Luanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, its major industrial and urban centre. Located on Angola's northern coast with the Atlantic Ocean, Luanda is both Angola's chief seaport and its administrative centre, it is the capital city of Luanda Province. Luanda and its metropolitan area is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city in the world, with over 8 million inhabitants in 2019. Among the oldest colonial cities of Africa, it was founded in January 1576 as São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda by Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais; the city served as the centre of the slave trade to Brazil before its prohibition. At the start of the Angolan Civil War in 1975, most of the white Portuguese left as refugees, principally for Portugal. Luanda's population increased from refugees fleeing the war, but its infrastructure was inadequate to handle the increase; this caused the exacerbation of slums, or musseques, around Luanda. The city is undergoing a major reconstruction, with many large developments taking place that will alter its cityscape significantly.

The industries present in the city include the processing of agricultural products, beverage production, cement, newly car assembly plants, construction materials, metallurgy and shoes. The city is notable as an economic centre for oil, a refinery is located in the city. Luanda has been considered one of the most expensive cities in the world for expatriates; the inhabitants of Luanda are members of the ethnic group of the Ambundu, but in recent times there has been an increase of the number of the Bakongo and the Ovimbundu. There exists a European population, consisting of Portuguese. Luanda was the main host city for the matches of the 2010 African Cup of Nations. Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda on 25 January 1576 as "São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda", with one hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. In 1618, the Portuguese built the fortress called Fortaleza São Pedro da Barra, they subsequently built two more: Fortaleza de São Miguel and Forte de São Francisco do Penedo.

Of these, the Fortaleza de São Miguel is the best preserved. Luanda was Portugal's bridgehead from 1627, except during the Dutch rule of Luanda, from 1640 to 1648, as Fort Aardenburgh; the city served as the centre of slave trade to Brazil from circa 1550 to 1836. The slave trade was conducted with the Portuguese colony of Brazil; this slave trade involved local merchants and warriors who profited from the trade. During this period, no large scale territorial conquest was intended by the Portuguese. In the 17th century, the Imbangala became the main rivals of the Mbundu in supplying slaves to the Luanda market. In the 1750s, between 5,000 and 10,000 slaves were annually sold. By this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact like a colony of Brazil, paradoxically another Portuguese colony. A strong degree of Brazilian influence was noted in Luanda until the Independence of Brazil in 1822. In the 19th century, still under Portuguese rule, Luanda experienced a major economic revolution; the slave trade was abolished in 1836, in 1844, Angola's ports were opened to foreign shipping.

By 1850, Luanda was one of the greatest and most developed Portuguese cities in the vast Portuguese Empire outside Continental Portugal, full of trading companies, exporting palm and peanut oil, copal, ivory, cotton and cocoa, among many other products. Maize, dried meat, cassava flour are produced locally; the Angolan bourgeoisie was born by this time. In 1889, Governor Brito Capelo opened the gates of an aqueduct which supplied the city with water, a scarce resource, laying the foundation for major growth. Throughout Portugal's dictatorship, known as the Estado Novo, Luanda grew from a town of 61,208 with 14.6% of those inhabitants being white in 1940, to a wealthy cosmopolitan major city of 475,328 in 1970 with 124,814 Europeans and around 50,000 mixed race inhabitants. Like most of Portuguese Angola, the cosmopolitan city of Luanda was not affected by the Portuguese Colonial War. In 1972, a report called Luanda the "Paris of Africa". By the time of Angolan independence in 1975, Luanda was a modern city.

The majority of its population was African, but it was dominated by a strong minority of white Portuguese origin. After the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 1974, with the advent of independence and the start of the Angolan Civil War, most of the white Portuguese Luandans left as refugees, principally for Portugal, with many travelling overland to South Africa. There was an immediate crisis, however, as the local African population lacked the skills and knowledge needed to run the city and maintain its well-developed infrastructure; the large numbers of skilled technicians among the force of Cuban soldiers sent in to support the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola government in the Angolan Civil War were able to make a valuable contribution to restoring and maintaining basic services in the city. In the following years, slums called musseques — which had existed for decades — began to grow out of proportion and stretched several kilometres beyond Luanda's former city limits as a result of the decades-long civil war, because of the rise of deep social inequalities due to large-scale migration of civil war refu


Medininkai is a village in Lithuania, located 26 km from Vilnius and 2 km from the Lithuanian–Belarusian border. According to the 2001 census, the village had 508 residents. Medininkai is the administrative center of an eldership. According to a 2010 eldership report, it had 1374 residents, of whom 92,3% were Polish, 3.2% Lithuanian, 2.9% Russian. The village is situated on the Medininkai Highland, near the highest points of Lithuania – the Juozapinė Hill and Aukštojas Hill; the village is famous for the ruins of the Medininkai Castle. On July 31 1991 Lithuanian border post attacked by the Soviet OMON forces. Seven Lithuanian volunteer officers were shot, while Tomas Šernas survived; the village was featured in the 2007 movie, Hannibal Rising. Soviet OMON assaults on Lithuanian border posts

Mehmed III Giray

Mehmed III Giray was a khan of the Crimean Khanate. Much of his life was spent in conflict with nearly everyone around him. Part of the trouble was caused by his over-aggressive brother Shahin Giray, his reign was marked by an unsuccessful Turkish attempt to expel him and by the first treaty between Crimea and the Zaporozhian Cossacks. He was died trying to regain his throne, his name in Crimean Tatar is (Crimean Tatar: III Mehmed Geray, ٣محمد كراى‎‎. His grandfather, khan Mehmed II Giray the fat, was one of the many sons of Devlet I Giray. In 1584 Mehmed II was killed. A few months Mehmed’s son Saadet II Giray invaded, made himself khan and was driven out, he fled to the Kumyks on the Caspian Sea and died in Astrakhan around 1588 poisoned by the Russians. Saadet's sons, in order by age, were Devlet and Shahin Giray. Around 1594, during the reign of Gazi II Giray, Mehmed arrived in Crimea along with his two brothers and mother. At some point his elder brother Devlet became nureddin. In 1601 Devlet conspired against Gazi.

The plot was detected, Devlet was killed and Mehmed and Shahin fled. A few months Gazi’s brother Selyamet came under suspicion and fled; the three went to Turkey. Gazi demanded Selyamet back, he and Mehmed joined the Celali rebellions. Around 1603 they and the rebels were pardoned but soon the brothers were imprisoned in Yedikule Fortress for some reason. Gazi II passed the throne to his son Tokhtamysh; the Turks released Selyamet from prison and appointed him khan. He chose Mehmed his kalga. Mehmed set out overland to Crimea with a group of janissaries. On the road he killed him. Selâmet I Giray arrived by boat a little later. A few weeks Mehmed’s brother Shahin arrived from Circassia and was made nureddin. In 1609 Mehmed and Shahin conspired against Selyamet, they were informed on by khan Selyamet planned to kill them. The brothers had informants and fled to the Caucasus. Janibek became kalga; the brothers gathered Selyamet asked for help from the Turks. Instead of soldiers they sent. Rizvan reconciled the brothers were restored to their previous positions.

While returning to Crimea they learned. The brothers proclaimed themselves khan and kalga. Janibek fled to Rizvan Pasha at Kaffa. Mehmed demanded that Janibek be sent back and Rizvan refused, saying that Mehmed was not a legal khan until he was confirmed the sultan. Mehmed sent. There he found that Janibek had bribed the major politicians, so he transferred his bribes to the winning side. Sultan Ahmed I sent eight galleys and troops to Kaffa. Mehmed and Shahin fled to the steppes. Hearing that the Turkish troops were leaving they invaded Crimea and were soundly defeated by the remaining janissaries, they fled to Budjak. Shahin became a raider until the Turks drove him out. Mehmed went to Turkey. Nasuh planned to present him to the sultan; the story goes that during the hunt the sultan drew his bow to kill a roe deer when the deer was struck by someone else’s arrow. Mehmed came face to face with the sultan. Nasuh's enemies suggested. Nasuh fell from power and was executed in 1614. Mehmed was sent to the Yedikule prison for a second time.

In February 1618 Mehmed escaped, was captured on the Bulgarian coast and exiled to the isle of Rhodes where he was well-treated. Here he gained. In February 1623, Mere Huseyin became vizier, he made him khan to replace the incompetent Janibek. He arrived at Kaffa on 19 May 1623 and Janibek fled, his first task was to deal with the Budzhak Horde. Turkey and Poland had just made peace, but Khan Temir continued raiding since, how he made his money. Mehmed led the whole Crimean army west and somehow talked Khan Temir into withdrawing east to the Syut-Su River. Despite the peace the Zaporozhians raided Crimea and reached the capital. In revenge the Mansur bey raided Poland and took so many captives that prices on the slave market collapsed. Mehmed proved a stronger ruler than his predecessor Janibek, which caused hostility among the nobility. Huseyin Pasha lost power in August 1623. Murad IV became sultan. A eunuch named. Sensing the change in Istanbul, the beys began complaining to the Turks. One of their complaints was that the Don Cossacks had just raided Crimea and Mehmed did not stop them.

Mehmed was told to lead an army to Persia and he refused, saying that he had to defend Crimea against the Zaporozhians. In the spring of 1624 the sultan deposed Mehmed in favor of Janibek. In May 1624 Mehmed's brother Shahin Giray became kalga; the nureddin was Devlet Choban-Giray. The brothers decided to resist. Shahin had a number of beys executed while courting the common people, they began to collect troops from the Nogais and Kumyks. A group of Zaporozhians, captured after their boats were washed up on shore by a storm were offered their freedom if they w