The Normans are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark and Iceland, they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia; the distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged in the first half of the 10th century, it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries. The Norman dynasty had a major political and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East; the Normans were famed for their martial spirit and for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language, still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands.
The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure. The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries. Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands.
The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England and Sicily, as well as the various cultural and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories. The English name "Normans" comes from the French words Normans/Normanz, plural of Normant, modern French normand, itself borrowed from Old Low Franconian Nortmann "Northman" or directly from Old Norse Norðmaðr, Latinized variously as Nortmannus, Normannus, or Nordmannus to mean "Norseman, Viking"; the 11th century Benedictine monk and historian, Goffredo Malaterra, characterised the Normans thus: Specially marked by cunning, despising their own inheritance in the hope of winning a greater, eager after both gain and dominion, given to imitation of all kinds, holding a certain mean between lavishness and greediness, uniting, as they did, these two opposite qualities. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report, they were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the boys were orators, a race altogether unbridled unless held down by the yoke of justice.
They were enduring of toil and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, of all the weapons and garb of war. In the course of the 10th century, the destructive incursions of Norse war bands going upstream into the rivers of France penetrated further into interior Europe, evolved into more permanent encampments that included local French women and personal property; the Duchy of Normandy, which began in 911 as a fiefdom, was established by the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the famed Viking ruler Rollo known as Gaange Rolf, from Scandinavia, was situated in the former Frankish kingdom of Neustria. The treaty offered Rollo and his men the French coastal lands along the English Channel between the river Epte and the Atlantic Ocean coast in exchange for their protection against further Viking incursions; as well as granting to protect the area of Rouen from Viking invasion, Rollo had to swear not to invade further Frankish lands himself, accept baptism and conversion to the Roman Catholic faith of Christianity becoming Christian and swear fealty to King Charles III.
He became the first Duke of Count of Rouen. The area corresponded to the northern part of present-day Upper Normandy down to the river Seine, but the Duchy would extend west beyond the Seine; the territory was equivalent to the old province of Rouen, reproduced the old Roman Empire's administrative structure of Gallia Lugdunensis II. Before Rollo's arrival, Normandy's populations did not differ from Picardy or the Île-de-France, which were considered "Frankish". Earlier Viking settlers had begun arriving in the 880s, but were divided between colonies in the east around the low Seine valley and in the west in the Cotentin Peninsula, were separated by traditional pagii, where the population remained about the same with no foreign settlers. Rollo's contingents from Scandinavia who raided and settled Normandy and parts of the European Atlantic coast included Danes, Norse–Gaels, Orkney Vikings, p
La Hague is a commune in the department of Manche, northwestern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2017 by merger of the former communes of Beaumont-Hague, Auderville, Branville-Hague, Digulleville, Éculleville, Flottemanville-Hague, Gréville-Hague, Jobourg, Omonville-la-Petite, Omonville-la-Rogue, Sainte-Croix-Hague, Saint-Germain-des-Vaux, Urville-Nacqueville and Vauville. Communes of the Manche department
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history; the operation began the liberation of German-occupied France from Nazi control, laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front. Planning for the operation began in 1943. In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception, codenamed Operation Bodyguard, to mislead the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings; the weather on D-Day was far from the operation had to be delayed 24 hours. Adolf Hitler placed German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in command of German forces and of developing fortifications along the Atlantic Wall in anticipation of an Allied invasion; the amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault—the landing of 24,000 US, Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight.
Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30. The target 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into five sectors: Utah, Gold and Sword. Strong winds blew the landing craft east of their intended positions at Utah and Omaha; the men landed under heavy fire from gun emplacements overlooking the beaches, the shore was mined and covered with obstacles such as wooden stakes, metal tripods, barbed wire, making the work of the beach-clearing teams difficult and dangerous. Casualties were heaviest at Omaha, with its high cliffs. At Gold and Sword, several fortified towns were cleared in house-to-house fighting, two major gun emplacements at Gold were disabled, using specialised tanks; the Allies failed to achieve any of their goals on the first day. Carentan, St. Lô, Bayeux remained in German hands, Caen, a major objective, was not captured until 21 July. Only two of the beaches were linked on the first day, all five beachheads were not connected until 12 June.
German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were at least 10,000, with 4,414 confirmed dead. Museums and war cemeteries in the area now host many visitors each year. After the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin began pressing his new allies for the creation of a second front in western Europe. In late May 1942 the Soviet Union and the United States made a joint announcement that a "... full understanding was reached with regard to the urgent tasks of creating a second front in Europe in 1942." However, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill persuaded US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to postpone the promised invasion as with US help, the Allies did not have adequate forces for such an activity. Instead of an immediate return to France, the western Allies staged offensives in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, where British troops were stationed. By mid-1943 the campaign in North Africa had been won.
The Allies launched the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, subsequently invaded the Italian mainland in September the same year. By Soviet forces were on the offensive and had won a major victory at the Battle of Stalingrad; the decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion within the next year was taken at the Trident Conference in Washington in May 1943. Initial planning was constrained by the number of available landing craft, most of which were committed in the Mediterranean and Pacific. At the Tehran Conference in November 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin that they would open the long-delayed second front in May 1944. Four sites were considered for the landings: Brittany, the Cotentin Peninsula and the Pas-de-Calais; as Brittany and Cotentin are peninsulas, it would have been possible for the Germans to cut off the Allied advance at a narrow isthmus, so these sites were rejected. With the Pas-de-Calais being the closest point in continental Europe to Britain, the Germans considered it to be the most initial landing zone, so it was the most fortified region.
But it offered few opportunities for expansion, as the area is bounded by numerous rivers and canals, whereas landings on a broad front in Normandy would permit simultaneous threats against the port of Cherbourg, coastal ports further west in Brittany, an overland attack towards Paris and into Germany. Normandy was hence chosen as the landing site; the most serious drawback of the Normandy coast—the lack of port facilities—would be overcome through the development of artificial Mulberry harbours. A series of specialised tanks, nicknamed Hobart's Funnies, were created to deal with conditions expected during the Normandy Campaign, such as scaling sea walls and providing close support on the beach; the Allies planned to launch the invasion on 1 May 1944. The initial draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all of the land forces involved in the invasion.
On 31 December 1943 Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions with two m
Perche is a former province of France, best known for its forests and, for the past two centuries, for the Percheron draft horse breed. Until the Revolution, Perche was bounded by four ancient provinces of northwest France: Maine, Orléanais and Beauce. Since the Revolution, it has been located within the present-day departments of Orne and Eure-et-Loir, with small parts now in the neighboring departments of Eure, Loir-et-Cher and Sarthe. Perche is known by the following ancient Latin and French toponymic designations: saltus Particus, silva Perticus before the VIth century, pagus quem Pertensem vocant and pagus pertensis in the VIth century, pagus Perticus no date and c. 815, Particus saltus in the XIth century, silva Perticus in 1045, Perche in 1160 - 1174 and in 1308, Perche in 1238, foresta de Pertico in 1246, where the names Perticus, Pertensis and Pertico denote Perche, the terms silva and foresta mean forest, saltus designates a wooded mountainous region, wildlife refuge, pagus means country, silva pertica refers to a tall-treed forest.
Before the French Revolution, Perche was bounded by the following ancient provinces: Normandy to the north and west, Maine to the west and Orléanais to the east and south. The greater part of the district is nowadays occupied by a semicircle of heights, known as les collines du Perche, stretching from Moulins-la-Marche on the northwest to Montmirail on the south. Although not part of the Huisne River watershed and named Mortagne-sur-Huisne at the Revolution, Mortagne-au-Perche is now considered unofficial administrative capital of the Perche pays area; the Perche hills are the source of numerous small rivers that feed the watersheds of the Seine River. The following table lists the principal towns in Perche province along with the distance of any given town to Condé-sur-Huisne, situated near Perche's geographic center: Nearby towns in the four ancient provinces along the periphery of Perche province include: L'Aigle, Chartres, Châteaudun, Le Mans, Alençon and Sées. Agriculture and tourism constitute the economic focus of Perche's natural region, the largest parts of which are located within the departments of Orne and Eure-et-Loir, in the regions of Normandy and Centre-Val de Loire, respectively.
The Percheron breed of draft horses originated in Perche's Huisne river valley and is identified throughout the world as the Perche's most well known symbol. Apples and pears are grown throughout the district. Perche's prehistory is manifested by megaliths and prehistoric tools of flint and iron. See Lords and dukes of Perche Perche was a region between other regions: "... the Perche was not based on an existing administratative unit, such as its neighbors, the counties of Maine and Chartres, nor was it coterminous with an ecclesiastical jurisdiction. It grew up at the margins of several larger units, there was no major population focus nor great religious centre such as a cathedral or ancient abbey within it, it owed its existence to the ambition and energy of successive members of a lineage of warrior elite." The Romans found possession of the Perche forests was necessary for the conquest of the vast fr:Armorique and Normandie territories extending from the Loire estuary off the Atlantic coast to Dieppe off the English Channel.
Until the Viking or Norman invasions in the IXth century, Perche was a remote area bounded on all sides by the following Gaul-Roman territories and Celtic peoples: to the east and south the Carnutes people in Chartrain territory based in Chartres. These territories still have vestiges dating from Roman times to geographical limits of present day dioceses of Chartres, Evreux, Le Mans and Sées. In the Middle Ages, the County of Perche was situated between Normandy and Orléanais, it was controlled by an independent line of counts. By the 12th century, two large families contended for control of the Perche region: the Talvas of Bellême and the Rotrou of Nogent-le-Rotrou. In 1114, Rotrou III annexed Bellême. In 1226, Count Geoffroy V would have been a leader of the Fourth Crusade had he not died before its departure to the Near East; this end of the Rotrou dynasty led to the region's annexation to the Crown of France. At this time, the crown divided part of the region to create the county of Alençon.
After 1325, both counties were held by a member or members of a cadet branch of the House of Valois. During the Hundred Years War, partisans of England plundered Perche, destroyed its nobility, burned many castles and abbeys. In 1449, free from English domination, Perche began reconstruction. Upon the death of Alençon's last duke, rule returned to and remained under to the French crown, was granted only sporadically thereafter. In the three decades starting in 1632, a large proportion of immigrants to New France came from Perche, in what has been called the Percheron immigration movement. Many Percherons were thus recruited to work in seigneuries being establishing along the Saint
Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture characteristic of parts of France and Ireland, as well as in the Netherlands and Northern Germany, in regions where pastoral farming is the dominant land use. Bocage may refer to a small forest, a decorative element of leaves, or a type of rubble-work, comparable with the English use of "rustic" in relation to garden ornamentation. In the decorative arts porcelain, it refers to a leafy screen spreading above and behind figures. Though found on continental figures, it is something of an English speciality, beginning in the mid-18th century in Chelsea porcelain, spreading to more downmarket Staffordshire pottery figures. In English, bocage refers to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with fields and winding country lanes sunken between narrow low ridges and banks surmounted by tall thick hedgerows that break the wind but limit visibility, it is the sort of landscape found for example in Devon. However the term is more found in technical than general usage in England.
In France the term is in more general use for Normandy, with a similar meaning. Bocage landscape in France is confined to Normandy and parts of the Loire valley. Bocage is a Norman word that comes from the Old Norman boscage, from the Old French root bosc > Modern French bois cf. Medieval Latin boscus; the Norman place names retain it as Bosc-, -bosc, Bosc-, pronounced traditionally or. The suffix -age means "a general thing"; the boscage form was used in English for leafy decoration such as is found on eighteenth-century porcelain. Similar words occur in other Germanic languages; the boscage form seems to have developed its meaning under the influence of eighteenth-century romanticism. The 1934 Nouveau Petit Larousse defined bocage as'a bosquet, a little wood, an agreeably shady wood' and a bosquet as a little wood, a clump of trees'. By 2006, the Petit Larousse definition had become' Region where the fields and meadows are enclosed by earth banks carrying hedges or rows of trees and where the habitation is dispersed in farms and hamlets.'
In Southeast England, in spite of a sedimentary soil which would not fit this landscape, a bocage resulted from the movement of the enclosure of the open fields. England developed in the 17th century an ambitious sea policy, it imported cheaper than English wheat. The enclosures favoured limited English cereal production; as a consequence of this policy, the rural exodus was amplified, accelerating the Industrial Revolution. The surplus of agricultural workers migrated to the cities to work in factories. In Normandy, the bocage acquired a particular significance in the Chouannerie during the French Revolution, it was significant during the Battle of Normandy in World War II, as it made progress against the German defenders difficult. In response, "Rhino tanks" fitted with bocage-cutting modifications were developed. American personnel referred to bocage as hedgerows; the German army used sunken lanes to implement strong points and defenses to stop the American troops on the Cotentin peninsula and around the town of Saint-Lô.
Ireland Almost all of lowland Ireland is characterised by bocage landscape, a consequence of pastoral farming which requires enclosure for the management of herds. 5% of Ireland's land area is devoted to hedges, field walls and shelterbelts. In the more fertile areas these consist of earthen banks, which are planted with or colonised by trees and shrubs; this pattern of hedgerows was established in the late 18th and 19th centuries, a period when Ireland was devoid of natural woodland. Modern intensive agriculture has tended to increase field size by removing hedgerows, a trend, countered by the European Union's agricultural policies favouring the conservation of wildlife habitats. Notes Sources Oxford English Dictionary Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré Petit Larousse Illustré 2007 Media related to Boscages at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of bocage at Wiktionary
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red; the iron is found in the form of magnetite, goethite, limonite or siderite. Ores containing high quantities of hematite or magnetite are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except oil". Metallic iron is unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites and rare forms of deep mantle xenoliths. Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, comprising about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more carbonate minerals.
The thermodynamic barriers to separating pure iron from these minerals are formidable and energy intensive, therefore all sources of iron used by human industry exploit comparatively rarer iron oxide minerals hematite. Prior to the industrial revolution, most iron was obtained from available goethite or bog ore, for example during the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Prehistoric societies used laterite as a source of iron ore. Much of the iron ore utilized by industrialized societies has been mined from predominantly hematite deposits with grades of around 70% Fe; these deposits are referred to as "direct shipping ores" or "natural ores". Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of high-grade hematite ores in the United States, after World War II led to development of lower-grade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite. Iron-ore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined. There are four main types of iron-ore deposits worked depending on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.
These are magnetite, massive hematite and pisolitic ironstone deposits. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks containing more than 15% iron composed predominantly of thinly bedded iron minerals and silica. Banded iron formations occur in Precambrian rocks, are weakly to intensely metamorphosed. Banded iron formations may contain iron in carbonates or silicates, but in those mined as iron ores, oxides are the principal iron mineral. Banded iron formations are known as taconite within North America; the mining involves moving tremendous amounts of waste. The waste comes in two forms, non-ore bedrock in the mine, unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself; the mullock is mined and piled in waste dumps, the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings. Taconite tailings are the mineral quartz, chemically inert; this material is stored in regulated water settling ponds. The key economic parameters for magnetite ore being economic are the crystallinity of the magnetite, the grade of the iron within the banded iron formation host rock, the contaminant elements which exist within the magnetite concentrate.
The size and strip ratio of most magnetite resources is irrelevant as a banded iron formation can be hundreds of meters thick, extend hundreds of kilometers along strike, can come to more than three billion or more tonnes of contained ore. The typical grade of iron at which a magnetite-bearing banded iron formation becomes economic is 25% iron, which can yield a 33% to 40% recovery of magnetite by weight, to produce a concentrate grading in excess of 64% iron by weight; the typical magnetite iron-ore concentrate has less than 0.1% phosphorus, 3–7% silica and less than 3% aluminium. Magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U. S. Eastern Canada and Northern Sweden. Magnetite bearing banded iron formation is mined extensively in Brazil, which exports significant quantities to Asia, there is a nascent and large magnetite iron-ore industry in Australia. Direct-shipping iron-ore deposits are exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America and Asia.
Most large hematite iron-ore deposits are sourced from altered banded iron formations and igneous accumulations. DSO deposits are rarer than the magnetite-bearing BIF or other rocks which form its main source or protolith rock, but are cheaper to mine and process as they require less beneficiation due to the higher iron content. However, DSO ores can contain higher concentrations of penalty elements being higher in phosphorus, water content and aluminum. Export grade DSO ores are in the 62–64% Fe range. Granite and ultrapotassic igneous rocks segregate magnetite crystals and form masses of magnetite suitable for economic concentration. A few iron ore deposits, notably in Chile, are formed from volcanic flows containing significant accumulations of magnetite phenocrysts. Chilean magnetite iron ore deposits within the Atacama Desert have formed alluvial accumulations of magnetite in s
The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. The term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine, they imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, still they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire. Although the Frankish name does not appear until the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known to the Romans under their own names, both as allies providing soldiers and as enemies; the new name first appears when their allies were losing control of the Rhine region. The Franks were first reported as working together to raid Roman territory, but from the beginning these raids were associated with attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, by the Saxons, for example, with the desire of frontier tribes to move into Roman territory with which they had had centuries of close contact.
Frankish peoples inside Rome's frontier on the Rhine river were the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine. In a period of factional conflict in the 450s and 460s, Childeric I, a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul. Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces; this new type of kingship inspired by Alaric I, represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier. It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in 800.
In the Middle Ages, the term Frank came to be used as a synonym for Western European, as the Carolingian Franks were rulers of most of Western Europe, established a political order, the basis of the European ancien regime that only ended with the French revolution. Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant, where they still referred to themselves and the Principalities they established as Frankish; this has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages. From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and divided between an eastern Frankish and Germanic part, the western part that the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil; the eastern Frankish kingdom came to be seen as the new "Holy Roman Empire", was from early times called "Germany". Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was the original Merovingian or "Salian" Western Frankish kingdom, founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as "France" - a name derived directly from the Franks.
The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted it. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective "frank" meaning "free". There have been proposals that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin". Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent", may be significant. Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures: Latin: Ubi nunc est illa ferocia? Ubi semper infida mobilitas?. Latin: Feroces was used to describe the Franks. Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about 700 AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell, Romans and those of other nations, live... according to their law and their custom."
Writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word'Frankish' ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest. Apart from the more respected History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours, two more colourful early sources that describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum, written a century later; the author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came from Troy and quoted the works of Vergil and Hieronymous, the Franks are mentioned in those works, by Hieronymous. The chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy. In Macedonia, the Franks divided; the Eur