gothic rose window in the "rayonnant" Gothic style, it was in this chapel in 1238 that Baldwin II of Constantinople presented Louis with the relic of the crown of thorns and, though they were intended for the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, they were housed here until the Paris chapel was consecrated in April 1248. The castle was burned by the Black Prince in 1346; this Château Vieux was rebuilt by Charles V in the 1360s on the old foundations. The oldest parts of the current château were reconstructed by Francis I in 1539, have subsequently been expanded several times. On 10 July 1547 a political rivalry came to a head in a bloody game here.
Against the odds, Guy Chabot, 7th baron de Jarnac triumphed over François de Vivonne, seigneur de la Chasteigneraie, giving rise to the coup de Jarnac. Henry II built a separate new château nearby, to designs by Philibert de l'Orme, it stood at the crest of a slope, shaped, under the direction of Étienne du Pérac into three massive descending terraces and narrower subsidiary mediating terraces, which were linked by divided symmetrical stairs and ramps and extended a single axis that finished at the edge of the Seine. "Étienne du Pérac had spent a long time in Italy, one manifestation of his interest in gardens of this type is his well-known view of the Villa d'Este, engraved in 1573."The gardens laid out at Saint-Germain-en-Laye were among a half-dozen gardens introducing the Italian garden style to France that laid the groundwork for the French formal garden. Unlike the parterres that were laid out in casual relation to existing châteaux on difficult sites selected for defensive reasons, these new gardens extended the central axis of a symmetrical building façade in rigorously symmetrical axial designs of patterned parterres, gravel walks and basins, formally planted bosquets.
According to Claude Mollet's Théâtre des plans et jardinage the parterres were laid out in 1595 for Henry IV by Mollet, trained at Anet and the progenitor of a dynasty of royal gardeners. One of the parterre designs by Mollet at Saint-Germain-en-Laye was illustrated in Olivier de Serres' Le théâtre d'agriculture et mesnage des champs, but the Château Neuf and the whole of its spectacular series of terraces can be seen in an engraving after Alexandre Francini, 1614. Louis XIV was born at Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638. One of du Pérac's retaining walls collapsed in 1660, Louis undertook a renovation of the gardens in 1662. At his majority he established his court here in 1666, but he preferred the Château Vieux: the Château Neuf was abandoned in the 1660s and demolished. From 1663 until 1682, when the king removed definitively to Versailles, the team that he inherited from the unfortunate Fouquet—Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin-Mansart and André Le Nôtre laboured to give the ancient pile a more suitable aspect.
The gardens were remade by André Le Nôtre from 1669 to 1673, include a 2.4 kilometre long stone terrace which provides a view over the valley of the Seine and, in the distance, Paris. Louis XIV turned the château over to King James II of England after his exile from Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. King James lived in the château for thirteen years, his daughter Louise-Marie Stuart was born in exile here in 1692. King James lies buried in the nearby Church of Saint-Germain, their son James left the château in 1716 settling in Rome. Many Jacobites—supporters of the exiled Stuarts—remained at the château until the French Revolution, leaving in 1793; the Jacobites consisted of former members of the Jacobite court, the apartments left empty in the chateau by the Jacobite court pensioners upon their death, were passed down to their widows and children by the caretaker of the chateau, Adrien Maurice, the Duke de Noailles. The Jacobite colony at Saint-Germain was still dominant in the 1750s, when they were however treated with increasing hostility.
After the death
Firth of Forth
The Firth of Forth is the estuary of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Lothian on the south, it was known as Bodotria in Roman times. In the Norse sagas it was known as the Myrkvifiörd. An early Welsh name is Merin Iodeo, or the "Sea of Iudeu". Geologically, the Firth of Forth is a fjord, formed by the Forth Glacier in the last glacial period; the drainage basin for the Firth of Forth covers a wide geographic area including places as far from the shore as Ben Lomond, Harthill and the edges of Gleneagles Golf Course. Many towns line the shores, as well as the petrochemical complexes at Grangemouth, commercial docks at Leith, former oil rig construction yards at Methil, the ship-breaking facility at Inverkeithing and the naval dockyard at Rosyth, along with numerous other industrial areas, including the Forth Bridgehead area, encompassing Rosyth and the southern edge of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, Bo'ness and Leven; the firth is bridged in two places. The Kincardine Bridge and the Clackmannanshire Bridge cross it at Kincardine, while the Forth Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge and the Queensferry Crossing cross from North Queensferry to South Queensferry, further east.
The Romans made a bridge of around 900 boats at South Queensferry. From 1964 to 1982, a tunnel existed under the Firth of Forth, dug by coal miners to link the Kinneil colliery on the south side of the Forth with the Valleyfield colliery on the north side; this is shown in the 1968 educational film "Forth - Powerhouse for Industry". The shafts leading into the tunnel were filled and capped with concrete when the tunnel was closed, it is believed to have filled with water or collapsed in places. In July, 2007, a hovercraft passenger service completed a two-week trial between Portobello and Kirkcaldy, Fife; the trial of the service was hailed as a major operational success, with an average passenger load of 85 percent. It was estimated the service would decrease congestion for commuters on the Forth road and rail bridges by carrying about 870,000 passengers each year. Despite the initial success, the project was cancelled in December, 2011; the inner firth, located between the Kincardine and Forth bridges, has lost about half of its former intertidal area as a result of land reclamation for agriculture, but for industry and the large ash lagoons built to deposit spoil from the coal-fired Longannet Power Station near Kincardine.
Historic villages line the Fife shoreline. The firth is a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the Firth of Forth Islands SPA is home to more than 90,000 breeding seabirds every year. There is a bird observatory on the Isle of May; the youngest person to swim across the Firth of Forth was 13-year-old Joseph Feeney, who accomplished the feat in 1933. In 2008, a controversial bid to allow oil transfer between ships in the firth was refused by Forth Ports. SPT Marine Services had asked permission to transfer 7.8 million tonnes of crude oil per year between tankers, but the proposals were met with determined opposition from conservation groups. Bass Rock Craigleith Cramond Eyebroughy Fidra Inchcolm Inchgarvie Inchkeith Inchmickery with Cow and Calf The Lamb Isle of May lowest bridging point: Stirling North shore South shore Isle of May bird observatory Forthfast experimental hovercraft service, 16–28 July 2007 Inchcolm Virtual Tour Take a virtual tour around some of the Inchcolm's military defences
The Royal Collection of the British Royal family is the largest private art collection in the world. Spread among 13 occupied and historic royal residences in the United Kingdom, the collection is owned by Elizabeth II and overseen by the Royal Collection Trust; the Queen owns some of the collection in some as a private individual. It is made up of over one million objects, including 7,000 paintings, over 150,000 works on paper, this including 30,000 watercolours and drawings, about 450,000 photographs, as well as tapestries, ceramics, carriages, armour, clocks, musical instruments, plants, manuscripts and sculptures; some of the buildings which house the collection, like Hampton Court Palace, are open to the public and not lived in by the Royal Family, whilst others, like Windsor Castle and Kensington Palace, are both residences and open to the public. The Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace in London was built specially to exhibit pieces from the collection on a rotating basis. There is a similar art gallery next to the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh, a Drawings Gallery at Windsor Castle.
The Crown Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. About 3,000 objects are on loan to museums throughout the world, many others are lent on a temporary basis to exhibitions. Few items from before Henry VIII survive; the most important additions were made by Charles I, a passionate collector of Italian paintings and a major patron of Van Dyck and other Flemish artists. He purchased the bulk of the Gonzaga collection from the Duchy of Mantua; the entire Royal Collection, which included 1,500 paintings and 500 statues, was sold after Charles's execution in 1649. The'Sale of the Late King's Goods' at Somerset House raised £185,000 for the English Republic. Other items were given away in lieu of payment to settle the king's debts. A number of pieces were recovered by Charles II after the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, they form the basis for the collection today; the Dutch Republic presented Charles with the Dutch Gift of 28 paintings, 12 sculptures, a selection of furniture.
He went on to buy other works. George III was responsible for forming the collection's outstanding holdings of Old Master drawings. Many other drawings were bought from Alessandro Albani and art dealer in Rome. George IV shared Charles I's enthusiasm for collecting, buying up large numbers of Dutch Golden Age paintings and their Flemish contemporaries. Like other English collectors, he took advantage of the great quantities of French decorative art on the London market after the French Revolution, is responsible for the collection's outstanding holdings of 18th-century French furniture and porcelain Sèvres, he bought much contemporary English silver, many recent and contemporary English paintings. Queen Victoria and her husband Albert were keen collectors of old master paintings. Many objects have been given from the collection to museums by George III and Victoria and Albert. In particular, the King's Library formed by George III with the assistance of his librarian Frederick Augusta Barnard, consisting of 65,000 printed books, was given to the British Museum, now the British Library, where they remain as a distinct collection.
He donated the "Old Royal Library" of some 2,000 manuscripts, which are still segregated as the Royal manuscripts. The core of this collection was the purchase by James I of the related collections of Humphrey Llwyd, Lord Lumley, the Earl of Arundel. Prince Albert's will requested the donation of a number of early paintings to the National Gallery, which Queen Victoria fulfilled. Throughout the reign of Elizabeth II, there have been significant additions to the collection through judicious purchases and gifts from nation states and official bodies. Since 1952 2,500 works have been added to the Royal Collection; the Commonwealth is represented in this manner: an example is 75 contemporary Canadian watercolours that entered the collection between 1985 and 2001 as a gift from the Canadian Society of Painters in Water Colour. Modern art acquired by Elizabeth II includes pieces by Sir Anish Andy Warhol. In 1987 a new department of the Royal Household was established to oversee the Royal Collection, it was financed by the commercial activities of Royal Collection Enterprises, a limited company.
Before it was maintained using the monarch's official income paid by the Civil List. Since 1993 the collection has been funded by entrance fees to Buckingham Palace. A computerised inventory of the collection was started in early 1991, it was completed in December 1997; the full inventory is not available to the public, though catalogues of parts of the collection – paintings – have been published, a searchable database on the Royal Collection website is comprehensive, with "265,302 items found" by early 2019. About a third of the 7,000 paintings in the collection are on view or stored at buildings in London which fall under the remit of the Historic Royal Palaces agency: the Tower of London, Hampton Court Palace, Kensington Palace, Banqueting House, Kew Palace; the Jewel House and Martin Tower at the Tower of London house the Crown Jewels. A rotating selection of art, furniture and other items considered to be of the highest quality is shown at the Queen's Gallery, a purpose-built exhibition centre
Mary II of England
Mary II was Queen of England and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the adoption of the English Bill of Rights and the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694, he reigned as such until his own death in 1702. Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him, though he relied on her, she did, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful and effective ruler. Mary, born at St James's Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of the Duke of York, his first wife, Anne Hyde. Mary's uncle was King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, she was baptised into the Anglican faith in the Chapel Royal at St James's, was named after her ancestor, Queen of Scots.
Her godparents included Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Although her mother bore eight children, all except Mary and her younger sister Anne died young, King Charles II had no legitimate children. For most of her childhood, Mary was second in line to the throne after her father; the Duke of York converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669 and the Duchess about eight years earlier, but Mary and Anne were brought up as Anglicans, pursuant to the command of Charles II. They were moved to their own establishment at Richmond Palace, where they were raised by their governess Lady Frances Villiers, with only occasional visits to see their parents at St James's or their grandfather Lord Clarendon at Twickenham. Mary's education, from private tutors, was restricted to music, drawing and religious instruction, her mother died in 1671, her father remarried in 1673, taking as his second wife Mary of Modena, a Catholic, only four years older than Mary. From about the age of nine until her marriage, Mary wrote passionate letters to an older girl, Frances Apsley, the daughter of courtier Sir Allen Apsley.
Mary signed herself'Mary Clorine'. In time, Frances became uncomfortable with the correspondence, replied more formally. At the age of fifteen, Mary became betrothed to her cousin, the Protestant Stadtholder of Holland, William III of Orange. William was the son of the King's late sister, Princess Royal, thus fourth in the line of succession after James and Anne. At first, Charles II opposed the alliance with the Dutch ruler—he preferred that Mary wed the heir to the French throne, the Dauphin Louis, thus allying his realms with Catholic France and strengthening the odds of an eventual Catholic successor in Britain; the Duke of York agreed to the marriage, after pressure from chief minister Lord Danby and the King, who incorrectly assumed that it would improve James's popularity among Protestants. When James told Mary that she was to marry her cousin, "she wept all that afternoon and all the following day". William and a tearful Mary were married in St James's Palace by Bishop Henry Compton on 4 November 1677.
Mary accompanied her husband on a rough sea crossing back to the Netherlands that month, after a delay of two weeks caused by bad weather. Rotterdam was inaccessible because of ice, they were forced to land at the small village of Ter Heijde, walk through the frosty countryside until met by coaches to take them to Huis Honselaarsdijk. On 14 December, they made a formal entry to The Hague in a grand procession. Mary's animated and personable nature made her popular with the Dutch people, her marriage to a Protestant prince was popular in Britain, she was devoted to her husband, but he was away on campaigns, which led to Mary's family supposing him to be cold and neglectful. Within months of the marriage Mary was pregnant, she suffered further bouts of illness that may have been miscarriages in mid-1678, early 1679, early 1680. Her childlessness would be the greatest source of unhappiness in her life. From May 1684, King Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, lived in the Netherlands, where he was fêted by William and Mary.
Monmouth was viewed as a rival to the Duke of York, as a potential Protestant heir who could supplant the Duke in the line of succession. William, did not consider him a viable alternative and assumed that Monmouth had insufficient support. Upon the death of Charles II without legitimate issue in February 1685, the Duke of York became king as James II in England and Ireland and James VII in Scotland. Mary was playing cards when her husband informed her of her father's accession, that she was heir presumptive; when Charles's illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth assembled an invasion force at Amsterdam, sailed for Britain, William informed James of the Duke's departure, ordered English regiments in the Low Countries to return to Britain. To William's relief, Monmouth was defeated and executed, but both he and Mary were dismayed by James's subsequent actions
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
François de Troy
François de Troy was a French painter and engraver who became principal painter to King James II in exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Director of the Académie Royale de peinture et de sculpture. One of a family of artists, Troy was born in Toulouse, the son of Antoine Troy, a painter in that city, Astrugue Bordes. François was the brother of the painter Jean de Troy. Troy was taught the basic skills of painting by his father, also by the more worldly Antoine Durand. François de Troy is not to be confused with his son, the portrait painter Jean-François de Troy, who studied under him. At some time after 1662, Troy went to Paris to study portrait painting under Claude Lefèbvre and Nicolas-Pierre Loir (1624–1679]. A. P. F. Robert-Dumesnil states. In 1669, Troy married Jeanne Cotelle. In 1671, he was approved by the Académie Royale de peinture et de sculpture. In 1674, he was received into the Academy as a history painter, with a reception piece entitled Mercure coupant la tête d'Argus. Troy's early known works include tapestry designs for Madame de Montespan, one of the many mistresses of Louis XIV of France, paintings with religious and mythological subjects.
In the 1670s, he became friendly with Roger de Piles, who introduced him to Dutch and Flemish painting, after the death of Claude Lefebvre in 1675, Troy changed his direction to become a portrait artist, aiming at commissions from Lefebvre's former clients. In 1679 he was commissioned to paint a portrait of the Swedish ambassador Nils Bielke, in 1680 that of Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, shortly after her marriage to Louis of France, Dauphin of France, the heir to the French throne, on 7 March 1680. Troy became a successful painter of fashionable single and group portraits, his clients included Madame de Montespan, her son by the king, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine, his wife Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon. As a result of such commissions, Troy was able to work continuously in court circles for fifty years, he was admired for his ability to capture the upper classes and their preoccupation with manners and fashion. More he was said to have the ability to make any woman look beautiful, which made him sought after by all women.
In the 1690s, Troy became the principal painter to the court of King James II in exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, where he was the master of Alexis Simon Belle. By the years 1698 to 1701, a period of peace between France and Great Britain, Jacobites could cross the English Channel carrying portraits of James Francis Edward Stuart and his sister Princess Louisa Maria. Troy was James II's only court painter and needed the help of Belle, his best student, to produce the many portraits commissioned from him. In 1698, he was appointed a Professor of the Académie Royale, in 1708 became its Director. Troy was an engraver as well as a painter. Among his engravings is one of the funeral in 1683 of Maria Theresa of Austria, the wife of King Louis XIV. Apart from his son, Jean-François, Troy's other students included André Bouys and John Closterman, he died in Paris at the age of eighty-five. The portraits painted by Troy include - Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, 1690 Lady Mary Herbert, Viscountess Montagu, as Diana, c. 1692 Jean de la Fontaine Jules Hardouin-Mansart Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre Princess Louisa Maria Stuart, about 1705 Portrait d'un couple en Vénus et Pâris, 1691, 150 cm by 120 cm, now in the Louvre Cailleux, Some Family and Group Portraits by Francois de Troy in The Burlington Magazine, vol.
113, no. 817, pp. i-xviii Brême, François de Troy 1645-1730 Paintings by François de Troy François de Troy at culture.gouv.fr François de Troy at the web site of the National Portrait Gallery, London