Ugarchin Municipality is a municipality in Lovech Province, Central-North Bulgaria, located from the area of the so-called Fore-Balkan to the Danubian Plain. It is named after its administrative centre - the town of Ugarchin; the municipality embraces a territory of 523,10 km² with a population of 7,181 inhabitants, as of December 2009. Dragana Golets Kalenik Katunets Kirchevo Lesidren Mikre Orlyane Slavshtitsa Sopot Ugarchin The following table shows the change of the population during the last four decades. Provinces of Bulgaria Municipalities of Bulgaria List of cities and towns in Bulgaria
Bulgarians in Bulgaria
Bulgarians are the main ethnic group in Bulgaria, according to the census of the population in 2011 they are 5 664 624 people, or 76.9% of the country's population. Number and share of Bulgarians according to the census over the years: Number and share of Bulgarians according to the census over the years by provinces: Demographics of Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria constitute Europe's densest Romani minority. The Romani people in Bulgaria "speak Bulgarian, Turkish or Romani, depending on the region and their religious affiliations." According to the latest census in 2011, the number of the Romani is 325,343, constituting 4.4% of the total population, in which only one ethnic group could be opted as an answer and 10% of the total population did not respond to the question on ethnic group. In a conclusive report of the census sent to Eurostat, the authors of the census identified the census results on ethnicity as a "gross manipulation"; the former head of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, Reneta Indzhova claims to have been fired by the Bulgarian Prime Minister in 2014 for attempting to check the actual number of the Romani and implied that neither the census did enumerate the Romani, nor its statistics did provide the "real data". Unlike other censuses under Eurostat, which require the ethnic identification to be verified by a family tree, in the Bulgarian census the ethnic identification is up to the voluntarily identification of the enumerated and not up to any further investigation by the enumerators.
The previous 2001 census recorded 370,908 Romani. The preceding 1992 census recorded 313,396 Romani, while a secret backstage 1992 census ordered by the Ministry of Interior recorded a figure of 550,000 Romani; the majority of the estimated 200,000-400,000 Muslim Romani tend to identify themselves as ethnic Turks, some deny their origin, or identify as Bulgarians. The demographic collapse in Bulgaria affects only ethnic groups other than the Romani. According to data of the European Commission, to which Eurostat belongs, the Romani in Bulgaria number 750,000 and they constitute 10.33% of the population. An NGO estimates that the number of the Romani in Bulgaria is twice as this high and their population grows by 35,000 a year. In Bulgaria, Romani are most referred to as Tsigani, an exonym that some Romani resent and others embrace; the form of the endonym Roma in Bulgarian is romi. They are younger, according to the 2011 census they make up 10.2% of the population aged up to 9 years, on a note 14.9% of the total age group being non-respondents.
In Bulgaria Roma are discriminated: 59% to 80% of non-Roma have negative feelings towards Roma. They are emancipated social group, having higher crime, birth and poverty rates, not many of them attend school. Though most live in poverty, the Romani are represented in Bulgarian mafia and rich Romani crime bosses deal with drug trade and prostitution. Though most of them are unemployed, they have a high rate of child sex workers. Roma constitute the majority of prison population according to self-identification of inmates, with 7000 prisoners out of 10,000 in total. According to 2002 data, the poverty rate among Romani is 61.8%, in contrast to a rate of 5.6% among Bulgarians. In 1997, 84% of Bulgarian Romani lived under the poverty line, compared with 32% of ethnic Bulgarians. In 1994, the poverty rate of Romani was estimated compared with 15 % for Bulgarians; the unemployment rate of non-Romani in Bulgaria was 25%, while of the Romani it was 65% in 2008, for instance in neighbouring Romania and Hungary the Romani had much lower unemployment rates - 14% and 21% respectively.
In 2016 only 23% of the Romani in Bulgaria are employed. The unemployed enjoy more financial aid than other citizens for children, which may have prompt the higher birth rates of the Romani. In 2011 the share of Romani with university degree reached 0.3%, while 6.9% have secondary education. The Turks are more negative towards the Romani than the Bulgarians, with 30-50% rejecting various interactions and friendship with Romani. Although only 25% of Romani parents object to their children to be married with a Bulgarian and a Turk, only 4% of the Bulgarians and 6% of the Turks would marry a Romani person. Romani are avoided by the majority traditionally for marriage, there are ethnically mixed people with Gypsy and Bulgarian parents who are called жоревци "zhorevtsi". Bulgaria participates in the Decade of Roma Inclusion, an international initiative to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of Roma, with eight other governments committing themselves to "work toward eliminating discrimination and closing the unacceptable gaps between Roma and the rest of society".
The rights of the Romani people in the country are represented by political parties and cultural organizations, most notably the Civil Union "Roma". Noted Roma from Bulgaria include musicians Azis, Sofi Marinova and Ivo Papazov, surgeon Aleksandar Chirkov, politicians Toma Tomov and Tsvetelin Kanchev, footballer Marian Ognyanov, 1988 Olympic boxing champion Ismail Mustafov; the Romani people originate from Northern India from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts or daily routines. More Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi, it shares many phonetic features with M
Teteven is a town on the banks of the Vit river, at the foot of Stara Planina mountain in north central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Teteven Municipality, a part of Lovech Province; as of December 2010, the town had a population of 10,733 inhabitants. Teteven is located in a mountainous area, in the foothills of the Balkan mountains between the peaks Ostrich, Cherven and Vezhen; the river Vit meanders through the town. The altitude of Teteven district varies from 340 to 2100 m, in the town center it is 415 m; the climate is temperate continental with cool summers. The territory of Teteven is about 697 km², 16.86% of the territory of Lovech district. The town was first mentioned in a written document in 1421, it is thought that the town's name comes from the family of a certain Tetyo, who settled in the area and founded the town. Older variants of the town's name found in documents are Tetyuvene. A thriving city in the 16th and 17th centuries, Teteven was raided by organised Turkish brigand groups in 1801, burnt down and completely destroyed, with only four houses surviving out of a total of 3,000.
The town revived and was active in the armed struggle for Bulgarian independence in the 19th century, sheltering a revolutionary committee part of Vasil Levski's organised rebel network. Each summer a large chess tournament, one of the biggest events in Bulgaria's chess calendar, is held in Teteven. Teteven Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Teteven. Teteven combines the beauty of the surrounding scenery with the towering hills and peaks Petrahilya, Ostrich and Ravni Kamak, the cool breeze of the Vit river, the spirit of centuries past, hovering in the multitude of monuments, ancient Bulgarian architecture, customs and manners that have remained intact in time. Astounded by the sights revealed before him in his visit to the town, Ivan Vazov has exclaimed: "Had I not come to Teteven, I would have remained a foreigner to mother Bulgaria... I have been wandering, I have been rambling, but I have not seen a more wondrous paradise." There is a historical museum in Teteven, among the Hundred National Tourist Sites of the Bulgarian Tourist Union.
Glozhen Monastery Saint Elijah Monastery All Saints Church Kosnitza waterfall Mother of God Shroud Chapel on Ostrich peak Boev hill Saeva Dupka Morovitza Baiovitza Draganchovitza Rushova cave Teteven Historical Museum Bobevska house museum Hadzhiivanova house museum Yorgova house museum Autumn fair Northern Song Feast The Feast of Teteven on November 1, the day the town was liberated from Ottoman domination in 1877 Days of Mountain Water and Healing Tourism, Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics, Teteven municipality, June 11 Lyubomir Bobevski — writer Nikola Bobevski — artisan, elected Teteven delegate on the occasion of the signing of the San Stefano Peace Treaty Valentin Bobevski — conductor Sabo Dimitrov — artist Mihail Ekimdzhiev — lawyer Valentin Grozev — artist Ignat Ignatov — professor, biophysicist Usin Kerim — poet Dimitar Krachidzhov — poet and publicist Iva Krasteva — sports journalist and works in London Banyo Marinov — revolutionary Nikola Merekiov — actor and agriculturalist Sava Mladenov — adherent of Vasil Levski and a revolutionary from Hristo Botev's armed group Preslava Mravkova — singer Vera Naidenova — Bulgarian professor, film critic Svilen Rusinov — sportsman, honorary citizen of Teteven Hristo Spasunin — poet and publicist Ivailo Stanev — photographer Nikola Tiholov — scriptwriter Margarit Tzanev — artist Ivan Undzhiev — Bulgarian professor-historian Nikolai Vitanov — professor, nuclear physicist Hadji Stanyo Vrabevski — chairman of the local revolutionary committee, sent into exile in Diyarbakır Georgi Benkovski — Bulgarian revolutionary Atanas Murdzhev — Bulgarian revolutionary Lovech Lukovit Petrevene Teteven municipality portal Teteven municipality portal Days of Mountain Water and Healing Tourism Teteven Municipality, Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics
Municipalities of Bulgaria
The 28 provinces of Bulgaria are divided into 265 municipalities. Municipalities comprise multiple towns and settlements and are governed by a mayor, elected by popular majority vote for a four-year term, a municipal council, elected using proportional representation for a four-year term; the creation of new municipalities requires that they must be created in a territory with a population of at least 6,000 and created around a designated settlement. They must be named after the settlement that serves as the territory's administrative center, among other criteria; the council of a municipality is further permitted to create admininistrative subdivisions: mayoralties and wards or quarters. Mayoralties are overseen by elected mayors and comprises one or more villages or towns. Settlements are overseen by a manager appointed by the mayor of a municipality and thus have fewer responsibilities and less power than a mayoralty. Wards are overseen by elected mayors and must include a population of at least 25,000.
Like municipalities themselves and wards are designated administrative-territorial units, as they have their own elected officials. Settlements, are designated territorial units since their leaders are appointed. Bansko Municipality Belitsa Municipality Blagoevgrad Municipality Garmen Municipality Gotse Delchev Municipality Hadzhidimovo Municipality Kresna Municipality Petrich Municipality Razlog Municipality Sandanski Municipality Satovcha Municipality Simitli Municipality Strumyani Municipality Yakoruda Municipality Aytos Municipality Burgas Municipality Kameno Municipality Karnobat Municipality Malko Tarnovo Municipality Nesebar Municipality Pomorie Municipality Primorsko Municipality Ruen Municipality Sozopol Municipality Sredets Municipality Sungurlare Municipality Tsarevo Municipality Balchik Municipality Dobrich Municipality Dobrichka Municipality General Toshevo Municipality Kavarna Municipality Krushari Municipality Shabla Municipality Tervel Municipality ) Dryanovo Municipality Gabrovo Municipality Sevlievo Municipality Tryavna Municipality Dimitrovgrad Municipality Harmanli Municipality Haskovo Municipality Ivaylovgrad Municipality Lyubimets Municipality Madzharovo Municipality Mineralni Bani Municipality Simeonovgrad Municipality Stambolovo Municipality Svilengrad Municipality Topolovgrad Municipality Ardino Municipality Chernoochene Municipality Dzhebel Municipality Kardzhali Municipality Kirkovo Municipality Krumovgrad Municipality Momchilgrad Municipality Boboshevo Municipality Bobov Dol Municipality Dupnitsa Municipality Kocherinovo Municipality Kyustendil Municipality Nevestino Municipality Rila Municipality Sapareva Banya Municipality Treklyano Municipality Apriltsi Municipality Letnitsa Municipality Lovech Municipality Lukovit Municipality Teteven Municipality Troyan Municipality Ugarchin Municipality Yablanitsa Municipality Berkovitsa Municipality Boychinovtsi Municipality Brusartsi Municipality Chiprovtsi Municipality Georgi Damyanovo Municipality Lom Municipality Medkovets Municipality Montana Municipality Valchedram Municipality Varshets Municipality Yakimovo Municipality Batak Municipality Belovo Municipality Bratsigovo Municipality Lesichovo Municipality Panagyurishte Municipality Pazardzhik Municipality Peshtera Municipality Rakitovo Municipality Sarnitsa Municipality Septemvri Municipality Strelcha Municipality Velingrad Municipality Brezn
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Apriltsi is a small town in Lovech Province, Central-North Bulgaria, located in the vicinity of the highest part of Stara Planina mountain. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Apriltsi Municipality; as of December 2009, the town has a population of 3,318 inhabitants. Due to its favourable location in a valley at the foot of Botev Peak in the Balkan Mountains, Apriltsi is a newly developing tourist resort in the region. Besides Botev, notable peaks in the area are Maragidik; the town was founded by the merging of four large mountain villages: Novo Selo, Zla Reka and Ostrets, which are today the town's neighbourhoods. Due to this, it has a rather rural appearance with some 19th-century Bulgarian houses preserved. In Apriltsi there is a nice night club called "Miami Maxi Club" where you can enjoy the glamour of the mountain and the nice people of Apriltsi as well as some drinks too. Visit Apriltsi - Travel Guide Tourism Activities in Apriltsi Info Portal Apriltsi Apriltsi - A paradise in the heart of Stara planina http://visitcentralbalkan.net/en/pages/read/o:town-of-apriltsi