Mary of Modena was queen consort of England and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII. A devout Roman Catholic, Mary married the widowed James, the younger brother and heir presumptive of Charles II, she was uninterested in politics and devoted to James and their children, two of whom survived to adulthood: the Jacobite claimant to the thrones, James Francis Edward, Louisa Maria Teresa. Born a princess of the northwestern Italian Duchy of Modena, Mary is remembered for the controversial birth of James Francis Edward, her only surviving son, it was rumoured that he was a "changeling", brought into the birth chamber in a warming pan, in order to perpetuate her husband's Catholic Stuart dynasty. Although the accusation was certainly false, the subsequent Privy Council investigation affirmed this, James Francis Edward's birth was a contributing factor to the "Glorious Revolution", the revolution which deposed James II and VII and replaced him with his Protestant eldest daughter from his first marriage to Anne Hyde, Mary II.
She and her husband, William III of Orange, would reign jointly as "William and Mary". Exiled to France, the "Queen over the water" – as the Jacobites called Mary – lived with her husband and children in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, provided by Louis XIV of France. Mary was popular among Louis XIV's courtiers. In widowhood, Mary spent much time with the nuns at the Convent of Chaillot, where she and her daughter Louisa Maria Teresa spent their summers. In 1701, when James II died, young James Francis Edward became king at age 13 in the eyes of the Jacobites; as he was too young to assume the nominal reins of government, Mary represented him until he reached the age of 16. When young James Francis Edward was asked to leave France as part of the settlement from the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession, Mary of Modena stayed, despite having no family there, her daughter Louisa Maria Teresa having died of smallpox. Fondly remembered by her French contemporaries, Mary died of breast cancer in 1718.
Mary Beatrice d'Este, the second but eldest surviving child of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena, his wife, Laura Martinozzi, was born on 5 October 1658 NS in Modena, Duchy of Modena, Italy. Her only younger brother, succeeded their father as Duke upon the latter's death in 1662, the year Mary turned four. Mary and Francesco's mother, was strict with them and acted as regent of the duchy until her son came of age. Mary's education was excellent. Mary was described by contemporaries as "tall and admirably shaped", was sought as a bride for James, Duke of York by Lord Peterborough. Lord Peterborough was groom of the stole to the Duke of York. A widower, James was heir of Charles II of England. Duchess Laura was not forthcoming with a reply to Peterborough's proposal, according to the French ambassador, for a "grander" match with the eleven-year-old Charles II of Spain. Whatever the reason for Laura's initial reluctance, she accepted the proposal on behalf of Mary, they were married by proxy on 30 September 1673 NS.
Modena was within the sphere of influence of Louis XIV of France, who endorsed Mary's candidature and greeted Mary warmly in Paris, where she stopped en route to England, giving her a brooch worth £8,000. Her reception in England was much cooler. Parliament, composed of Protestants, reacted poorly to the news of a Catholic marriage, fearing it was a "Papist" plot against the country; the English public, who were predominantly Protestant, branded the Duchess of York — as Mary was thereafter known as until her husband's accession — the "Pope's daughter". Parliament threatened to have the marriage annulled, leading Charles to suspend parliament until 7 January 1674 OS, to ensure the marriage would be honoured and safeguarding the reputation of his House of Stuart; the Duke of York, an avowed Catholic, was twenty-five years older than his bride, scarred by smallpox and afflicted with a stutter. He had secretly converted to Catholicism around 1668. Mary first saw her husband on the day of their second marriage ceremony.
James was pleased with his bride. Mary, however, at first disliked him, burst into tears each time she saw him. Nonetheless, she soon warmed to James. From his first marriage to the commoner Anne Hyde, who had died in 1671, James had two daughters: Lady Mary and Lady Anne, they were introduced to Mary by James with the words, "I have brought you a new play-fellow". Unlike Lady Mary, Lady Anne disliked her father's new wife. Mary played games with Anne; the Duchess of York annually received £5,000 spending money and her own household, headed by Carey Fraser, Countess of Peterborough. That the Duchess of York loathed gambling did not stop her ladies compelling her to do so every day, they believed that "if she refrained, it might be taken ill". Mary incurred minor gambling debts; the birth of the Duchess of York's first child, Catherine Laura, named after Queen Catherine, on 10 January 1675 OS represented the beginning of a string of children that would die in infancy. At this time she was on excellent terms with Lady Mary and she visited her in The Hague after the younger Mary had married William of Orange.
The Pechanga Resort & Casino is an Indian casino on the Pechanga Indian Reservation adjacent to the city of Temecula, California. Pechanga Resort & Casino is the largest casino in the state of California, with over 4,500 slot machines and 200,000 sq ft of gaming space. On June 24, 2002, the $262 million Pechanga Resort & Casino opened its doors; the resort, designed to highlight the Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians' culture, included an 85,000 sq ft casino, 1,200-seat showroom, 515,000 sq ft, 14-story hotel and 38,800 sq ft convention center, 200-seat cabaret lounge, Eagle's Nest Lounge and seven restaurants. In November 2004, a 100,000 sq ft expansion was opened, adding additional gaming space, a high-limit gaming area, a food court area, a 54-table poker room and Kelsey's, a sports-themed restaurant. Guests must be at least 21 to gamble on the property; the Pechanga Resort & Casino has the largest casino floor in California totaling 188,000 sq ft, larger than the MGM Grand in Las Vegas. It features more than 5,000 Vegas-style slot machines, a non-smoking casino floor area with 460+ slot machines, 164 table games, a non-smoking poker room with 43 tables, an off-track betting facility, an ultra-modern, 700-seat bingo facility, a 14,700 sq ft High Limit Gaming Area with High Limit Salon, private gaming rooms.
The Pechanga Hotel includes 1,085 guest rooms and suites as well as a sun deck with a swimming pool complex and spa, a poolside bar with food service, three retail shops, a newly added Spa. In December 2017, Spa Pechanga opened a standalone, luxury two-level spa totaling 25,000 square feet and featuring 17 treatment rooms; the spa incorporates Native American healing botanicals into all of their treatments. Guests can book massages, body treatments and nail salon appointments, wellness visits and personal fitness and yoga coaching sessions at Spa Pechanga. Pechanga has 20 restaurants on its property; the golf course, Journey at Pechanga, opened in August 2008, the clubhouse opened in November. In November 2008, a 62,000 sq ft clubhouse was opened. Journey was rated as the 4th "Best New Course You Can Play" by Golf Magazine in the January 2009 issue. With the addition of Journey at Pechanga, the resort’s 146-acre footprint has more than tripled to 445 acres. Pechanga Resort & Casino hosts live action sporting events such as Bellator MMA, professional boxing aired live on networks such as HBO and FOX and Muay Thai Kickboxing.
The Pechanga Showroom Theater, a 1,200-seat venue, has hosted Broadway musicals and headline musical acts, including Journey, Lita Ford, Dirty Heads, Collective Soul, Blues Traveler, Skid Row, 311, Backstreet Boys, Bob Dylan, Carrie Underwood, The Fab Four, magician David Copperfield, comedian Jerry Seinfeld, many foreign artists such as Hong Jin-young. Other entertainment venues at Pechanga include the Pechanga Comedy Club. Meeting space at the facility consists of 274,500 square feet of flexible meeting and event space; this includes the 40,000 sq. ft. Pechanga Summit event center, an entire suite of breakout rooms on the resort's 2nd floor, a 22,000 sq. ft. Grand Ballroom, a huge outdoor event lawn, The Cove, Journey's End golf course clubhouse, the rooftop Eagle's Nest nightclub/lounge and Eagle's View Ballroom; the adjacent Pechanga RV Resort features 210 sites. Pechanga Resort & Casino is the Temecula Valley's largest employer with nearly 5,000 employees, the second-largest private employer in Riverside County, behind grocery store chain, Stater Bros.
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On May 12, 2007, the city of San Antonio, held an election to choose who would serve as Mayor of San Antonio for a two year term to expire in 2009. Incumbent mayor Phil Hardberger won over 77 percent of the vote, securing re-election to a second and final two year term. Phil Hardberger, first elected mayor in the 2005 mayoral election, decided to pursue election to a second and final term, his opponent in the runoff, Julian Castro opted not to seek a rematch against Hardberger in the 2007 mayoral election, thus leaving Hardberger to face six minor candidates in the election. R. G. Griffing Phil Hardberger, incumbent Mayor of San Antonio Michael "Commander" Idrogo Patrick McCurdy Julie Iris Oldham Eiginio Rodriguez Rhett R. Smith Julian Castro, former District 7 councilman and 2005 mayoral candidate On May 12, 2007, the election for Mayor was held. Phil Hardberger secured re-election with over 77% of the vote, thus negating the need of a runoff election. * Vote percentage include all of Bexar County with a total of 17,493 either voting in another municipal election, casting a spoiled vote or casting no ballot for San Antonio mayor