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Low-alcohol beer

Low-alcohol beer is beer with little or no alcohol content and aims to reproduce the taste of beer without the inebriating effects of standard alcoholic brews. Most low-alcohol beers are lagers. Low-alcohol beer is known as light beer, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, small ale, or near-beer. Low-alcoholic brews such as small beer date back at least to Medieval Europe, where they served as a less risky alternative to water and were less expensive than the full strength brews used at festivals. More the temperance movements and the need to avoid alcohol while driving, operating machinery, etc. led to the development of non-intoxicating beers. In the United States, non-alcoholic brews were promoted during Prohibition, according to John Naleszkiewicz. In 1917, President Wilson proposed limiting the alcohol content of malt beverages to 2.75% to try to appease avid prohibitionists. In 1919, Congress approved the Volstead Act, which limited the alcohol content of all beverages to 0.5%. These low alcohol beverages became known as tonics, many breweries began brewing them in order to stay in business during Prohibition.

Since removing the alcohol from the beer requires just one simple extra step, many breweries saw it as an easy change. In 1933, when Prohibition was repealed, breweries removed this extra step. By the 1980s and 1990s, growing concerns about alcoholism led to the growing popularity of "light" beers. In the 2010s, breweries have focused on marketing low-alcohol beers to counter the popularity of homebrew. Declining consumption has led to the introduction of mass-market non-alcoholic beverages, dubbed as "near beer". At the start of the 21st century, alcohol-free beer has seen a rise in popularity in the Middle East. One reason for this is that Islamic scholars issued fatawa which permitted the consumption of beer as long as large quantities could be consumed without getting drunk. Positive features of non-alcoholic brews include the ability to drive after consuming several drinks, the reduction in alcohol-related illness, less severe hangover symptoms; some common complaints about non-alcoholic brews include a loss of flavor, addition of one step in the brewing process, sugary taste, a shorter shelf life.

There are legal implications. Some state governments, e.g. Pennsylvania, prohibit the sale of non-alcoholic brews to persons under the age of 21. A study conducted by the department of psychology at Indiana University said, "Because non-alcoholic beer provides sensory cues that simulate alcoholic beer, this beverage may be more effective than other placebos in contributing to a credible manipulation of expectancies to receive alcohol", making people feel "drunk" when physically they are not. In the United States, beverages containing less than 0.5% alcohol by volume were called non-alcoholic, according to the now-defunct Volstead Act. Because of its low alcohol content, non-alcoholic beer may be sold to people under age 21 in many American states. In the United Kingdom, Government guidance recommends the following descriptions for "alcohol substitute" drinks including alcohol-free beer; the use of these descriptions is voluntary: No alcohol or alcohol-free: not more than 0.05% ABV Dealcoholized: over 0.05% but less than 0.5% ABV Low-alcohol: not more than 1.2% ABVIn some parts of the European Union, beer must contain no more than 0.5% ABV if it is labelled "alcohol-free".

In Australia, the term "light beer" refers to any beer with less than 3.5% alcohol. Light beers are beers with reduced caloric content compared to regular beer, also have a lower alcoholic content, depending on the brand and where they are sold; the spelling "lite beer" is commonly used. Light beers are manufactured by reducing the carbohydrate content, secondarily by reducing the alcohol content, since both carbohydrates and alcohol contribute to the caloric content of beer. Light beers are marketed to drinkers who wish to manage their calorie intake. However, these beers are sometimes criticized for being less flavorful than full-strength beers, being "watered down", thus advertising campaigns for light beers advertise their retention of flavor. In Australia, regular beers have 4%-5% ABV, while reduced-alcohol beers have 2.2%–3.2%. In Canada, a reduced-alcohol beer contains 2.6%–4.0% ABV, an “extra-light” beer contains less than 2.5%. In the United States, most mass-market light beer brands, including Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, have 4.2% ABV, 16% less than ordinary beers from the same makers which are 5% ABV.

In Sweden, low alcohol beer is either 2.2%, 2.8% or 3.5%, can be purchased in an ordinary supermarket whereas normal strength beers of above 3.5% must be purchased at Systembolaget. Beer containing 2.8-3.5% ABV may be sold in any convenience store to people over 18 years of age, whereas stronger beer may only be sold in state-run liquor stores to people older than 20. In addition, businesses selling food for on-premises consumption do not need an alcohol license to serve 3.5% beer. All major Swedish brewers, several international ones, in addition to their full-strength beer, make 3.5% folköl versions as well. Beer below or equaling 2.25% ABV is not subject to age restrictions. Low-point beer, known in the United States as "three-two beer" or "3 point 2 brew", is beer that contains 3.2% alcohol by weight. The term "low-point beer" is unique to the United States, where some states limit


The sabrewings are large Neotropical hummingbirds in the genus Campylopterus. They are species of the understory and edges of forests in mountains, near streams; the female Sabrewing lays its two white eggs in a large cup nest on a low horizontal branch over a stream. The sabrewings are large for hummingbirds 12–15 cm long; the black bill is strong and decurved. The shafts of the male's two outermost primary flight feathers are thickened and bent at an angle to give the distinctive feature which gives the sabrewings their English and scientific names. In some species, the male and female plumage is similar, in others, such as the violet sabrewing, the sexes look different. In several species, the three outer pairs of the tail feathers are broadly tipped white; the food of sabrewings is nectar, taken from undergrowth flowers such as Heliconia and bananas. The genus Campylopterus was erected by the English naturalist William Swainson in 1827; the type species was subsequently designated as the grey-breasted sabrewing.

The generic name combines the Ancient Greek kampulos meaning "curved" or "bent" and -pteros meaning "-winged". The sombre hummingbird and swallow-tailed hummingbird classified in Campylopterus, have been reclassified by most authorities into their own monotypic genera Aphantochroa and Eupetomena; the genus contains 13 species: A guide to the birds of Costa Rica by Stiles and Skutch ISBN 0-8014-9600-4 ffrench, Richard. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2. Hilty, Steven L. Birds of Venezuela. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5

Stanton Kidd

Stanton Kidd is an American professional basketball player for Melbourne United of the National Basketball League. He played college basketball for South Plains College, North Carolina Central University and Colorado State before playing professionally in Belgium, Germany and for the Utah Jazz of the National Basketball Association. Kidd attended Edmondson-Westside High School in Baltimore, where he averaged 23 points, 12 rebounds, six assists in his senior year, leading the Red Storm to their first-ever Baltimore City Division I championship. Kidd was named the team earned all-metro player honors. Kidd played two seasons at South Plains College, one of the top junior college programs in the nation, helping the Texans win the 2011-12 National Junior College Athletic Association National Championship going a perfect 36-0. On March 10, 2013, Kidd was named First-team All-Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference in his first season at North Carolina Central University, he was third in the MEAC in scoring, eighth in rebounding, fifth in field goal percentage.

In his senior year at Colorado State, he averaged 5 rebounds and 1.8 assists per game. On July 27, 2015, Kidd started his professional career with the Belgian team Limburg United, signing a one-year deal. Kidd helped Limburg reach the 2016 Belgian League Semifinals where they lost to Oostende. On July 21, 2016, Kidd signed with the German team Tigers Tübingen for the 2016–17 season. In 20 games played for Tübingen, he averaged 12.8 points, 4.6 rebounds, 1.7 assists and 1.2 steals per game. On July 21, 2017, Kidd signed a two-year deal with the Turkish team Darüşşafaka. On January 14, 2018, Kidd tied his career-high 24 points without missing a single shot, shooting 9-of-9 from the field, along with seven rebounds in a 98–65 win over Gaziantep. Kidd went on to win the 2018 EuroCup title with Darüşşafaka. On June 28, 2018, Kidd joined the Utah Jazz for the 2018 NBA Summer League, where he averaged 10.8 points and 3.3 rebounds in six games. On July 17, 2019, Kidd signed a contract with the Utah Jazz after completing stints with them in the 2019 NBA Summer League.

On November 21, he was waived by the Jazz after playing three games. On December 20, 2019, Kidd signed with Melbourne United for the 2019–20 NBL season as an injury replacement for Casey Prather. Source: RealGM Colorado State Rams bio RealGM profile

Mahmoud El-Gohary

Mahmoud El-Gohary was an Egyptian footballer and football coach. As a player, El-Gohary had a short-lived career. A persistent knee injury forced him into early retirement in 1961 cut short a career full of promise. In the 1959 African Cup of Nations, which Egypt won, he ended as the top scorer in the competition. After his retirement from the game, El-Gohary became a coach with Al Ahly becoming an assistant manager from 1965 to 1977. In 1977, he became assistant manager to Dettmar Cramer at Al-Ittihad in Saudi Arabia. Cramer left Al-Ittihad at the end of the 1981 season and El-Gohary was promoted to manager. Al-Ittihad won their first Saudi Premier League and El-Gohary won the first of many trophies as a manager. At Al Ahly, he won the first African League Titles – African League Winners & African League Cup winners. With Zamalek, he won the first African Super Cup against Al-Ahli. Under his leadership, Egypt’s National Team qualified for the World Cup in 1990, after the country's 56-year absence from the tournament.

Under El-Gohary's management, the Jordanian national team reached the highest FIFA World Rankings in history when they reached 37th rank in August 2004. Under the leadership of El-Gohary, the Jordanian national team qualified for their first Asian Football Confederation in China 2004. Jordan reached the quarterfinals of the tournament but failed to qualify for the semifinals after losing to Japan in a penalty shoot-out, resulting in a score of 1–1. In the West Asian Football Federation Championship Tournaments of 2004 and 2007, El-Gohary helped Jordan win third place. After he retired as a football coach, he became the technical adviser for the Jordan Football Association, he transformed the Jordanian Football League to a professional body, he has various Football Academies for youth placed under Prince Ali's name. He died on 31 August 2012, in Jordan. BBC Sport profile Mahmoud El-Gohary Profile

CSS Arkansas

CSS Arkansas was an ironclad ram of the Confederate States Navy named after the State of Arkansas. Arkansas is most noted for her actions in the Western Theater, when she steamed through a United States Navy fleet at Vicksburg on 15 July 1862 during the American Civil War, she was destroyed by her crew after her engines broke down on 6 August. Her remains lie under a levee near Louisiana, her keel was laid down at Memphis, Tennessee, by John T. Shirley in October 1861. In April 1862, Arkansas was moved to Greenwood, Mississippi, on the Yazoo River, to prevent her capture when Memphis fell to the Union Navy, her sister ship, CSS Tennessee, was burned on the stocks because she was not near enough to completion to be launched. In May 1862 Capt. Isaac N. Brown of the Confederate States Navy received orders at Vicksburg from the Navy Department in Richmond, to proceed to Greenwood, there assume command of Arkansas, his orders were to finish and equip the vessel. When Captain Brown arrived, he found a mere hull, without armor, engines in pieces, guns without carriages.

Supplies of railroad iron, intended as armor for the ship, were lying at the bottom of the river. A recovery mission was ordered, the armor was pulled up out of the mud. Captain Brown had Arkansas towed to Yazoo City, where he pressed into service local craftsmen, got the assistance of 200 soldiers from the Confederate army as construction crews. After five strenuous weeks of labor under the hot summer sun, the ship had to leave due to falling river levels, she had been outfitted, except for the curved armor intended to surround her stern and pilot house. Boiler plate was stuck on these areas "for appearances' sake." During this time, the Federal Navy had attacked Vicksburg with a large force made up of a squadron of ships, under Flag Officer David G. Farragut, that had come up from the Gulf of Mexico and a flotilla of United States Army gunboats and rams, under Flag Officer Charles H. Davis, from upriver. Soon thereafter, General Earl Van Dorn, commanding the Confederate Army forces at Vicksburg, as such in control of Arkansas, ordered Captain Brown to bring his ship down to the city.

Brown filled out the crew of Arkansas with more than 100 sailors from vessels on the Mississippi, plus about 60 Missouri soldiers. Capt. William Pratt Parks was chosen to command the gun on the larboard side. Brown stated, "The only trouble they gave me was to keep them from running Arkansas into the Union fleet before we were ready for battle." He set sail for Vicksburg and the Union fleet. Capt. Parks had enlisted in Arkansas Light Artillery. Transferred east, Parks was elected First Lieut. in Co. H, 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery Regiment. Co. H. was transferred from Fort Pillow to Vicksburg and became part of new Co. B (composed of Hoadley's Co. H, along with Cos. A and G and part of Co. C. Parks was selected to serve as Capt. of Co. B while serving aboard Arkansas as commander of the larboard gun. Parks would sink USS Cincinnati while in command of Co. B. as part of the Upper Water Battery defense of Vicksburg. After 15 miles, it was discovered that steam from the boilers had leaked into the forward magazine and rendered the gunpowder wet and useless.

Captain Brown and his men found a clearing along the bank of the Yazoo River, landed the wet powder and spread it out on tarpaulins in the sun to dry. With constant stirring and shaking the powder was dry enough to ignite by sundown. Arkansas proceeded on her way. Shortly after sunrise on 15 July 1862, three Federal vessels were sighted steaming towards Arkansas—the ironclad Carondelet, the wooden gunboat Tyler, the ram Queen of the West; the Federal vessels turned downriver, a running battle ensued. Carondelet was disabled with a shot through her steering mechanism, causing her to run aground. Attention was turned to the ram, which ran for their fleet with Arkansas pursuing. Soon the Federal fleet came into view around the river bend above Vicksburg, "a forest of masts and smokestacks." Captain Brown determined to steam as close to the enemy vessels as possible in order to prevent his vessel being rammed and to sow confusion. The Federal ships were immobile, as they did not have their steam up.

They and Arkansas exchanged shots at close range. Arkansas arrived at Vicksburg to the sound of enthusiastic cheering from the citizens and within sight of the lower Federal fleet; that night, Farragut's fleet ran past the batteries at Vicksburg and attempted to destroy Arkansas while doing so. They did not move until so late in the day, that they could not see their target. Only one shell hit home, wounding three. Although Arkansas did not destroy any enemy vessels, she inflicted losses among the personnel of the Federal fleets. In the engagement on the Yazoo and her passage of the fleet at Vicksburg, their total loss was 18 killed, 50 wounded, an additional 10 missing. Farragut's fleet lost 9 wounded when they ran past the Vicksburg batteries; the cost to Arkansas for the entire day's action was 18 wounded. After repairs, Arkansas again appeared to threaten her enemies, forcing them to keep up steam 24 hours a day in the hottest part of the summer. To remove the problem, the Union fleet tried once again to destroy the ironclad at her mooring.

At this time, the reduced crew of Arkansas could man only three guns, so she depended for protection on the shore batteries. On the morning of 22 July, USS Essex, Queen of the West, Sumter mounted an ill-coordinated attack. First Essex attempted to ram, but as she approached, the Arkansas crew were able to spring

USS Tanager (AM-5)

USS Tanager was an Lapwing-class minesweeper acquired by the U. S. Navy for the dangerous task of removing mines from minefields laid in the water to prevent ships from passing. Tanager was named by the U. S. Navy after the tanager, one of numerous American passerine birds. Tanager was laid down on 28 September 1917 at New York City, by the Staten Island Shipbuilding Co.. After operating locally out of Boston, Massachusetts through the late summer of 1918, Tanager, in company with Western King, departed New London, Connecticut, on 26 September 1918, bound for the Azores; the minesweeper subsequently operated out of Punta Delgada on local escort duties with the Azores detachment through the fall, before pushing on toward Portugal and reaching Lisbon on the day after Christmas 1918. In her tour in European waters, she delivered a case of serum to Georgia, trying to combat an outbreak of influenza. In the spring, Tanager was assigned to the mine-sweeping detachment established to clear the North Sea Mine Barrage between the shores of Scotland and Norway, arrived at Kirkwall, Scotland, on 7 May 1919.

The barrage –, laid during World War I to prevent a sortie by the German High Seas Fleet and forays by German U-boats – now prevented the resumption of the commercial shipping which had criss-crossed the North Sea before the war. While sweeping Group 9, the third operation conducted by the mine force, Tanager suffered damage in heavy weather and was forced to put into Kirkwall for a week of repairs. Besides the hazards posed by the stormy North Sea, the mines provided their own particular brand of danger. While sweeping Group 10 late in June 1919, Tanager fouled a mine in one of her "kites"; the severity of her damage required a period in the Admiralty dock at Chatham. By late summer, the barrage had been swept. In company with other vessels of her squadron, Tanager sailed for the United States on 1 October 1919 and – after stops at Brest, France. For part of the voyage, from Lisbon to Hamilton, she towed submarine chaser SC-272. Upon completion of permanent repairs at Charleston, South Carolina, Tanager was assigned to the U.

S. Pacific Fleet in December 1919, she was reclassified AM-5 on 17 July 1920. The minesweeper steamed to the Hawaiian Islands and operated out of Pearl Harbor from 1920 to 1941, her services for the Fleet included target-towing, participation in mine-laying and minesweeping exercises, transportation of men and mail. In addition, she took part in scientific expeditions to Necker Island and Nihoa Island in the Hawaiian chain and operated at Wake Island in the summer of 1923 during an ornithological survey. In August 1925, she served on a plane guard station for the PN flying boats' unsuccessful flight from the U. S. West Coast to Hawaii, her routine duties at Pearl Harbor were twice interrupted. In early 1928, she was assigned duty as station ship at Samoa. In 1930, Tanager operated between Mare Island and San Diego, for a time and assisting in the preparation of many decommissioned flush-deck, four-pipe destroyers for inactive berthing at the Destroyer Base at the latter place. In early 1941, Tanager received a major overhaul.

Her heavy foremast and boom were removed. Thus outfitted, she lost excess topside weight and had better fields of fire for her anti-aircraft battery. Assigned to Mine Division 9, Asiatic Fleet, Tanager sailed from Pearl Harbor on 11 May 1941, bound for the Asiatic Station; the minecraft proceeded via Guam to the Philippines. En route, she plane-guarded for two PBY's being flown out as reinforcements for Admiral Thomas C. Hart's air patrol forces. Calling at Guam from 29 to 30 May 1941, Tanager arrived at Manila on 5 June 1941, she commenced local operations immediately and, for the next few months, made patrols off the Corregidor minefields. From October through December 1941, Tanager participated in the laying of an anti-submarine net across Mariveles Bay, Bataan – a difficult operation accomplished in spite of the fact that there were no specialized net-laying craft in the Philippines. On 7 December 1941, Japanese planes struck Pearl Harbor and plunged the United States into the Pacific War.

On the next day, Japanese planes destroyed General Douglas MacArthur's Far East Air Force on the ground on its Philippine fields and struck the Cavite Navy Yard on the 10th. Tanager lay alongside Machina Wharf. In the attack, the minesweeper managed to leave the area. Others were not so fortunate; the minesweeper Bittern was wrecked. More Cavite was destroyed as an operating base for the Asiatic Fleet. With Cavite out of commission and Manila declared an open city on Christmas Day 1941, American and Filipino forces withdrew to Bataan and Corregidor. Tanager carried the equipment and staff of the Commandant, 16th Naval District, Rear Admiral Francis W. Rockwell, to Corregidor during his withdrawal. In ensuing months and her dwindling number of sister ships and former China river gun