Louviers is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in north-western France. Louviers is 30 km from Rouen. In the area around Louviers, cut stones from the Paleolithic era have been found; some of these are in the town's museum, alongside fragments of a mammoth tusk found not far from the cemetery. Other evidence of human presence in the area at different periods of prehistory includes the menhir of Basse-Cremonville and the Neolithic tomb, close to it. Various objects from these periods - weapons, vases and bronze tools - have been found in the area. A few elements dating from the period of Ancient Gaul have been found at Louviers: a Celtic grave found in 1863 against the wall of the Église Notre-Dame, several Gallic coins. A hypothesis of a fortified Gallic village has been formulated, but not proven; the Louviers of Roman Gaul is, better known. It was not, unimportant, as judged by the fact that it appeared in neither the Antonine Itinerary nor the Tabula Peutingeriana. Under the Merovingians, Louviers had at least two cemeteries, but it is only from the 9th Century that certain historical events can be dated.
On 10 February 856, King Charles II, father of the future Louis II, promised his son in marriage to a daughter of Erispoe, king of Brittany. In return, Erispoe gave to Charles the duchy of Mans; this arrangement displeased the Breton vassals, was one of the reasons for the plot which followed the death of the Breton king the following year. In 965, Richard I, Duke of Normandy gave the churches of Louviers and Pinterville, the fisheries of the water-mills of Louviers, forty sols of rent on these mills to the Abbey of Saint-Taurin, which he had just founded at Évreux, it is the first time, at the end of the period, that the name of Louviers appears in an official deed. In 1026, this donation was confirmed by Duke of Normandy. In 1184, the "mills of the king" burnt down, were rebuilt. In 1195, Richard Lionheart confirmed the charter of his predecessors. In 1196, Philip II of France and Richard Lionheart signed the Trêve de Louviers. In 1197, Richard Lionheart gave Louviers to the archbishop of Rouen, Walter de Coutances, in return for which, Richard received Les Andelys and with it, the opportunity to build Château Gaillard.
From this date up to the French Revolution, the archbishops of Rouen were counts of Louviers. Starting from around the beginning of the 13th century, the church of Notre-Dame de Louviers, was built. By 1240, the principal parts were finished: the choir, the nave and the transept surmounted by a lantern tower; the town continued to prosper up to the middle of the 14th century, thanks to its cloth industry, it is possible that the population exceeded 10,000. Evidence of this wealth includes the construction of a buildings: a bishop's manor, houses of wood and of wattle and daub, stone dwellings for the master drapers and the rich merchants. In 1346 and again in 1356, the town sacked, it was occupied for four years up to 1360. On 16 May of that year, Edward the Black Prince, solemnly pronounced, in the name of his father, Edward III of England, the ratification of the treaty which, in exchange for one quarter of the kingdom of France, set at liberty John II of France, a prisoner in Poitiers. In 1364, the people of Louviers asked Charles V of France for authorisation to fortify the town's ramparts.
From 1379 to 1385, the church was repaired: the vaults of the nave were raised and a spire 50 metres high was built on top of the bell-tower. On 12 July 1380, the constable of the garrison, inspecting the walls towards midnight, found a sentinel asleep; the constable angrily threw him, head first, at a wooden sentry box, killed him. In 1409, the townspeople started work again on the fortifications, neglected after the victories of Bertrand du Guesclin against the English, they undertook to build on the side of their church a bell-tower in a style more military than religious. In 1418, the English laid siege to the town; the battle was fierce and the victors pitiless. The town was taken after 26 hours: 120 townspeople were killed at sword-point, while the others were spared only by paying a large ransom; the occupation that followed lasted 11 years. In December 1429, Étienne de Vignolles called La Hire, companion of Joan of Arc, retook the town; the English, not able to accept this fact, besieged the town in May 1431 with 12,000 men.
The new siege lasted nearly six months. The town capitulated on 22 October; the English razed the town. In 1440, the town was again liberated and its inhabitants were able to rebuild it; the English tried one last time to take the town in 1441. In that year, Charles VII of France exempted the people of Louviers in perpetuity from paying most royal taxes, in particular, the heaviest tax, the taille; the town received, incorporated in its coast of arms, the motto "Loviers le Franc", the inhabitants received the right to bear the letter L in embroidery, goldsmithery or wherever else they pleased. In the 15th century, Louvier's cloth industry kept its royal protection under the king Louis XI, as was the case with other towns of Normandy. Between 1496 and 1510 the southern façade of the church of Notre-Dame was expanded in the flamboyant gothic style. At about the same time, the lantern tower was renovated. In 1562, Rouen fell into the hands of the Protestants. On the orders of Charles IX of France, the Parliament of Normandy was transferred to Louviers, where it sat f
Treaty of Louviers
The Treaty of Louviers was a peace agreement signed between King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France in the early part of January 1196 concerning, among other things, the manors of Andeli and Louviers that at the time were parcels of land of significance in Normandy. It aimed to settle the claims the Angevin kings of England had on French lands and, at least temporarily, to end the quarreling over the Duchy of Normandy. Richard was a son of King Henry II of England when he took possession of his father's land in Normandy in 1186 under the protection of the King of France; this was in defiance of his father's wishes. He justified his disregard of his father on loyalty to the Church. After his father's death in 1189 he inherited the title of feudal Duke of Normandy. Philip II was King of France at the time and there was much friction between them over the manor of Andeli that lay near their mutual border in Upper Normandy. There was an initial agreement of the peace of Louviers in negotiations in December 1195.
In January 1196 Archbishop Walter finalized the Treaty of Louviers, whereby the unfortified manor of Andeli in Normandy, desired by both kings, was not to be fortified in any way by either of them. It was to be outside the control of either by belonging to the church of Rouen and was classified as an ecclesia extravagans, meaning it was neutral ecclesiastical ground controlled by the archbishop; the manor of Andeli is located in present-day Upper Normandy alongside the River Seine. It included the town of Les Andelys; the manor property at the time of the treaty was on the frontier of Normandy, bordering onto the French royal demesne. It was owned by the church of Rouen in the early 1190s. Archbishop Walter de Coutances built a toll house on the Isle of Andeli in the Seine, used to collect fees from ships that traveled up and down the river; the manor was an important income property for the diocese, as their other properties had been badly damaged by the ravages of war and were not of much value.
The treaty concerned the territories of Turenne, Auvergne, Périgord, Angoumois and Normandy. The agreement included the seaport of Dieppe, the manor of Bouteilles, the manor of Louviers itself, the forest timber rights to Alihermont and Bort; these were valuable properties of substantial incomes. Archbishop Walter was out of the territory in Rome. King Richard went to the Isle of Andeli in March 1196 to negotiate the purchase of the manor from the church. Richard went back again in April and June to continue these negotiations, he offered much to the church to no avail since the property was their main source of income and they wished to keep it. Meanwhile, King Philip took the territory of Aumale in Normandy near the manor in the first part of July. In addition Philip had nearby castles at Vernon and Gaillon, which Richard claimed violated the Treaty of Louviers; this made Richard nervous about the potential loss of the duchy of Normandy. The archbishop and church were stubborn and refused to sell the manor of Andeli, so Richard took the manor by force and started the construction of a defense castle at the high point of the territory at a hilltop called the Rock of Andeli.
Archbishop Walter objected to the new castle project on his land. The archbishop then in November 1196 set out for a journey to Rome to see the pope about this illegal action. Hearing about this, Richard sent his own embassy to Rome to represent him. In the meantime Richard built a palace on the Isle of Andeli. Richard made a new town opposite the island called Petit Andely. Behind the town there was a 300-foot limestone cliff. Here Richard was constructing his new'fair castle of the Rock', otherwise known as his'saucy castle', he supervised the entire construction project, which included a stockade across the river to restrict traffic flow up and down the river. The skilled workmen lived in town and consisted of masons, stone workers, miners, lime-workers, hodmen, water carriers, soldiers to guard the castle and diggers who cut the castle moat. Pope Celestine III in April 1197 sent archbishop Walter and his embassy back to Normandy to finalize a settlement, negotiated with Richard's representatives.
Archbishop Walter in disgust retired to Cambrai. The terms of the treaty of Andeli stated that if the archbishop laid an interdict on either of the kings' dioceses they could confiscate the revenues of the manor until a settlement could be arranged by a tribunal of deacons from the kings. Archbishop Walter decided he didn't like this arrangement placed upon his authority and placed an interdict upon King Philip's lands when he retired. Philip seized the manor. Much quarreling went on between King Philip and King Richard. Negotiations commenced for a settlement between them, since King Richard had Chateau Gaillard in the works in the middle of the manor land; the pope and some cardinals were the church of Rouen. Archbishop Walter deeded over the manor to King Richard in October 1197, he continued with his castle and finished it a year in 1198. Richard died on 6 April 1199. Bliss, William. Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters. H. M. Stationery Office.
British Archaeological Association. Journal of the British Archaeological Association. British Archaeological Association. Bury, John Bagnell; the Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan. De Souza, Philip. War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History. Cambridge Un
Saint-André-de-l'Eure is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France. Communes of the Eure department INSEE
Évreux is a commune in and the capital of the department of Eure, in the French region of Normandy. The city is on the Iton river. In late Antiquity, the town, attested in the fourth century CE, was named Mediolanum Aulercorum, "the central town of the Aulerci", the Gallic tribe inhabiting the area. Mediolanum was a small regional centre of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. Julius Caesar wintered eight legions in this area after his third campaigning season in the battle for Gaul: Legiones VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII and XIV; the present-day name of Évreux originates from the Gallic tribe of Eburovices Those who overcome by the yew?, from the Gaulish root eburos. The first known members of the family of the counts of Évreux were descended from an illegitimate son of Richard I, duke of Normandy; the county passed in right of Agnes, William's sister, wife of Simon de Montfort-l'Amaury to the house of the lords of Montfort-l'Amaury. Amaury VI de Montfort-Évreux ceded the title in 1200 to King Philip Augustus, whose successor Philip the Fair presented it in 1307 to his brother Louis d'Évreux, for whose benefit Philip the Long raised the county of Évreux into a peerage of France in 1317.
Philip d'Évreux, son of Louis, became king of Navarre by his marriage to Joan II of Navarre, daughter of Louis the Headstrong, their son Charles the Bad and their grandson Charles the Noble were kings of Navarre. The latter ceded his counties of Évreux and Brie to King Charles VI of France in 1404. In 1427 the county of Évreux was bestowed by King Charles VII on Sir John Stuart of Darnley, the commander of his Scottish bodyguard, who in 1423 had received the seigniory of Aubigny, in February 1427/8 he was granted the right to quarter the royal arms of France for his victories over the English. On Stuart's death the county reverted to the crown, it was again temporarily alienated as an appanage for Duke François of Anjou, in 1651 was given to Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon, in exchange for the Principality of Sedan. The most famous holder of the title is son of Marie Anne Mancini. Évreux was damaged during the Second World War, most of its centre was rebuilt. The nearby Évreux-Fauville Air Base was used by the United States Air Force until 1967, since by the French Air Force.
Évreux Cathedral has been the seat of the bishops of Évreux since its traditional founder, Saint Taurin of Évreux, most working between 375 and 425. The earliest parts of the present building, Gothic, date from the eleventh century; the west façade and its two towers are from the late Renaissance. Of especial note are the Lady chapel and its stained glass, the rose windows in the transepts and the carved wooden screens of the side chapels; the church of the former abbey of St-Taurin is in part Romanesque. It has a choir of the 14th century and other portions of date, contains the thirteenth-century shrine of Saint Taurin; the episcopal palace, a building of the fifteenth century, adjoins the south side of the cathedral. The belfry facing the hôtel de ville dates from the fifteenth century. In the Middle Ages, Évreux was one of the centres of Jewish learning, its scholars are quoted in the medieval notes to the Talmud called the Tosafot; the following rabbis are known to have lived at Évreux: Samuel ben Shneor, praised by his student Isaac of Corbeil as the "Prince of Évreux", one of the most celebrated tosafists.
Its inhabitants are called Ébroïciens. Évreux is situated in the pleasant valley of arms of which traverse the town. It is the seat of a bishop, its cathedral is one of the largest and finest in France; the first cathedral was built in 1076, but destroyed in 1119 when the town was burned at the orders of Henry I of France to put down the Norman insurrection. He rebuilt the cathedral as an act of atonement to the Pope. Between 1194 and 1198, the conflict between Philippe Auguste and Richard the Lion-hearted damaged the new cathedral; the architecture of the present edifice shows this history, with its blend of Romanesque and Gothic styles. As did many towns in the regions of Nord and Normandy, Évreux and its cathedral suffered from Second World War. At Le Vieil-Évreux, the Roman Gisacum, 5.6 kilometres southeast of the town, the remains of a Roman theatre, a palace, baths and an aqueduct have been discovered, as well as various relics, notably the bronze of Jupiter Stator, which are now deposited in the museum of Évreux.
Évreux Cathedral Hôtel de ville Église Saint-Taurin The communauté d'agglomération Évreux Portes de Normandie has 62 communes. Since 2015, Évreux is part of three cantons: The canton of Évreux-1 includes a part of Évreux and the communes of: Arnières-sur-Iton and Saint-Sébastien-de-Morsent.
Le Grand-Quevilly is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. The town is third largest suburb of Rouen, a port with considerable light industry situated just 3 miles southwest of the centre of Rouen, at the junction of the D 3, D 492 and the D 338 roads. Le Grand-Quevilly is twinned with: Ness Ziona, Israel since 1964, Madagascar, since 1964, Germany, since 1966, Lévis, since 1969, England since 1976; the Zénith de Rouen concert hall. The fifteenth-century manor house at Grand Aulnay; the church of Saint-Pierre, dating from the sixteenth century. Laurent Fabius, politician. Franck Dubosc and comedian. Philippe Torreton and politician Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Normandy INSEE Official website Le Grand-Quevilly on the Quid website
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Le Neubourg is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France. The composer and organist Roger Boucher was born in Le Neubourg. In the 11th century the manor of Le Neubourg was a subsidiary holding of Roger de Beaumont, a principal adviser to William the Conqueror, feudal lord of Beaumont-le-Roger situated 12 km to the SW, he gave the manor to his second son Henry de Beaumont, created 1st Earl of Warwick in 1088 and who adopted for himself and his descendants the surname "de Newburgh", the Anglicised adjectival form of his Norman lordship. The name was Latinised to de Novo Burgo, meaning "from the new borough/town". Communes of the Eure department INSEE