Lower East Side

The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan located between the Bowery and the East River from Canal to Houston Streets. Traditionally an immigrant, working class neighborhood, it began rapid gentrification in the mid-2000s, prompting the National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America's Most Endangered Places; the Lower East Side is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Code is 10002. It is patrolled by the 7th Precinct of the New York City Police Department; the Lower East Side is bounded by the Bowery to the west, East Houston Street to the north, the FDR Drive and East River to the east, Canal Street to the south. The western boundary below Grand Street veers east off of the Bowery to Essex Street; the neighborhood is bordered in the south and west by Chinatown – which extends north to Grand Street, in the west by Nolita and in the north by the East Village.

The "Lower East Side" referred to the area alongside the East River from about the Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street up to 14th Street, bounded on the west by Broadway. It included areas known today as East Village, Alphabet City, Bowery, Little Italy, NoLIta. Parts of the East Village are still known as Loisaida, a Latino pronunciation of "Lower East Side". Politically, the neighborhood is located in 12th congressional districts, it is in 74th district. As was all of Manhattan Island, the area now known as the Lower East Side was occupied by members of the Lenape tribe, who were organized in bands which moved from place to place according to the seasons, fishing on the rivers in the summer, moving inland in the fall and winter to gather crops and hunt for food, their main trail took the route of Broadway. One encampment in the Lower East Side area, near Corlears Hook was called Naghtogack; the population of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was located below the current Fulton Street, while north of it were a number of small plantations and large farms called bouwerij at the time.

Around these farms were a number of enclaves of free or "half-free" Africans, which served as a buffer between the Dutch and the Native Americans. One of the largest of these was located along the modern Bowery between Prince Street and Astor Place, as well as the "only separate enclave" of this type within Manhattan; these black farmers were some of the earliest settlers of the area. During the 17th century, there was an overall consolidation of the boweries and farms into larger parcels, much of the Lower East Side was part of the Delancy farm. James Delancey's pre-Revolutionary farm east of post road leading from the city survives in the names Delancey Street and Orchard Street. On the modern map of Manhattan, the Delancey farm is represented in the grid of streets from Division Street north to Houston Street. In response to the pressures of a growing city, Delancey began to survey streets in the southern part of the "West Farm" in the 1760s. A spacious projected Delancey Square—intended to cover the area within today's Eldridge, Essex and Broome Streets—was eliminated when the loyalist Delancey family's property was confiscated after the American Revolution.

The city Commissioners of Forfeiture eliminated the aristocratic planned square for a grid, effacing Delancey's vision of a New York laid out like the West End of London. The point of land on the East River now called Corlears Hook was called Corlaers Hook under Dutch and British rule, Crown Point during British occupation in the Revolution, it was named after the schoolmaster Jacobus van Corlaer, who settled on this "plantation" that in 1638 was called by a Europeanized version of its Lenape name, Nechtans or Nechtanc. Corlaer sold the plantation to Wilhelmus Hendrickse Beekman, founder of the Beekman family of New York. On February 25, 1643, volunteers from the New Amsterdam colony killed thirty Wiechquaesgecks at their encampment at Corlears Hook, as part of Kieft's War, in retaliation for ongoing conflicts between the colonists and the natives of the area, including their unwillingness to pay tribute, their refusal to turn over the killer of a colonist; the projection into the East River that retained Corlaer's name was an important landmark for navigators for 300 years.

On older maps and documents it is spelled Corlaers Hook, but since the early 19th century the spelling has been anglicized to Corlears. The rough unplanned settlement that developed at Corlaer's Hook under the British occupation of New York during the Revolution was separated from the densely populated city by rough hills of glacial till: "this region lay beyond the city proper, from which it was separated by high and rough hills", observers recalled in 1843; as early as 1816, Corlears Hook was notorious for streetwalkers, "a resort for the lewd and abandoned of both sexes", in 1821 its "streets abounding every night with preconcerted groups of thieves and prostitutes" were noted by the "Christian Herald". In the course of the 19th century they came to be called hookers. In the summer of cholera in New York, 1832, a two-storey wooden workshop was commandeered to serve as a makeshift cholera hospital. In 1833, Cor

Milking pipeline

A milking pipeline or milk pipeline is a component of a dairy farm animal-milking operation, used to transfer milk from the animals to a cooling and storage bulk tank. In small dairy farms with less than 100 cows, goats or sheep, the pipeline is installed above the animals' stalls and they are are milked in sequence by moving down the row of stalls; the milking machine is a lightweight transportable hose assembly, plugged into sealed access ports along the pipeline. In the United States, for farmers who participate in the voluntary Dairy Herd Improvement Association once a month the milk volume from each animal is measured using additional portable metering devices inserted between the milker and the pipeline. In large dairy farms with more than 100 animals, the pipeline is installed within a milking parlor that the animals walk through in order to be milked at fixed stations; because the machine is stationary, it can include additional fixed equipment such as computerized milk-metering systems to measure volume, which would be cumbersome to use with portable milkers.

In both cases the pipeline is constructed out of stainless steel, which does not corrode and is resistant to most chemicals, though larger operations may use larger-diameter pipes in order to handle greater milk volumes. There is a transition point to move the milk from the pipeline under vacuum to the bulk tank, at normal atmospheric pressure; this is done by having the milk flow into a receiver bowl or globe, a large hollow glass container with electronic liquid-detecting probes in the center. As the milk rises to a certain height in the bowl, a transfer pump is used to push it through a one-way check valve and into a pipe that transfers it to the bulk tank; when the level has dropped far enough in the bowl, the transfer pump turns off. Without the check valve, the milk in the bulk tank could be sucked back into the receiver bowl when the pump is not running. In the event of electronics or pump failure, there is usually a secondary bowl attached to the top of receiver bowl, which contains a float and a diaphragm valve.

If the main receiver bowl overflows due to pump failure, the rising milk lifts the float in the secondary bowl, which will cut off vacuum to the entire milk pipeline and will prevent the milk or wash water from being sucked into the vacuum pump. Some milk handling systems eliminate the receiver bowl and transfer pump by having rubber seals on the bulk tank covers, to permit the entire tank to be under vacuum until milking is finished. Milk can just flow directly by gravity from the pipeline into the bulk tank; the pipeline and all milk handling systems are cleaned after every milking session using a washing system that first rinses out the remaining milk and flushes cleaning solution through the piping to kill bacteria and remove milkstone, a layer of scale formed by cations like calcium and magnesium. The entire washing mechanism is operated much like a household dishwasher with an automatic fill system, soap dispenser, automatic drain opener; the pipeline is set up so that the vacuum in the system that lifts milk up can be used to drive the cleaning process.

Rather than having a single line run to the bulk tank a pair of lines transport milk by gravity flow to the receiver bowl and transfer pump. The high ends of these two lines are joined together to form a complete loop back to the receiver bowl. Cleaning is accomplished by inserting a choke plug into one of the lines leading to the transfer pump, sucking large volumes of water from a wash-water supply tank into the choked line; this choke plug is mounted on a rod, is inserted into the line before cleaning, pulled out for regular milking. Due to the choke, the water, sufficient to fill the pipe, is sucked up one side of the pipeline, over the high point joining the two pipeline sections, flows back to the receiver bowl and transfer pump through the unchoked line; the transfer pump is used to move the cleaning solution from the receiver bowl back to the wash-water supply tank to restart the process. The inlet ports on the receiver globe are designed so that large slugs of wash water moving at high speed will enter on a tangent to the sides of the globe and spin around inside to assist in vigorous cleaning of the globe's interior.

It is normal for wash water to overflow out the top of the globe and for some wash water to be sucked into the overflow chamber to flush it out. During cleaning the bottom of the overflow chamber is connected to a drain channel on the receiver globe to permit water to flow out. For the small-farm pipeline, portable milkers are inserted into this cleaning loop by sucking the cleaning solution out of the wash supply tank through the milker claw and outputting from the milker hoses into the choked end of the line; when the water returns to the receiver bowl, the transfer pump returns the water back to the milker's water pickup tank. Dairy farming Bulk tank - Dairy Knowledge / Efficient Cleaning / What is Cleaning - Dairy Knowledge / Efficient Cleaning / Circulation Cleaning

Greyhound Trainer of the Year

The Greyhound Trainer of the Year or Champion Trainer is an award for the leading greyhound trainer in the United Kingdom. It was inaugurated in 1961 and was elected by a press panel but is now awarded to the trainer who achieves the most points for winning open races on the Greyhound Board of Great Britain annual racing calendar. Mark Wallis has won the most titles with eleven, he set a new record at the end of 2016, passing the previous record of seven set by John'Ginger' McGee Sr. and has extended the record to eleven with further wins in 2017, 2018 and 2019. The award should not be confused with the Trainers Championship, an annual event held between the leading six trainers