The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square meters. In 2019, the Louvre received 9.6 million visitors. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to urban expansion, the fortress lost its defensive function, in 1546 Francis I converted it into the primary residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication, many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery, this territory did not correspond to the modern site, however; the Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him.
André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay". Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers", he was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael.
Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy. The comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum". Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property; because of fear of vandalism or theft, on 19 August, the
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring measures blood pressure at regular intervals. It is believed to be able to reduce the white coat hypertension effect in which a patient's blood pressure is elevated during the examination process due to nervousness and anxiety caused by being in a clinical setting. ABPM can detect the reverse condition, masked hypertension, where the patient have normal blood pressure during the examination but uncontrolled blood pressure at home. Out-of-office measurements are recommended as an adjunct to office measurements by all hypertension organizations. 24-hour, non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring allows estimates of cardiac risk factors including excessive BP variability or patterns of circadian variability known to increase risks of cardiovascular event. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring allows blood pressure to be intermittently monitored during sleep and is useful to determine whether the patient is a "dipper" or "non-dipper"—that is to say, whether or not blood pressure falls at night compared to daytime values.
A night time fall is desirable. It correlates with relationship depth but other factors such as sleep quality, hypertensive status, marital status, social network support. Absence of a night time dip is associated with poorer health outcomes, including increased mortality in one recent study. In addition, nocturnal hypertension is associated with end organ damage and is a much better indicator than the daytime blood pressure reading. Readings revealing possible hypertension-related end organ damage, such as left ventricular hypertrophy or narrowing of the retinal arteries, are more to be gained through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring than through clinical blood pressure measurement. Clinical BP measurements are fewer in number, so more subject to the general marked variability of BP measurements. Additionally, clinical measurements are affected by the "white coat effect" - the rise in blood pressure many patients experience due to the stress of being in the medical situation. Optimal blood pressure fluctuates over a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, with values rising in the daytime and falling after midnight.
The reduction in early morning blood pressure compared with average daytime pressure is referred to as the night-time dip. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may reveal a blunted or abolished overnight dip in blood pressure; this is clinically useful information because non-dipping blood pressure is associated with a higher risk of left ventricle hypertrophy and cardiovascular mortality. By comparing the early morning pressures with average daytime pressures, a ratio can be calculated, of value in assessing relative risk. Dipping patterns are classified by the percent of drop in pressure, based on the resulting ratios a person may be clinically classified for treatment as a "non-dipper", a "dipper", an "extreme dipper", or a "reverse dipper", as detailed in the chart below. Additionally, ambulatory monitoring may reveal an excessive morning blood pressure surge. Classification of dipping in blood pressure is based on the American Heart Association's calculation, using systolic blood pressure as follows: D i p = × 100 % Dippers have lower all-cause mortality than non-dippers or reverse dippers.
As a result, "... ambulatory blood pressure predicts mortality better than clinic blood pressure." Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Medical Journal of Australia
This is the list of awards and nominations received by Maggie Smith, whose acting career in motion pictures, on stage spans over 60 years. Among her major competitive awards, Smith has won two Oscars, five BAFTAs, four Emmys, a Tony Award. Other significant awards include three Golden Globes, five Screen Actors Guild Awards, a record six Best Actress Evening Standard Theatre Awards. Smith is one of only 14 actresses to have achieved the Triple Crown of Acting, competitive Academy Award, Emmy Award, Tony Award wins in the acting categories. Overall in her career she has won 58 competitive awards from 157 nominations, she has received numerous honorary awards, including the BAFTA Special Award, the BAFTA Fellowship, the Special Olivier Award. NotesE ^ Tied with Next Year. NotesA ^ Shared with Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby.
B ^ Shared with Judi Dench, Celia Imrie, Bill Nighy, Dev Patel, Ronald Pickup, Tom Wilkinson, Penelope Wilton. M ^ Shared with Hugh Bonneville, Zoe Boyle, Laura Carmichael, Jim Carter, Brendan Coyle, Michelle Dockery, Jessica Brown Findlay, Siobhan Finneran, Joanne Froggatt, Iain Glen, Thomas Howes, Rob James-Collier, Allen Leech, Phyllis Logan, Elizabeth McGovern, Sophie McShera, Lesley Nicol, Amy Nuttall, David Robb, Dan Stevens, Penelope Wilton. NotesG ^ Tied with Brian Bedford for Private Lives, Roscoe Lee Browne for Dream on Monkey Mountain, Lou Gossett for Murderous Angels. NotesH ^ Shared with Bette Midler, Goldie Hawn, Diane Keaton, Dan Hedaya, Sarah Jessica Parker, Stockard Channing, Victor Garber, Stephen Collins, Elizabeth Berkley, Marcia Gay Harden, Bronson Pinchot, Jennifer Dundas, Eileen Heckart, Philip Bosco, Rob Reiner, James Naughton, Ari Greenberg, Aida Linares. NotesI ^ Tied with Verna Bloom for Ingrid Thulin for The Damned. NotesJ ^ Tied with Anjelica Huston for The Dead.
NotesA ^ The cast nomination included Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby. L ^ Shared with Kenneth Branagh, John Cleese, Robbie Coltrane, Warwick Davis, Richard Griffiths, Rupert Grint, Richard Harris, Jason Isaacs, Daniel Radcliffe, Alan Rickman, Fiona Shaw, Julie Walters, Emma Watson. NotesD ^ Tied with Billie Whitelaw for The Dressmaker. NotesK ^ Tied with Evan Rachel Wood for Mildred Pierce. NotesA ^ Shared with Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby. NotesL ^ Tied with Anthony Hopkins and Peter Firth for Equus, Geraldine Page for Absurd Person Singular, John Cullum and Chip Ford for Shenandoah.
NotesA ^ Shared with Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby. NotesO ^ Shared with co-star Judi Dench for the same play. General"Maggie Smith - Awards and nominations"; the Internet Movie Database. IMDb. imdb.com. Retrieved 12 September 2014. "Maggie Smith - Awards and nominations". Internet Broadway Database. IBDB. ibdb.com. Retrieved 12 September 2014. Specific Maggie Smith on IMDb Maggie Smith at the Internet Broadway Database Maggie Smith at the TCM Movie Database